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Esta é uma lista de notáveis línguas construídas que está em ordem alfabética e divididos em línguas auxiliares, engenharia, e artístico (incluindo fictício), e seus respectivos subgêneros.

Línguas auxiliares[]

Línguas auxiliares internacionais são idiomas construídos para fornecer comunicação entre todos os seres humanos, ou uma parte significativa, sem necessariamente substituir línguas nativas.

1800s[]

Nome da língua ISO Ano da primeira publicação Creator Comments
Solresol 1827 François Sudre Based on pitch levels sounded with their solfege syllables (a "musical language")
Communicationssprache 1839 Joseph Schipfer Based on French
Universalglot 1868 Jean Pirro An early a posteriori language, predating even Volapük
Volapük vo, vol 1879–1880 Johann Martin Schleyer First to generate international interest in IALs
Esperanto eo, epo 1887 L. L. Zamenhof Easily the most popular auxiliary language ever invented, including tens of thousands of speakers and the only one to date with its own native speakers
Spokil 1887 or 1890 Adolph Nicolas An a priori language by a former Volapük advocate
Mundolinco 1888 J. Braakman The first esperantido
Bolak 1899 Léon Bollack Prospered fairly well in its initial years, now almost forgotten

1900s[]

Language name ISO Year of first
publication
Creator Comments
Idiom Neutral 1902 Waldemar Rosenberger A naturalistic IAL by a former advocate of Volapük
Latino sine Flexione 1903 Giuseppe Peano "Latin without inflections," it replaced Idiom Neutral in 1908
Ro 1904 Rev. Edward Powell Foster An a priori language using categories of knowledge
Ido io, ido 1907 A group of reformist Esperanto speakers The most successful offspring of Esperanto
Adjuvilo 1910 Claudius Colas An esperantido some believe was created to cause dissent among Idoists
Occidental ile 1922 Edgar de Wahl A sophisticated naturalistic IAL, also known as Interlingue
Novial nov 1928 Otto Jespersen Another sophisticated naturalistic IAL by a famous Danish linguist
Basic English 1930 Charles Kay Ogden A reduced and simplified form of English, proposed as an international auxiliary language
Sona 1935 Kenneth Searight Best known attempt at universality of vocabulary
Esperanto II 1937 René de Saussure Last of linguist Saussure's many esperantidos
Mondial 1940s Dr. Helge Heimer Naturalistic European language
Glosa igs 1943 Lancelot Hogben, et al. Originally called Interglossa, has a strong Greco-Latin vocabulary
Blissymbols zbl 1949 Charles Bliss An ideographic writing system, with its own grammar and syntax.
Interlingua ia, ina 1951 International Auxiliary Language Association A major effort to develop a common Romance vocabulary
Intal 1956 Erich Weferling An effort to unite the most common systems of constructed languages
Romanid 1956 Zoltán Magyar A zonal constructed language based on the Romance languages
Lingua sistemfrater 1957 Pham Xuan Thai Greco-Latin vocabulary with southeast Asian grammar
Neo 1961 Arturo Alfandari A very terse European language
Babm 1962 Rikichi Okamoto Noted for using Latin letters as an abjad
Unilingua 1966 Noubar Agapoff An a priori language with systematic vocabulary, also known as Mirad
Arcaicam Esperantom 1969 Manuel Halvelik 'Archaic Esperanto', developed for use in Esperanto literature
Afrihili afh 1970 K. A. Kumi Attobrah A pan-African language
Nuwaubic 1970s? Malachi Z. York The language of a black supremacist religious group
Kotava avk 1978 Staren Fetcey A sophisticated a priori IAL
Uropi 1986 Joël Landais Based on the common Indo-European roots and the common grammatical points of the IE languages
Poliespo 1990s? Nvwtohiyada Idehesdi Sequoyah Esperanto grammar with significant Cherokee vocabulary
Europanto 1996 Diego Marani A "linguistic jest" by a European diplomat
Unish 1996 Language Research Institute, Sejong University Vocabulary from fifteen representative languages
Noxilo 1997 Mizta Sentaro a language trying to avoid any regional or ethnic bias
Lingua Franca Nova lfn 1998 C. George Boeree and others Romance vocabulary with creole-like grammar
Slovio 1999 Mark Hučko A constructed language based on the Slavic languages and Esperanto grammar

2000s[]

Language name ISO Year of first
publication
Creator Comments
Mondlango 2002 He Yafu Simple English-Romance language from Asia
Yvle 2005 ahhon A language without verbs and nouns, with a simple yet unambiguous syntax.
Slovianski 2006 Ondrej Rečnik, Gabriel Svoboda, Jan van Steenbergen, Igor Polyakov A naturalistic language based on the Slavic languages
Kah 2006 Anonymous An analytic a priori language designed to be easy to learn and pronounce
Modern Indo-European 2006 Carlos Quiles, María Teresa Batalla Based on Proto-Indo-European language
Universal Picture Language 2006 Gilles Dedier A constructed language developed from symbol and image
Sambahsa-Mundialect 2007 Olivier Simon Mixture of simplified Proto-Indo-European and other languages
Angos 2012 Benjamin Wood Simplified worldlang with a strict grammar

Controlled languages[]

Controlled languages are natural languages that have in some way been altered to make them simpler, easier to use, or more acceptable to those who do not speak the original language well. Most of these have been based on English.

  • Ander-Saxon (described in the article Anglo-Saxon linguistic purism)
  • Basic English
  • E-Prime
  • Globish
  • Plain English
  • Simplified English
  • Special English

Visual languages[]

Visual languages use symbols or movements in place of the spoken word.

  • Blissymbols (zbl)
  • Gestuno

Engineered languages[]

Human-usable[]

  • An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language by John Wilkins
  • aUI
  • Characteristica universalis
  • Ilaksh
  • Isotype
  • Ithkuil
  • Láadan (ldn)
  • Loglan by James Cooke Brown
  • Logopandecteision
  • Lojban (jbo) successor to Loglan by the Logical Language Group
  • Toki Pona by Sonja Elen Kisa

Knowledge representation[]

Predefinição:See also

  • Several well known Knowledge Query and Manipulation Languages have been created from extensive research projects, to represent and query knowledge on computers:
    • Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF), a precursor for knowledge representation.
    • Common Logic (CL), an ISO standard derived from KIF.
    • Resource Description Framework (RDF), a language standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) based on the principles of Common Logic, which represents knowledge as a directed graph built from unordered sets of "sentences" (in fact, as relational triples: subject, relation, attribute) using a XML syntax for its interchange format. Each element of the triple can be either a simple value (if its semantic value is not specified outside of the relation using it), or identifiers of objects (such as URIs) that are part of enumeration built from another subset of relational triples. The relations may be open (in which case the attributes are not enumerable) or closed in a finite enumerable set whose elements can be easily represented as objects as well with their own identity participating in many different relations for other parts of the knowledge.
      • UML may be used to describe the sets of relations and rules of inference and processing, and SQL may be used to use them in concrete schemas and compact store formats, but RDF designs its own (semantically more powerful) schema language for handling large sets of knowledge data stored in RDF format.
      • RDF is probably useful only for automated machine processing, but its verbosity and complex (for a human) representation mechanisms and inference rules does not qualify it as a human language except in very limited contexts. It is still a specification with extensive research.
    • Web Ontology Language (OWL), another knowledge representation language standardized by W3C, and derived from Common Logic.
  • CycL
  • The Distributed Language Translation project used a "binary-coded" version of Esperanto as a pivot language between the source language and its translation.
  • Lincos
  • Loom
  • Universal Networking Language (UNL)

Artistic languages[]

Languages used in fiction[]

Poul Anderson[]

  • Angley, Unglish and Ingliss – three languages spoken respectively in Western Europe, North America and the Pacific in the 29th century world of Poul Anderson's Orion Shall Rise. All derived from present-day English, the three are mutually unintelligible, following 800 years of separate development after a 21st century nuclear war and the extensive absorption of words and grammatical forms from French in the first case, Russian, Chinese and Mongolian in the second, and Polynesian in the third.
  • Anglic, the dominant language of the declining Galactic empire depicted in Poul Anderson's Dominic Flandry series, is descended from present-day English but so changed that only professional historians or linguists can understand English texts.
  • Anglic: unrelated to the above, seen in the Civilization of the Five Galaxies in David Brin's Uplift Trilogies; is descended from modern English, modified to account for the differences in the culture on Earth and its colonies.

J. R. R. Tolkien[]

These are languages created by J. R. R. Tolkien, and are present in his books or derivative works throughout diverse media.

  • Adûnaic
  • Black Speech – language of Mordor
  • Common Eldarin
  • Khuzdul
  • Goldogrin, known as Gnomish
  • Quenya
  • Sindarin

H. G. Wells[]

  • The Time Machine featured an unnamed language for the Eloi people.

Literature[]

Predefinição:Importance-sect

  • Amtorian, spoken in some cultures on the planet Venus in Venus series of novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs and several sequels. Judged by critic Fredrik Ekman to have "a highly inventive morphology but a far less interesting syntax."[1]
  • Ancient Language in the Inheritance Cycle by Christopher Paolini.
  • Anglo-French, in the alternate history world of the Lord Darcy stories by Randall Garrett – where England and France were permanently united into a single kingdom by Richard the Lionheart and their languages consequently merged.
  • Anglo-French, unconnected with the above, spoken in the dystopian 20th century of Poul Anderson's The Shield of Time where England won the Hundred Years' War and conquered France.
  • asa'pili ("world language"), in bolo'bolo, by Swiss author P.M..
  • Atlango from Ryszard Antoniszczak (Richard A Antonius)'s works
  • Babel-17, in Babel-17 by Samuel R. Delany
  • Baronh, language of Abh in Seikai no Monsho (Crest of the Stars) and others, by Morioka Hiroyuki
  • Bokonon – language of the Bokononism religion in Kurt Vonnegut's Cat's Cradle.
  • Chapalli – language of the aliens in Kate Elliott's "Jaran" series, notable for incorporating hand signals to supplement oral meaning and multiple levels of formality used in different parts of a social hierarchy, like Japanese, described from the point of view of a protagonist who is a linguist.
  • Codex Seraphinianus by Luigi Serafini appears to be written in a constructed language that presumably is the language of the alien civilization the book describes.
  • High D'Haran – the ancient, dead language of pre-Great War New World in Terry Goodkind's The Sword of Truth series.
  • Dahmek, language spoken on Eho Dahma, a planet with a double-ended spoon-shaped orbit and populated exclusively of women in a binary star system from K Gerard Martin's Carreña book series.
  • Drac, language of the alien species Dracs in Barry B. Longyear's Enemy Mine and The Enemy Papers
  • From Ursula K. Le Guin's Earthsea books:
    • Language of the Making – the basis of all magic, spoken by Dragons as their native tongue and learned with considerable effort by human mages.
    • Hardic – linguistically descended from the above
    • Osskilian, and Kargish – a different family of languages, distantly related
  • Elemeno, language of two sisters in Caucasia by Danzy Senna.
  • A variation of English used by L. Sprague de Camp in "The Wheels of If," Employing more Viking and Celtic words, among other sources, and pronunciation differences.
  • Goodenuf English, a form of English used by foreigners in the novel Rainbows End by Verner Vinge
  • Groilish, spoken by giants in Giants and the Joneses by Julia Donaldson.
  • Gnommish, spoken by the fairies in Eoin Colfer's Artemis Fowl series.
  • Hedgerow Language, a minor, rudimentary language used between different species of animals, in Watership Down by Richard Adams
  • Gobbledegook is a language spoken by the goblins in the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling.
  • High Speech of Gilead from Stephen King's The Dark Tower
  • Kesh, in Ursula K. Le Guin's novel Always Coming Home
  • Krakish, in Guardians of Ga'Hoole by Kathryn Lasky
  • Láadan (ldn), in Suzette Haden Elgin's science fiction novel Native Tongue and sequels
  • Lapine, spoken by the rabbits in Watership Down by Richard Adams
  • Linyaari spoken by the Linyaari people of Vhiliinyar in Anne McCaffrey's Acorna series.
  • Mando'a, created by Karen Traviss, used by the Mandalorians in the Star Wars Republic Commando novels Hard Contact and Triple Zero
  • Marain, in the Culture series of Iain M. Banks
  • The Martian language in Percy Greg's Across the Zodiac may have been the first fictional language described using linguistic and grammatical terminology.[2]
  • The Matoran language used by the various sentient species in Bionicle. It is named after its creators the Matoran species.
  • the Mri language in C. J. Cherryh's Faded Sun Trilogy
  • Nadsat slang, in A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess
  • Newspeak, in Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell (fictional constructed language)
  • Old Solar, in Out of the Silent Planet, Perelandra, and That Hideous Strength by C. S. Lewis
  • The Old Language from Stephen King's The Dark Tower series.
  • The Old Tongue from Robert Jordan's Wheel of Time series
  • Orghast from the Peter Brooks production of the same name invented for the Shiraz/Persepolis festival in Iran in celebration of the Persian state
  • Pravic and Iotic, in The Dispossessed by Ursula K. Le Guin
  • Ptydepe, from Václav Havel's play The Memorandum
  • Quintaglio from Robert J. Sawyer's Quintaglio Ascension Trilogy
  • Qwghlmian from Neal Stephenson's Cryptonomicon and The Baroque Cycle
  • the Regul language in C. J. Cherryh's Faded Sun Trilogy
  • Rihannsu, spoken by the Rihannsu (Romulans) in the Star Trek novels of Diane Duane
  • Shipspeak, presumably a form of English, in the First Contact series of C. J. Cherryh
  • Shonunin in Cuckoo's Egg by C. J. Cherryh
  • Spanglish in the future dystopia of The Computer Connection (Indian Giver) by Alfred Bester
  • Spocanian, in Rolandt Tweehuysen's fictional country Spocania
  • The Speech, a universal language in Diane Duane's books.
  • Speedtalk, a highly logical and compressed language in Robert A. Heinlein's novella Gulf.
  • Sudric, a language created by Rev. W. Awdry for the The Railway Series, based on Welsh and Manx.
  • Stark (short for Star Common), a common interstellar English-based language from Orson Scott Card's Ender series
  • Starsza Mowa from Andrzej Sapkowski's Hexer saga
  • the Stsho language in the Chanur Novels of C. J. Cherryh
  • Troll language from Terry Pratchett's Discworld
  • Trinary, a language used by Neo-Dolphins and sometimes Humans, in David Brin's Uplift Trilogies
  • Utopian language, appearing in a poem by Petrus Gilles accompanying Thomas More's Utopia
  • Whitmanite, spoken by members of a radical Anarchist-Pacifist cult of the same name in Robert A. Heinlein' The Puppet Masters.
  • Zaum, poetic tongue elaborated by Velimir Khlebnikov, Aleksei Kruchonykh, and other Russian Futurists as a "transrational" and "most universal" language "of songs, incantations, and curses".
  • Several languages spoken by Panurge in François Rabelais' Pantagruel (1532)
  • Jack Womack's Dryco novels feature a future form of English with a modified grammar.

Comic books[]

  • Bordurian in some of Hergé's The Adventures of Tintin, mostly in The Calculus Affair
  • Syldavian, in some of Hergé's The Adventures of Tintin, mostly in King Ottokar's Sceptre

Movies and television[]

  • Adspeak in The Year of the Sex Olympics (by Nigel Kneale) is a Newspeak-like impoverished language derived from 60s and 70s British advertising vocabulary.
  • Ancient in the Stargate universe (i.e. Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis) is the language of the Ancients, the builders of the Stargates; it is similar in pronunciation to Medieval Latin. The Athosians say prayers in Ancient. (However, when shown onscreen, written Ancient is simply a different character set for English)
  • Atlantean created by Marc Okrand for the film Atlantis: The Lost Empire
  • The Divine Language is a language invented by director Luc Besson and actress Milla Jovovich for the 1997 movie The Fifth Element.
  • Dothraki, created by David J. Peterson for the TV series Game of Thrones (based on the books by George R. R. Martin)
  • Enchanta, in the Encantadia and Etheria television series in the Philippines, created by the head writer Suzette Doctolero
  • Eunoia, in the television series Earth: Final Conflict, consultant Christian Bök.
  • Goa'uld, the galactic lingua franca from Stargate SG-1, supposedly influenced Ancient Egyptian
  • Klingon (tlhIngan Hol), in the Star Trek movies and television series, created by Marc Okrand
  • Krakozhian from The Terminal
  • Ku, a fictional African language in the movie The Interpreter (2005)
  • Nadsat, the fictional language spoken by Alex and his friends in Clockwork Orange
  • Na'vi, the fictional language spoken by the Na'vi in Avatar
  • Pakuni, the language of the Pakuni from the Land of the Lost television series and movie.
  • Plukanian, the fictional language of the planet Pluk in film Kin-dza-dza!
  • Tenctonese from the Alien Nation movie and television series, created by Van Ling and Kenneth Johnson
  • Ulam, the language spoken by the prehistoric humans in the movie Quest for Fire, created by Anthony Burgess by melting roots of European languages.
  • Vulcan language from Star Trek. Further developed by fans as Golic Vulcan.
Unnamed languages[]
  • Riddley Walker, a 1980 novel by Russell Hoban, set in a post-apocalyptic future, is written entirely in a "devolved" form of English.

Music[]

  • Gloatre, the language mostly used among creative activities of Les Légions Noires.
  • Gulevache: fictional Romance language of the kingdom of Gulevandia in the bilingual opera Cardoso en Gulevandia by the comedy group Les Luthiers.
  • Kajiuran, a language created by Japanese composer Yuki Kajiura.
  • Kobaïan (Zeuhl), the language used by 70's French rock group Magma.
  • Loxian, created by Roma Ryan, used on Enya's 2005 album Amarantine.
  • Mohelmot, a forbidden language used by The Residents on the album The Big Bubble: Part Four of the Mole Trilogy.
  • Moss, created by Jackson Moore in 2009, a language with a musical phonology, modeled on pidgins
  • Shikatan, a language created by Japanese singer-songwriter Akiko Shikata.
  • Vonlenska, (Hopelandic), the non-literal language used by post-rock group Sigur Rós
  • Unnamed languages, chronologically:
    • “Infernal" language[3] devised by the composer Hector Berlioz, used for the original version of the Chorus of Shades in Lélio (1831), the Chorus of Demons (“Pandæmonium“) in La damnation de Faust (1846), and the “Dance of Nubian slaves” in Les Troyens (1856–1858).
    • Language Wim Mertens constructed to use in his vocal performances (piano/voice) since the 1980s.
    • Language constructed by the Canadian classical composer Claude Vivier, used in works like Trois Airs pour un opéra imaginaire, released 1982.
    • Language featured in the chorus of 2NU's 1991 track This is Ponderous.
    • Language featured in the soundtrack to the film 1492: Conquest of Paradise by Vangelis, released 1992.
    • Language by Yves Barbieux, used in his song "Sanomi" and performed by the Belgian group Urban Trad in the Eurovision Song contest in 2003.

Performance[]

  • Grammelot (Cirquish) is a "gibberish" that goes back to the 16th century, used by performers, including those of Cirque du Soleil

Games[]

  • D'ni, language spoken by the subterranean D'ni people in Cyan Worlds' Myst series of computer games and novels
  • The Forerunner language is a fictional language that appears in the Halo franchise, being used by the Covenant, and was used by the Forerunner
  • Galactic Trade Standard, a Universal Language in the MMORPG Vendetta Online, developed to allow traders from foreign nations to communicate with each other simply and effectively.[4]
  • Gargish, used in the Ultima computer game series, by the gargoyle race
  • Hymmnos, used by Reyvateils for Song Magic in Ar tonelico. There is also the Carmena Foreluna language, which served as the predecessor to Hymmnos, and Ar Ciela, which is the language used by the planet where the series takes place.
  • kiZombie, used by zombies in the Urban Dead MMORPG
  • Lashonnu is the language of the Wealdings (the Forest People) in the Gondica role playing game by Anders Blixt
  • Mando'a, created by Karen Traviss, used by the Mandalorians in Star Wars: Republic Commando
  • Panzerese is a term used by the fans of the Panzer Dragoon series to describe the mix of Russian, Greek, and Latin spoken in the series.
  • Raymanese is a language used in the Rayman series, specifically Rayman 2: The Great Escape.
  • Tho Fan, in the Xbox game Jade Empire, created by Wolf Wikeley
  • Tsolyani, a language developed by M. A. R. Barker in the mid-to-late 1940s in parallel with the development of his legendarium leading to the world of Tékumel as described in the roleplaying game Empire of the Petal Throne, published by TSR in 1975 and later literary tie-ins.
  • Vasudan, the language spoken by the Vasudan race in [[Descent: FreeSpacePredefinição:Spaced ndashThe Great War]] and in the other titles in the FreeSpace series.
  • Zamgrh, spoken by Zombies in the Urban Dead games, and worked out in considerable detail.

Toys[]

  • Furbish

Internet-based[]

  • Dritok, by Don Boozer
  • Kēlen, by Sylvia Sotomayor
  • Teonaht, by Sally Caves
  • Verdurian and several other languages created for the fictional planet of Almea by Mark Rosenfelder

Alternative languages[]

  • Anglish
  • Brithenig (bzt), created by the inventor of the alternate history of Ill Bethisad, Andrew Smith
  • Niw Englisc ( by James Johnson) English that followed the slower development of High German, retaining more inflectional systems than modern English
  • Several North Slavic languages, inspired by the existence of West, East and South Slavic languages and the absence of a Northern branch
  • Wenedyk, a language of the alternate history of Ill Bethisad created by Jan van Steenbergen

Micronational languages[]

  • Talossan, by R. Ben Madison

Personal languages[]

  • Enochian by Edward Kelley
  • Lingua Ignota, by Hildegard of Bingen
  • Mänti, invented by Daniel Tammet
  • Vendergood (1906), invented by William James Sidis when he was eight years old

Language games[]

  • Predefinição:Sectionlink
  • Gibberish
  • Jeringonza
  • Língua do Pê
  • Louchebem
  • Opish
  • Pig Latin
  • Rosarigasino
  • Rövarspråket
  • Sananmuunnos
  • Šatrovački
  • Starckdeutsch, Starckteutsch
  • Tutnese
  • Ubbi dubbi
  • Verlan
  • Vesre

See also[]

  • Alien language
  • Artificial script
  • Constructed language
  • Engineered language
  • International auxiliary language
  • Language game
  • List of languages
  • Voynich Manuscript
  • Esperanto

References[]

  1. Predefinição:Cite web
  2. Predefinição:Cite journal
  3. Tom S. Wotton, ‘Infernal Language’: A Berlioz Hoax, The Musical Times 78 (1129): 209–10. March 1937
  4. Predefinição:Cite web
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