Type Fusional
Alignment Ergative-Absolutive
Head direction Head-Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Two
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress 64%
Nouns 90%
Verbs 88%
Adjectives 63%
Syntax 36%
Words 8 of 1500
Creator Eçeþesi

Ødiláïffe (/ø.di.ɺaːi̯.fːɛ/, anglicized Oedilaiffe) is the language of the Áïffi people, who live in the central coastal plains of the continent Kaslωta, planet Aïssliń (Aysling). It is the official and national language of {a nation yet to be named}, where it is spoken by {a number of people yet to be determined}.

Classification and Dialects[]

Current consensus believes Ødiláïffe to be a language isolate, but recent hypotheses have suggested it may be related to the language Eleþtøve.



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive pʰ b tʰ d kʰ g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ
Affricate t͡sʰ d͡z t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ
Approximant j ɥ ɰ w
Flap ɾ ~ ɺ ~ l*
Lateral app.
Lateral flap
  • the realization of the phoneme /r/ is dependent on the dialect and in some cases speaker preference; in eastern dialects, the alveolar trill and lateral approximant are in complimentary distribution, with [r] appearing in syllable onset, and [l] in syllable coda and intervocalically; in western dialects, [ɺ] is used in most positions; in many central dialects the realization is left as a choice to the speaker.
  • velar consonants become labialised before rounded vowels
  • approximants become voiceless word-initially
  • geminated nasals make, in some dialects, be pronounced allophonically as prenasalized stops word-initially
  • voiced plosives and affricates become devoiced word-finally, unless geminated
  • aspirated plosives have no audible release word-finally, unless geminated
  • all consonants except approximants can be geminated


Front Central Back
High i y ɯ u
High-mid ø ɤ
Mid ə ~ ɵ̞*
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Low ä ~ ɒ̈*
  • the central vowels vary in roundedness to agree with the preceding vowel; when they occur in the first syllable of a word, they are unrounded
  • back vowels become rounded after labial consonants
  • word-finally, high vowels centralize to [ɪ ʏ ɯ̽ ʊ]
  • all vowels can be geminated; vowels can take on three phonemic lengths: short, long and extra-long


The possible dipthongs in Ødiláïffe are /ai̯/, /aɯ̯/, /ay̯/, and /au̯/, written «aï, aẅ, aÿ, aü» respectively. Diphthongs can be geminated. Ungeminated diphthongs are long, and geminated diphthongs are extra-long. In geminated diphthongs, the first component is the one that becomes lengthened.


Possible syllables in Ødiláïffe are (C)(C)V(V)(V)(C)(C)(C). Syllable initials may be a single consonant, a geminant, or a consonant cluster. Medials can be a short vowel, a long vowel, and extra-long vowel, or a diphthong or extra-long diphthong. Codas can be a single consonant, a geminate consonant, a consonant cluster (which may include a geminate sonorant or fricative as its first component), but they may not be approximants or consonant clusters with geminate second components.

Writing System[]

Letter Mm Nn Ńń Pp Bb Tt Dd Cc Jj Ćć Ĵĵ Kk
Sound /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /t͡s/ /d͡z/ /t͡ʃ/ /d͡ʒ/ /k/
Letter Gg Ff Vv Þþ Ðð Ss Zz Śś Źź Xx Qq Ll
Sound /g/ /f/ /v/ /θ/ /ð/ /s/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /x/ /ɣ/ /r/
Letter Ii,
Øø Ωω Ee Oo Aa Ăă
Sound /i/,
/ø/ /ɤ/ /ɛ/ /ɔ/ /ä/ /ə/
  • geminate consonants are written as double letters; long vowels are written with an acute, and extra-long vowels are written with a double acute



Ødiláïffe has two grammatical genders, into which all nouns are sorted. There are five declension patterns, which are numbered first through fifth, and in order consist of nouns ending in: rounded vowels, plosives and affricates, fricatives, unrounded vowels, and sonorants. Generally, first, second, and third declension nouns are masculine, and fourth and fifth declension nouns are feminine, but this is not a solid rule and there are a number of exceptions which must be memorized. Nouns in Ødiláïffe decline for definiteness and number, but do not decline for case. Declension can be performed through vowel ablaut or lengthening, epenthesis of a final vowel, or lengthening or mutation of a consonant, depending on the declension pattern.

First Declension[]

First declension nouns end in rounded vowels, i.e. «ø, o» and sometimes «a». The plural is marked in this declension pattern by geminating the penultimate vowel. Definiteness is marked by raising the ultimate vowel to «y, u, ă» respectively. The following chart is an example of the first declension noun taüńko "tree."

Singular Plural
Indefinite taüńko táüńko
Definite taüńku táüńku

Second Declension[]

Second declension nouns end in plosives and affricates, i.e. «p, b, t, d, c, j, ć, ĵ, k, g». The plural is marked in this pattern by appending the vowel -ă to the end of the noun. Definiteness is marked by lengthening the final consonant. The following chart is an example of the second declension noun ĵudok "tool."

Singular Plural
Indefinite ĵudok ĵudokă
Definite ĵudokk ĵudokkă

Third Declension[]

Third declension nouns end in voiceless fricatives, i.e. «f, þ, s, ś, x». The plural is marked in this pattern by changing the voicing of the final fricative to voiced, i.e. «v, ð, z, ź, q» respectively. Definiteness is marked by lengthening the final consonant. The following chart is an example of the third declension noun zwüeś "school."

Singular Plural
Indefinite zwüeś zwüeź
Definite zwüeśś zwüeźź

Fourth Declension[]

Fourth declension nouns end in unrounded vowels, i.e. «e, ω» and sometimes «a». The plural is marked in this pattern by raising the penultimate vowel. Definiteness is marked by raising the ultimate vowel to «i, w, ă» respectively. The following chart is an example of the fourth declension noun øde "language."

Singular Plural
Indefinite øde yde
Definite ødi ydi

Fifth Declension[]

Fifth declension nouns end in sonorants, i.e. «m, n, h, r, l». The plural is marked in this pattern by raising the ultimate vowel. Definiteness is marked by lengthening the final consonant. The following chart is an example of the third declension noun vωcon "flower."

Singular Plural
Indefinite vωcon vωcun
Definite vωconn vωcunn


Ødiláïffe does not utilize articles to specify the definiteness of nouns, however it does make use of other determiners for purposes such as deixis and partition. These determiners agree with their head noun in gender and sometimes number, but most of them are irregular and therefore must be applied to memory.


Verbs in Ødiláïffe conjugate for four tenses: present, future, recent past, and remote past; two aspects: perfective and imperfective; three moods: indicative, subjunctive, and conditional; two voices: active and antipassive; and also agree with the person, gender and, number of the absolutive argument. The infinitive form of most verbs ends in a voiceless plosive or affricate, i.e. «p, t, c, ć, k». Most verbs are regular, though there are a handful of irregular verbs.

Absolutive Agreement[]

For regular verbs, agreement with the absolutive argument is performed simply through appending a vowel to the end of the infinitive. The following table will demonstrate using the verb cyrk "to work."

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Mix
First Person cyrko cyrke cyrka
Second Person cyrky cyrkw cyrka
Third Person cyrkø cyrkω cyrku cyrki cyrka


Present tense for regular verbs is simply the infinitive plus the absolutive agreement vowel. The other tenses however are conjugated by mutating the last consonant of the infinitive. The recent past tense is conjugated by voicing the final consonant; the remote past by turning the final consonant into a voiced fricative; and the future by turning the final consonant into a voiceless fricative. This conjugation will also be demonstrated using the verb cyrk, conjugated for the genderless plural.

Remote Past cyrqa
Recent Past cyrga
Present cyrka
Future cyrxa

Present tense is used for actions or states that take place at the current time. Future tense is used for those that the speaker predicts will occur after the current time. The distinction between remote past and recent past is often hazy, but is generally placed at about a month in the past. Therefore recent past tense is used for actions or states that occurred in the last month, and remote past tense for those that occurred before that time.


Aspects are very simple to conjugate. The imperfective aspect is merely the unmarked form, much like the present tense is unmarked. The perfective aspect is marked by gemination of the final consonant. Once again, demonstration using the verb cyrk in the present tense, genderless plural.

Imperfective cyrka
Perfective cyrkka

The usage of the aspects is similarly simple. Imperfective is used for actions that have not been distinctly completely. They may be of a continuous or progressive nature, or they may be habitual. The perfective aspect is used for actions that have been completed.


While Ødiláïffe technically has five moods, only three are marked morphologically (the other two through syntax changes). The indicative mood is unmarked, for it is the common mood. The subjunctive mood is marked by nasalizing the final consonant. The conditional mood, however, can be marked in a few different ways: if the verb begins in a plosive, the plosive becomes a fricative; if it begins with a fricative, the fricative becomes geminated; if it begins in a sonorant, an s- is appended; and if it begins in a vowel, that vowel becomes raised. Conjugation of the moods will be demonstrated using cyrk again. (Other demonstrating verbs will be added later to demonstrate the other forms of the conditional mood.)

Indicative cyrka
Subjunctive cyrhka
Conditional syrka

The indicative mood is used for stating basic facts known to be true. The subjunctive mood is used in Ødiláïffe for actions which are not necessarily true but which the speaker wishes to be so. It is also used in "if" clauses. The conditional mood is used for actions which are dependent on another condition, such as those in "if" clauses.


Active voice is the default voice, as in most languages, and therefore uses the basic form of the verb. Antipassive constructions in Ødiláïffe are formed using a conjugated form of the verb sap "to go," followed by the antipassive participle, which is formed by lengthening the last vowel of the verb stem and appending the normal object agreement suffix. The antipassive form of cyrk is demonstrated below.

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Mix
First Person sapo cýrko sape cýrke sapa cýrka
Second Person sapy cýrky sapw cýrkw sapa cýrka
Third Person sapø cýrkø sapω cýrkω sapu cýrku sapi cýrki sapa cýrka

As is typical of ergative languages, the antipassive voice translates to the equivalent of English's intransitive sentences. The antipassive voice lowers the valency of a transitive verb to an intransitive by promoting the ergative argument to an absolutive argument, and removing the original absolutive argument, optionally demoting it to a postpositional phrase. Also typical of ergative languages, normal intransitive clauses in Ødiláïffe translate to English's passive voice.


This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.

Pronouns in Ødiláïffe are distinct from other parts of speech because they still bare forms in the dual number, which were lost in all other parts of speech. Additionally, there are two forms of the second person, for formal and informal situations. There are two sets of pronouns in Ødiláïffe. The first set is the oblique pronouns, used for most instances of the word, including transitive patient, intransitive subject, postpositional complement, and copular arguments. The oblique pronouns are:

Singular Dual Plural
Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. Mix Masc. Fem. Mix
First oss em făn ife
Second Informal tωh sun bid tyy
Second Formal kov þix bws gis
Third øød lii üωd twmb leq vau pond ćuu

The second set, the ergative pronouns, are used only as the agent of transitive verbs. These are:

Singular Dual Plural
Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. Mix Masc. Fem. Mix
First ost emm fann iffe
Second Informal tωhh synn bett tyyb
Second Formal koff þiig bwzz gizz
Third øøt liib ood twmm leeg vaüb ponn ćuub



Adjectives in Ødiláïffe decline to agree with their head noun in gender; however unlike determiners they are regular in their formation. Adjectives generally end in high vowels, either front or back. The gender is determined by the roundedness of the final vowel, so that adjectives agreeing for masculine nouns end in rounded vowels and those agreeing for feminine nouns end in unrounded vowels. The lemma form is given as the feminine form; the feminine form is also used for groups of people containing both men and women. An example is given with the adjective tembi "beautiful."

Ødilaaife English
Feminine tembi vωcon a beautiful flower
Masculine temby tauńko a beautiful tree

Some irregular adjectives such as þane "all" and fai "any" also decline for number.


Adverbs are formed from adjective roots by changing the final vowel into a diphthong. Adverbs modifying verbs are in the feminine form (they end in -ai or -aw) and those modifying adjectives or adverbs are in the masculine form (they end in -ay or -au).


The default word order for transitive clauses is SVO, and for intransitive clauses the default is VO. Adjectives precede nouns, but adverbs follow verbs and other adjectives. Instead of prepositions, Ødiláïffe uses postpositions, so that the postpositional complement precedes the postposition, which itself precedes the head noun or verb.


Main article: Ødiláïffe Lexicon

Example text[]

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1[]

  • Ððokna ÿe kamlibe kω bonśi ÿe źidli sw taÿfetti þáne nofunn. Vaïleń ÿe ćlekkzed xωn taÿfetta ćú ÿe ćúb mamønntø baïńnaïdă swlw üipăleg lw qivøt ïiþacc.
    • [ðːɔkʰnɒ̈ ɥ̊ɛ kʰämɺibɛ kʰɤ bɔnʃi ɥ̊ɛ ʒidɺi sɯ tʰɒ̈y̯fɛtːʰi θäːnɛ nɔfunː väi̯ɺɛŋ ɥ̊ɛ t͡ʃʰɾɛkːʰzɛt xɤn tʰɒ̈y̯fɛtːʰä t͡ʃʰuː ɥ̊ɛ t͡ʃʰuːp mämønːtʰø bäi̯ŋnäi̯də sɯɺɯ ẘipʰəɺɛk ɺɯ ɣivøt̚ ȷ̊iθät͡ːsʰ]
    • dignity and right(PL) in equal and free as born(PRF-3RD.PL.FEM) all(PL) person(PL). reason and conscience with born(PRF-3RD.PL) 3RD.PL.OBL and 3RD.PL.ERG should(SBJ-3RD.SG.MASC) sibling(PL) as spirit of act other(PL).
    • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 2[]

  • Faÿ ẅotoq lw joðiqaq, giten gămon lw lüice, sakïem, øde, miźălal, pólitik jø ïiþac lw ĵωksynt, zzipón jø ïiþac lw icώnam, śnékwf, taÿfet, jø ïiþacu ÿítωń, ωld, þáne kamlibe ÿe ïukóblă teg śifi Lalakkednu kω ziqωvleća pa fusedlici þáne kuvedǎ. Kidavv, kuved lw zzipón lw pólitik jø ĵylisstiksăn lw jø zzipún støh ÿítωńń pla xudofø mek joðiqaq.
    • [fɒ̈y̯ ɰ̊ɔtʰɔɣ ɺɯ d͡zɔðiɣäɣ gitʰɛn gəmɔn ɺɯ ɺwit͡sʰɛ säkʰjɛm ødɛ miʒəɺal pʰɔːɺitʰik̚ d͡zø ȷ̊iθät͡sʰ ɺɯ d͡ʒɤkʰsynt̚ zːipʰɔːn d͡zø ȷ̊iθät͡sʰ ɺɯ it͡sʰɤːnäm ʃnɛːkʰɯf tʰɒ̈y̯fɛt̚ d͡zø ȷ̊iθät͡sʰu ɥ̊iːtʰɤŋ ɤlt θäːnɛ kʰämɺibɛ ɥ̊ɛ ȷ̊ukʷʰɔːbrə tʰɛk ʃifi ɺäɺäkːʰɛdnu kʰɤ ziɣɤvɺɛt͡ʃʰä pʰä fusɛdɺit͡sʰi θäːnɛ kʷʰuvɛdə kʰidävː kʷʰuvɛt ɺɯ zːipʰɔːn ɺɯ pʰɔːɺitʰik̚ d͡zø d͡ʒyɺisːtʰikʰsən ɺɯ d͡zø zːipʰuːn stʰøŋ ɥ̊iːtʰɤŋː pʰɾä xʷudɔfø mɛk̚ d͡zɔðiɣäɣ]
    • Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs.