Type Agglutinative
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 1
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress 0%
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator The Kaufman

Āj is the language formerly spoken north of the Köz tribes (although unrelated to any of the Köz languages) which is the ancestor of a vast majority of the languages spoken west of the Dividing Range of the Old World.

Classification and Dialects[]


Āj had a moderately-sized inventory of 24 consonants and a rather large one of 15 vowels (8 short and 7 long)


Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m <m> n <n> ɲ <ň> ŋ <ŋ>
Plosive p b <p b> t d <t d> k g <k g>
Fricative f v <f v> s z <s z> ʃ ʒ <š ž> x ɣ <x ɣ>
Approximant j <j> w <w>
Trill r <r> ʀ <ʀ>
Lateral app. l <l>


Front Central Back
High i y <i y>
i: y: <ī ȳ>
u <u>
u: <ū>
Mid e ø <e ø>
e: ø: <ē ø̄>
ə <ə> o <o>
o: <ō>
Low a <a>
a: <ā>



The grammar of Āj is fusional and (in verbs) agglutinating and has few irregularities.


Āj nouns distinguish 8 cases, 3 numbers and definiteness in singular.

Most nouns have a second (accusative) stem, used for applying certain case endings.

Consonant stems[]

The consonant stems in Āj are mostly of common gender (with very few exceptions) and are the primary declension class.

An example consonant-stem noun is mōn, mōni "friend"

Singular Definite Dual Plural
Nominative mōn mōni-š mōn-ad mōni-g
Accusative mōni mōni-št mōn-at mōn-ai
Genitive mōni-t mōn-ī mōn-id mōn-t
Dative mōni-s mōni-ši mōn-i mōn-as
Instrumental mōni-m mōni-ns mōn-īm mōni-vi
Vocative mōn-ə mōni-šə mōni-d mōni-g
Ablative mōni-lle mōni-llī mōni-llid mōni-llig
Locative mōni-wa mōni-wā mōn-ud mōni-wag


These stems constitute another major declension class. As evident from their name, they always end in <ā>.

An example ā-stem is ədābā, ədābo "coin"

Singular Definite Dual Plural
Nominative ədābā ədābo-m ədābā-d ədābā-g
Accusative ədābo ədābo-nt ədābā-t ədābā-n
Genitive ədābo-t ədābo-s ədābo-nd ədābo-t
Dative ədābā-s ədābā-ši ədābā-l ədābā-ns
Instrumental ədābo-m ədābo-ns ədābo-lm ədābā-v
Vocative ədābō ədābōm ədābōd ədābōg
Ablative ədābo-llə ədābo-llī ədābo-llid ədābo-llig
Locative ədābowa ədābo-wā ədābo-wad ədābo-wag


The verbs have 2 classes, classified by endings: regular (-ād, -ūd, -ø̄d, -īd) and -əd. The ending in -īd verbs is always stressed, and -əd has a different conjugation. The only difference in the inflection of the regular class is the root vowel. Short vowels (except <ə>) and <ē ō> don't occur before the -d ending. Most irregularities in verbs are in their stem forms.

Āj non-defective verbs inflect for (undecided), 3 persons, 3 numbers (singular, dual, plural) and an obviative (4th person).

Below is an example of the example regular verb, āɣūd "to build", conjugated in the indicative mood. Pretty self-explanatory.

Singular Dual Plural
1st person āɣū-s āɣū-dis āɣū-n
2nd person āɣū-t āɣū-dit āɣū-nt
3rd person āɣū āɣū-d āɣū-g
4th person āɣū-vi



Example text[]