Stupid general information[]

So, Ágjoketta is a language spoken on an island located on the extreme south of Kagèf, the island to the far south of Mót (island? continent?) by around 37 thousand people (native speakers only) divided into 8 "clans" speaking their own dialect. From its discovery in 989 and until around 1140 it was considered a language isolate, and then it was discovered that this language is possibly related to Vàrðinekvàs, but, because aside of a few grammatical and lexical aspects, it's practically unrelated and remains unclassified.

Setting 2 (real world)[]

So here's 'ketta is spoken around the 73,2/44,4 degree point on the island called Ágjozdan by around 21 thousand people divided into 8 "clans" each speaking their own dialect.


Sound inventory[]

Nasals: <m n ñ ŋ (n')> /m n ɲ ŋ (ɴ)/
Stops:<p t ty k b d dy g g'> /p t c k q b d ɟ g ɢ (ʔ)/
Fricatives: <f þ s š x v z ž ɣ ł> /ɸ θ s ʂ x β z ʐ ɣ ɬ (ɕ ʑ ç ʝ)/
Liquids: <r w j l> /r w j ɫ (ʎ~lʲ)/
Affricates: <c č> /ts tʂ/
Vowels: <í ý ú i y u e é ő ë o ó ö å a á> /i(:) y(:) u(:) ɪ ʏ ʊ e e(:) ø(:) ɘ(:) o o(:) ɔ(:) a ɑ(:)/
All consonants may be geminated, as in the word "ddërråg" /'d:ɘ.r:ɔg/ ("brain"). Geminated initial plosives may be realized as prenasalized.


Syllable structure is generally (C1)(C2)(C3)V(C3)(C2/C3)(C1), where C1 can be any consonant, C2 is a consonant which isn't equal to C1 and doesn't differ in voicing, C3 is a liquid, (same with the (C2/C3) in the coda) and V is a vowel or a dipththong.

If there's a three-consonant cluster in the syllable onset, liquids are only permitted as C3. If there's a two-consonant cluster in the onset, liquids are permitted as both consonants, but /l/ isn't permitted as C1.

Despite permitting 3-consonant sequences which also often violate the rules, most syllables are rather simple.

Some dialects, especially northwestern ones, solve most sequences in a strange way: e.g. an attested cluster tšrx (developed in other dialects to tšš /t͡ʃ:/) is elided to /tr̝ˠ/ or even to /t͡ʃˠ/.



Accented (long) vowels are always stressed. If there's more than two accented vowels, stress falls on the last one. <ë å> can be also stressed if there's no accented vowels in a word. Otherwise, stress falls on the first syllable of the last word root.


Before stressed front vowels and /j/, such changes occur:

/s ʂ ts tʂ/ > /ɕ/; /z ʐ r/ > /ʑ/; /x/ > /ç/; /ɣ/ > /ʝ/; /ɫ/ > /ʎ~lʲ/; /t k q/ > /c/; /k g ɢ/ > /ɟ/

Before /ɑ:/, all palatals become velar and retroflex consonants become alveolar in some cases.

Most voiceless plosives at the beginning of a syllable are realized as aspirated and most voiceless plosives at the end of a word or before a pause are realized as lengthened.


The grammar of <insert name here> is rather unusual for an English speaker (or a speaker of most "normal" languages), e.g. there's no true personal pronouns, a lot of polysynthesis, etc.

Personal endings (verbs section goes here)[]


Present Singular Plural
1p -ëk -ëkme
2p -ët -ëkat
3p -ëka -ëkok
4p -júk
Other forms
Infinitive -öñ
Participle -ökt
Past Singular Plural
1p -amëk -axme
2p -amët -amxat
3p -ama -amxok
4p -amuk
Other forms
Infinitive ----
Participle -amökt


There are 2 classes of verbs, -ëñ verbs and -Vk verbs (-Vk divided into -ok, -ak and -ek). The -ëñ verbs will be explained with the verb báxëñ, "to live":

Present Singular Plural
1p báxë báxak
2p báxat báxnak
3p báxa báxok
4p báxo
Other forms
Infinitive báxëñ
Participle  báxök
Past Singular Plural
1p báxat báxamat
2p báxtak báxamak
3p báxto báxamok
4p báxo
Other forms
Infinitive ----
Participle báxamök

The future is expressed in a strange way, adding the present copula form to the present form of a verb.

Future Singular Plural
1p báxamëk báxaɣëk
2p báxadët báxnaɣët
3p báxëka báxoka
4p báxo
Other forms
Infinitive ----
Participle báxadök

The -ak verbs will be explained with the verb zdrágnak, "to write":

Present Singular Plural
1p zdrágnom zdrágnåme
2p zdrágnar zdrágnår
3p zdrágna zdrágnek
4p zdrágno
Other forms
Infinitive zdrágnak


Past Singular Plural
1p zdrágnamom zdrágnamem
2p zdrágnamar zdrágnemår
3p zdrágnema zdrágnamek
4p zdrágnemo
Other forms
Infinitive --


The past tense form has noticeable partial vowel harmony.


Declension 1[]

This declension is the basic declension that is one of the most frequent ones. It is characterized by consonant endings. An example noun belonging to (one of variations of) this declension is njåk "stone"; intervocalic stem njåkk-:

Singular Plural
Ergative njåkku njåkkak
Absolutive* njåk njåkka
Genitive* njåkte njåktak
Adverbial njåkkan njåkkat
Instrumental njåkkar njåkkang
Comparative njåkko njåkkop
Intransitive njåkkantu njåkkantim

*Absolutive case is frequently used as intransitive.

*A noun in the genitive case is used for comparisons. The true genitive case is expressed by adding a n- (í-) prefix to a noun in genitive case, e.g. ... njåkte (more ... than a stone) and ... ínjåkte (... of a stone)

Another example of this declension is the aforementioned noun ddërråg "brain", changes in some positions to ddërråɣ-:

Singular Plural
Ergative ddërråɣu ddërråɣak
Absolutive* ddërråg ddërråɣak
Genitive* ddërråɣte ddërråɣtak
Adverbial ddërrågan ddërrågat
Instrumental ddërråɣar ddërrågang
Comparative ddërrågo ddërrågop
Intransitive ddërråɣtu ddërråɣtim

Declension 2[]

Type 1: díþu "town", díþ-

Singular Plural
Ergative díþut díþok
Absolutive díþu díþak
Genitive díþte díþtak
Adverbial díþan díþat
Instrumental díþår díþåt
Comparative díþo díþanga
Intransitive díþantu díþantim

Type 2: léžu "throne"

Singular Plural
Ergative léžat léžåk
Absolutive léžu léžak
Genitive léžåk léžñåk
Adverbial léžån léžåt
Instrumental léžar léžat
Comparative léžon léžonga
Intransitive léžetu léžentim

Declension 3[]

kétta "language"

Singular Plural
Ergative kéttat kéttek
Absolutive kétta kéttak
Genitive kéttak kéttejåk
Adverbial kéttan kéttånt
Instrumental kéttår kéttåt
Comparative kétten kéttanga
Intransitive kétted kéttentim

Comparison with 'nekvas[]

(xD I'll build a large chunk of lexicon with it)

Word this one 'nekvas
I -ëk (copula) ìk
you -ët de
he/she/it -ëka ás; á
we -ëkme ìš
you (pl.) -ëkat þòs
they -ëkok áñ
one xek ìt
two wa òvò
three ékki vemà
four xåzja xúti
five nek nixò
animal éku exs
metal épa òkvòs
weapon ázo áẓà