Conlang

Ëkopion (transcribed as @kopion when Ë is not available) is a click-based language spoken by Arthrowheels (atlojidl) from the radiated planet of Chelys (cëidli).

Ëkopion
Ëkopion
Type
Priori
Alignment
Agglutinative-Fusional
Head direction
Mostly Head-Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Phonology[]

Ëkopion phonology is based on click consonants, basic and nasal vowels.

Consonants[]

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Lateral Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop ʔ
Transition (h)
Click plain ʘ ǀ ǃ ǁ ǂ ʞ
pre-voiced ʘ̬ ǀ̬ ǃ̬ ǁ̬ ǂ̬ ʞ̬[1]

The glottal stop occurs between two vowels when there is no click connecting them. The glottal transition or fricative occurs mostly in loanwords.

Note that the physiology of Arthrowheels allows them to speak velar clicks in basic conversations, whereas it is judged impossible to articulate by humans.

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
Close i u~ɯ
Close-mid e
Mid ə[2] o~ɤ
Near-open æ
Open ɑ

The mid-central vowel occurs between two clicks and has a very weak, almost null release.

o and u can be unrounded in certain positions, such as after a dental consonant.

Writing system[]

Ëkopion uses a syllabary which includes 160 glyphs.

Ekopion script.png

Standard Ëkopion Romanization system[]

The standard Ëkopion romanization system is used to transcribe Ëkopion script into Human languages. Most clicks are converted to the corresponding stop by place of articulation. @ is considered a valid substitute for Ë.

A B C D DL D' E Ë G I
ɑ ʘ̬ ǂ ǃ̬ ǁ̬ ǀ̬ e æ ʞ̬ i
K M/N O P T TL T' U J
ʞ ◌̃ o ʘ ǃ ǁ ǀ u ǂ̬ ʔ;ə

From now on, the page will transcribe words using the standard Ëkopion romanization system.

Phonotactics[]

The structure of a word is very variable if schwas are ignored as true vowels and glottal stops are not counted. The structure of a 4-sound word can be realized as CVCV, ʔVCV, CVCə or CəCV just to list a few. A word, however, cannot start with a pure vowel or end with a click without a schwa following it, although the letter is close to silent.

Loanwords can have an even larger variety of word structure, as some clusters like Ptl at the beginning of a word (such as in Ptlanet) are a rare occurrence. They usually follow the transcription method of English (or of the original language) names (see above).

Grammar[]

Ëkopion is a highly inflected language. It used many affixes to generate various declensions and conjugations.

Verbs[]

Verbs are conjugated according to tense, mood, person and number.

Infinitive[]

The infinitive of a verb is made by adding -ci to the root of the verb. There are no base words that end with the same suffix, as to avoid confusion.

Indicative mood[]

Active[]
Abët'enci (to harvest) Present Indicative Past Indicative Future Indicative
1st person singular Abët'engedla Abët'enkendla Abët'entludla
2nd person singular Abët'engeku Abët'enkenku Abët'entluku
3rd person singular Abët'engeja Abët'enkenja Abët'entluja
1st person plural Abët'engedlë Abët'enkendlë Abët'entludlë
2nd person plural Abët'enge Abët'enken Abët'entlu
3rd person plural Abët'enge Abët'enken Abët'entlu
Passive[]
U Abët'enci (to be harvested) Present Indicative Past Indicative Future Indicative
1st person singular Udla Abët'engeci Udla Abët'enkenci Udla Abët'entluci
2nd person singular Uku Abët'engeci Uku Abët'enkenci Uku Abët'entluci
3rd person singular Uja Abët'engeci Uja Abët'enkenci Uja Abët'entluci
1st person plural Udlë Abët'engeci Udlë Abët'enkenci Udlë Abët'entluci
2nd person plural Ukë Abët'engeci Ukë Abët'enkenci Ukë Abët'entluci
3rd person plural Ujë Abët'engeci Ujë Abët'enkenci Ujë Abët'entluci

Imperative mood[]

The imperative mood is identical to the active future indicative, only with the postposition tag after the verb.

Nouns[]

Ëkopion has seven noun cases: Nominative, Accusative, Ablative, Allative, Genitive, Locative and Dative. They follow an agglutinative declension pattern, that means the suffixes are simply attached to the end of the word.

Gotpe (rock) Suffix Output
Nominative -∅ Gotpe
Accusative -ti Gotpeti
Ablative -jo Gotpejo
Allative -pon Gotpepon
Genitive -tla Gotpetla
Locative -pu Gotpepu
Dative -d'an Gotped'an

The plural form of words is created by adding a suffix -dë before the case suffix. Exceptions are made when the word ends in a consonant, in which case the plural form ends in -ëde. If a word happens to end in -d or -t, the this suffix is removed and replaced with -dë. Note that n is not considered a separate consonant and acts as a nasalizer.

Singular Plural Type
Nominative Accusative Nominative Accusative
Gotpe Gotpeti Gotpedë Gotpedëti Regular
Atlojidl Atlojidlëti Atlojidlëdë Atlojidlëdëti Ends with consonant
Ptlanet Ptlaneti[3] Ptlanedë Ptlanedëti Ends with -t

Adjectives[]

Adjectives follow the same declension pattern as nouns they refer to. Gampo and jin are put after the adjective and have value of "more" and "less", respectively. The word for "very" is ët'ipak, and is placed after the adjective as well.

Pronouns[]

1st singular 2nd singular 3rd singular 1st plural 2nd plural 3rd plural
Nominative eke ko jae eodë kodë jadë
Accusative dlati kati jati dlëti këti jëti
Ablative dlajo kajo jajo dlëjo këjo jëjo
Allative dlapon kapon japon dlëpon këpon jëpon
Genitive dlatla katla jatla dlëtla këtla jëtla
Locative dlapu kapu japu dlëpu këpu jëpu
Dative dlad'an kad'an jad'an dlëd'an këd'an jëd'an

Syntax[]

Ëkopion does not follow a strict word order, due to the fact that the accusative suffix is different from the nominative one. The sentences are most often formatted as SOV, although all 6 combinations are grammatically correct. Adjectives are most commonly placed after the noun, but again there is no strict rule regarding this.

Vocabulary[]

See Ëkopion/Vocabulary.

Dialects and Variations[]

Old Ëkopion[]

Old Ëkopion is the predecessor of modern Ëkopion. It had two extra vowels - /ɔ/, which merged with /o/, and /ə/, which shifted and fused with /æ/ to avoid confusion with non-phonemic schwa. Post-alveolar clicks apparently used to exist within the language, but they most likely fused with alveolar clicks. The current plural form of nouns ending in -dë is derived from the Old Ëkopion suffixes /ǃ̬e/ and -/ǃ̬ə/. These differ by the ending of the root word - as such, if a name ended in -i or -e, the plural would be -de, but in all other cases, it would be -dë.

Pikintla[]

The Pikintla dialect is spoken by Arthrowheels living in exposed star light in the equatorial colony of Pikintla, after which the dialect is named. Its main difference from the standard pronunciation is that all front vowels shifted to central.

Central Back
Close ɨ ɯ
Close-mid ɘ
Mid ɤ
Near-open ɐ
Open ɑ

Humanoid Ëkopion[]

Humanoid Ëkopion is the variation of Ëkopion used by humanoid species with natural vocal cords that allow them to speak non-glottal pulmonic sounds. As most of them are unable to produce velar or palatal clicks, they instead started pronouncing words based on the romanization, as if it was phonemic.

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Transition (h)
Nasal (n)
Stop tense p t̪~θ t c k ʔ
lax b d̪~ð d ɟ g
Liquid l

Notes[]

  1. Might be realized as an ejective /k’/ by Humans, since they as a species are unable to realize a velar click.
  2. Mute, used between two clicks
  3. Accusative suffix starts with -t just like the end of the word