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Based on Esperanto; Extension of Dolgopolsky’s Nostratic[1], modernized

Restored prehistoric language to restore the bonds among us human beings.

“Facing a language you don't know is like returning to your infancy when your mother tongue used to be a foreign language to you” -Munia Khan

“Imagine all the people, living life in peace.”- John Lennon

Introduction: I noticed many similarities between languages in my exploration of world culture. From these, and with the aid of Dolgopolsky’s Nostratic Dictionary, Google Translate, and various (modern) foreign language dictionaries, I have attempted to reconstruct the prehistoric language using only phonetic patterns. They are generally reversed to Proto-Indo-European, Polynesian, and Modern Standard Chinese (among others) in Labioplosive Pairs but align with most other languages. It is important to remember that this reconstruction, like any attempt to find such a long lost language, has its flaws. Moreover, I am only an amateur. Though it may not be completely correct, we may use it like Esperanto.

Disclaimer:

Scientists have recently found sound-meaning similarities in languages around the world. This could either support or severely detract from this proposal.

'N'gwe Sbe'range/Sbe'rande
Type
Alignment
Head direction Left-to-Right
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 3 (M, F, N)
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Languagerecon


Classification and DialectsEdit

If the hypothesis is true, then all languages would be dialects.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal
Plosive
Fricative
Affricate
Approximant
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High
Near-high
High-mid
Mid
Low-mid
Near-low
Low

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter p ph f b bh v
Sound /p/ /ph/ /f/ /b/ /bh/ /v/
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Plurals: add “-e” to end of noun

Directional Prepositional: add “-aś” or “-gá” to end for departing, “-m” for approaching (also for subject)

Interior: “-(j)n” (in), “-e” (possessive), or “-a” for interior positior

Surfactive: “-ó” (of), for surfactive position; Literary Possesive (to oneself): add “-m”

Adding “-r-” forms or reinforces nouns

Personal Pronouns

Singular

-syen -ngen
Person Subject Object (dir/indir) Object (indir only) Possessive Suffix

Possessive

1 Mn, Nga, (J)aqw* Mne, Nge Mnepj, Ngepj Mne-/Nge-
2 T́y T́ye T́ypj T́ye-
3/inanim.

**

De/Hye/Sye/Nge***

Da/Hya/Sya/Iła

Do/Hyo/Syo/Iło

(distal/proximal/reflexive/general)

De-

Sye-

Nge-

Plural

-hyēn -syēn -ngēn
Person Subject Object (dir/indir) Object (indir only) Possessive Suffix Possessive
1 Mne, Nge Mnē, Ngē Mnēpj/Ngēpj Mnē/Ngē-
2 T́ye T́yē T́yepj T́yē-
3/inanim.

**

Dē/Hyē/Syē/Ngē

Dae/Hyae/Syae/Ngae

Doe/Hyoe/Syoe/Ngoe

(distal/proximal/reflexive/general)

Dē-

Hyē-

Syē-

Ngē-


*(j)aqw is a word for “I” all around the world. See PIE *(j)égh(ó), Proto-Yeneisian *‘azh, Guerrero Amuzgo ja, Proto-Austronesian *(i-)aku, Igbo a, etc.

* “m’ne” or “nge” as first person pronoun is also found just about everywhere.

**Sy- for 3rd person proximal/reflexive also supported by Zh. 斯 si1 (now mostly obsolete)

***ill->ng- before “e-type” vowels especially in third-person pronouns as found in many branches of human language today; possibly not an actual etymon but merely apparent.

VerbsEdit

Verb Conjugations- example verb(s): ‘(j)sttj/byttj=to be

-ttj=Infinitive, -e=Imperative

Otherwise:

Root+(Tense)+Pronoun Root+(-e for plural)

-léo-=active past, -d-=passive past, -d=past participle

-éu-=future

-y-=phonetic infix in conjugation (no meaning)

Active Past

‘(j)sttĵ/byttĵ (to be) Sing. Plural
1 ‘stléom/bytléom ‘stléome/bytléome
2 ‘stléot́/bytléot́ ‘stléo(e)t́e/bytlé(e)ot́e
3/inanim ‘stléod/bytléod ‘stléong(e)/bytléong(e)


Present

‘(j)sttĵ/byttĵ (to be) Sing. Plural
1 ‘sym/bym ‘syme/byme
2 ‘jst́/‘syt́/byt́ ‘s(e)t́e/by(e)t́e
3/inanim ‘jsd/’syd/byd ‘syng(e)/byng(e)


Future

‘(j)sttĵ/byttĵ (to be) Sing. Plural
1 ‘séum/byéum ‘séume/byéume
2 ‘séut́/byéut́ ‘séu(e)t́e/byéu(e)t́e
3/inanim ‘séud/byéud ‘séung(e)/byéung(e)

Causative by lengthening most stressed vowel then conjugating


Adjectives agreed but Adverbs didn’t (always neuter/inanimate singular form).


Masc. Fem. Neuter/Inan.*
Singular
Plural

Syntax Edit

Pragmatic Word Order

LexiconEdit

Numbers

‘Y(n), Bdy/Tulqa/Ádr- (Other), Tlayat’, Ḱwádz, Ngym, Lleug, Sgheṕah, Vá, Gyl, Fhzhr’/Bdy Ḱumoe (Two hands)

Yes or No

‘Aj uwhr Ne

Dictionary (Certain Words: Original/Plosive Reversed)

Notes: within labioplosive pairs, use all the first or second versions as shown in this document. Do not mix different stages/dialects of the Ancient Language unless indicated. The first one aligns with most languages and is the original; the second one aligns with Indo-European and Polynesian, among other branches. (?) indicates an uncertain root.

‘Agz/‘Akz- to break, to ply, to chisel (En. axe, hack; PA *ʔaza-l, to break)

Agwa/Akwa- water (See Africa, Europe, Asia, Polynesia, Americas, omnipresent)

‘Auo- Wind, Breeze

Áł- Beside(s) (original sense), by, next to; (in descendant lgs.) other (than), but

Cf. Indo-European All-, Chinese 挨, Polynesian ala

Ákú(d)e- Sharp, Accurate

Ákúde/-te/-m’n Stone

Álsh- Again, Also

‘Anā- On (Shortened to Nā in most descendent languages, c.f. PIE anà; Polynesian (a)nā, there, on; )

Bādt́j/Pātt́j- To collapse, fall

Bālt́j/Pālt́j- To fall (Derivative of below)

Bāle/Pāle- Waterfalls, cliffs

Bam~Ban/Pam~Pan- sail; possibly homophone or related to “slice” words (Chinese 帆)

Beyht́j- To adore, sing, praise

Bh- “Reflective” root

Bhallg/Bhallk - Shiny, White (var. Of below?)

Bhelle- Shiny, White (These two roots produced bel-, vell-, valk-, and 白)

Bhellga- Falcon (?)

Bhúlla- Flower

Bheud- beat related

*bʰiw~bʰil- to blow or boil

Bhrakttj- to break

Bhrake- Upper (lit. Short) Arm (c.f. Brachium, 膊 (phag/bo(k)/pok))

Bhyt́j- to be (or possibly to bud in context)

Bhenú- material (descendants physical (pheno) and homeland (benua))

Bhy- being, body (Mainly used as bē in Africa)

Bhinxotj- to bind, fasten (From bind, Hadza binxo to carry kills under one’s belt)

Biykkttj- to hew, cut out, write, paint

Bllylget́j/Pllylket́j- to follow (?)

Bjegat́j/Pjekat́j- to piece together, compose

Bongttj- to pound, collide, encounter, a time (onomatopoeia)

Bólt́j/Pólt́j- to pound

Bristtj- to push

Brisde- near

Búl(n)/Púl(n)- root for full, filled, to fullfill, satisfaction, annoyance

Cánú- River

Cunat́j- to hide, preserve

Cyult́j- to tell

Ćeś- stone https://www.indifferentlanguages.com/words/stone

Ćran- through

De- that, the

Dagme/Takme- so much

Dleyr/Tleyr- Thirst>Field>Earth (many examples in many languages)

Dnau/Tnau- ship, canoe (synonym Hwaga)

Dnúgda/Tnúkta- night

Dzemn/Tzemn- time

Erce- Earth

Éjd(t́j)- And, aid, eat, edit

Éry- River (?)

Gá/Ká- towards

Gát́j/Kát́j- to go (toward) (lit. to towards)

Geum/Keum- With; following; like

Gaug- high

Guhín(g)a- Woman (compare kwina with wahine)

Ghwruś- Across

() Gjí/Kjí- ()’s, of () (See Sino-Tibetan, Early branches of Indo-European)

Gneut́j-to know

Ghwa- fruit; melon (possibly dscdt: Polynesian hua)

Note: Short for Ghebh-a i.e. Gift (of the plant) (?): Ghebha>Ghbha>Ghwa

G(r/w)jew/(-l)- curved, bended, domed (PIE kewk, Chinese 桥,翘)

Gú(l)/Kú(l)- Cave

Gwarttj- to guard

Hógíttj- to return

Hljopha- Love

Hnaeh- name, call

Hrig/Hrik- King, Noble, Command, Word etc.

Hthyem- sky, heavens; (fig) day (c.f. PIE *djem, 天- OC *thin, Turkic Tengri, Etruscan Tin, possibly Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *qatuan.)

Hiym- to copy, imitate; early sense to do (but quickly specialized) (?)

(Yn)‘itno- Year

‘Itt́j- to go

‘Jeqs- Out of; from (=ex)

Jéq’- I

Jigt́j/Jikt́j- to throw

‘Jinna- impression, shadow ext. Spirit (印, genie) (?)

Kuptj- to bend, compress; hop, jump; spring

Kw(a)- Question/Indicative general/Attitude/Existential (C.f. Western Eurasian, Polynesian)

-kwae- and (suffix) (to add; that which adds)

Ḱaera- black, dark

Ḱángt́j- to Sing

Ḱébyl- head

Ḱehe- whole

Ḱende- City (See IE, Chinese 城 cheng1)

Ḱjrthe- Heart

Ḱót́a- castle, fort; (in some descendents) house

Ḱut́j- to cut

Lyumna/Lyuga- Bright, Light, Moon

LLā- there

LLéyttj- to lay or leave

LLéy(sg/n)a- leaf

Makde- eye (c.f. Zh/Ja 目, Poly. mata)

Martj- to fight (for), defend

Mángde- Mountain

Márne- Sea

Meg(sg)t́j- to mix

Merttj- to see, (extension) to be harmonious

Mero- part

Meuś(e)- Moist, Mist, Must (smell)

Mékh- great

Mékhna- power, supernatural power, the Force

Mékht́j- to be able to

Minsa- Moon

Mist́j- to measure

Mjale- Good/beautiful; small (homophones; hey cat?) mal; 妙, 渺 (miao)

Mneuj- many, crowded, very

M’nt́j- to remain

Mpas/Mbas- But, objection, of course

Mpál- pain, evil

‘Mrg(e)- Dark(ness)

Me’wrśa- Net (?)

Modu- Moat; mud; island (Character would be ◎) (?)

Mut́j- to die

Munt́j- to see (望, mua)

Myne- Dream/Vision (c.f. 梦 mungs>meng (Zh.), ime>yume (Ja.), Polynesian moe)

Mynda- Mind (that which sees/dreams)

Ná~Nó- Now

‘N‘gwe- Language

c.f. IE Dngwés/-k, Old Chinese *ŋaʔ, *ŋas, Nǁŋǃke ǁŋǃke, Hadza -ne, Poly. reo

Nzá(r)a- Dawn (Compare Sl. Zar, Zor, with East Asian nzjaw (Zh. Zao))

Nybh(n)o- Cloud

Ojw(n)e- Bulge>Eye- Cf PAA Ayin, PIE ‘ekw

Ojw(n)’ttj- to love (from above?)

Phágtj- to attack, esp. To descend on, and then eat (Poly. pao, Zh. 扑, possibly Gr. phagos if current etymology is disregarded) (dubious)

‘Phó- Dark

Phlútj- to blow

Phlúga- wind (?)

P’er- to pierce

P’ran- soldier

P’ranettj- to fight

Príłt́j - to shine

Príłangde/-te - Brilliant

Qaere- dark, black

Qepht́j- to give

Qlé’s(n)e- beautiful, handsome; fair, good

c.f. Zulu -hlana; Indo-European kr(a)ehs(-n)-; Afro-Asiatic Q-s-n-, H-s-n-

Qlí- Creek, water (?) (cf Creek, O.C. of 河)

Qojqt́j- to shine

Qojqda/-ta- star

Qway’t́j-to live

Qway’da/-ta- life

Qy’ung- young

Qwrt́j- To rotate, to turn

Raha- Sun

‘Rayt́j- to rise

‘Rayo (possibly Raho?)- Morning

Riwt́j- to flow

Riwra- River

‘Rleut(n)- People

Řt́j- to rotate

Saha (Sana)- Sand (See Sino-Tibetan (s/z)a (Zh. 沙 s(h)a1), Ar. Sahara, Eng. Sand, Ja. Suna)

Sat́(e)- Now

Seygt́j/Seykt́j- to drain, to dry up (c.f. siccus<*seyk, 澌 si1<*ses)

Seygs/Seyks- dry

Ex. Seygnuś- dryness

Sghrya- Joy

Sitt́j- to sit

Sjajt́j (Śajt́j)- to shine (on)

Sjnme- only, simply

Sy- oneself

Syhe- sour

Syul- ground, seat, base (Latin solum, Chinese 座 zuo4)

Sdé(ng)t́j/Sté(ng)t́j- to stand

Sdéra/Stéra- Star

Śbrekat́j/Śpregat́j- to speak

Śdwrttj- to stir

Śdwr- issue, problem, (less seriously) thing

Śgwrt́j/Śkwrt́j- to turn

Śwrt́j- To speak

Tat́j/Dat́j- to give

Tau/Dau- bull

Tha’a(n)/Dha’a(n)- man; human (See Grk. Demos, demo-; Poly. Taane; Dene Dene; !xoo Ta’a)

T’hápa- cover; clothes

Thél(h)- Stem for “wide; to open” (See Swahili tele (abundant); Samoan tele (big); PIE  *dʰelh₁-, to widen, depart, dscdts. Albanian dal, leave; A. Greek Thallo-; to grow, thrive; Welsh deillio, to derive)

Thoy- too, overly

Tlkwtj- to talk

Tníd/Dnít- under, bottom, etc. 

cf. Eng. underneath; Slc. Dne; Ch./Zh. 底 /(t>d)i:ʔ/, tone 3, PY dǐ

Tnúgú- land, soil (retraced from Poly. Nuku and Zh. 土)

Tót(m)- tribe, clan; all, every

Turi/Duri- Tough, hard

T́énk- to touch, aim

Þa’e- sea (?)

Þulne- Sun (South)

Véghtet́j- To see, look

Venttj/Fenttj- Fin(ish)

Whatittj- to go

Whegl- wave

Whéy- Bended, Crooked

Whúletj- to desire


Modern Innovations and Guesses (Compounds)

Shg(n)eanga- Science

Nebhy- Nobody

Dhjensgraebre- Skyscraper

Defeklattj- to reveal

Example textEdit

Jagh raḱerléom ḱē dyngwē.

I           recreated   this language.

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