Conlang
Advertisement

Ėlėniya is a constructed language that I made for my personal using, but if you want to learn some of it, I'll share it with you!

It is agglutinative language and it has over 50 different endings! It has developed case system and systed od declensions. Also nouns have two genders: masculine and feminine, two numbers: singular and plural.

Verbs have grammatic category of verbal gender, person, tense and mood, and have category of grammatical number and gender. It seens strange and difficult but it's not, indeed.

Adjectives are mostly ended in -i, -į, -ė or -e sound and they don't make difference between gender. The adjective tajįcsį for ex. doesn't make defference between masculine and feminine. The adjectives are pretty specific in this language, because you must know how to put them together with nouns, because the nouns and adjectives do not belong to the same declension in most situations.

Phonology and phonetics[]

This language has 38 sounds and 32 letters!

The alphabet looks like this:

A a  Ä ä  Ą ą  B b  C c  Cs cs  D d  Dz dz  Dj dj  Dy dy  Ė ė  E e  F f  G g  H h  Gh gh  I i  Į į  J j  K k  L l Gl gl  M m  N n  Ny ny  O o  Ö ö  P p  R r  S s  Š š  T t  Ty ty  U u  Ų ų  W w  X x  Y y  Z z.


A a is pronounced like father in English.                   

Ä ä - no vowels like this one in English, but It's the most similar to Finnish one.

Ą ą is pronounced like fod or ball in English.

B b is pronounced like by or absence in English.

C c is pronounced like tsunami  in English.

Cs cs is pronounced like check or chest in English.

D d is pronounced like deck or wide in English.

Dz dz is pronounced like kids in English.

Dj dj is pronounced like jam or Jack in English.

Dy dy - no consonants like this one; halfway between /g/ and /d/, mostly similar to during.

Ė ė is pronounced like less or edge in English.

E e is pronounced like café or hey in English.

F f is pronounced like find or euphoria in English.

G g is pronounced like guest or gradation in English.

H h is pronounced like hope or behind in English.

Gh gh - no consonants like this one in English: Mostly similar to Dutch /g/ sound.

I i is pronounced like milk or feeding in English.

Į į is pronounces roughly as i sound in English word cousin. Also, similar to Turkish vowel ı.

J j is pronounced like pleasure in English.

K k is pronounced like key or kiss in English.

L l is pronounced like like or love in English.

Gl gl - no consonants like this in English; most similar to Italian gl like in portafoglio or sbaglio.

M m is pronounced like mouth or month in English.

N n is pronounced like nose or note in English.

Ny ny is roughly pronounced like n in the word onion.

O o is pronounced like force or sorcerer in English.

Ö ö - no vowels like this one in English; similar to German one.

P p is pronounced like peper or pronouncing in English.

R r , also called apical trill as pronounced by trilling the tip of your tongue (the apex) and not the uvula.

S s is pronounced like space or since in English.

Š š is pronounced like sharp or show in English.

T t is pronounced like triller or tall in English.

Ty ty - no consonants like this in English. Something between /k/ and /t/.

U u is pronounced like rude or fool in English.

Ų ų is pronounced like German Ü.

W w is pronounced like very or every in English.

X x - only loanwords - Pronounced like ks.

Z z is pronounced like zero or roses in English.


There are also nasal sounds: -on and -en, and th and dh sounds like in English thin and those.

Grammar[]

The grammar of the Ėlėniya is agglutinative and mostly suffixing, i.e. different word particles are joined by appending them. It has basic word classes of verbs (kuder), nouns (blöindiwär) and pronouns (ghäymer)/determiners and adjectives (ąlbäyäšer). Nouns are inflected for case and number. Verbs are inflected for tense and mood and so, and for agreement with subject and object.


Nouns[]

All nouns have a gender, number and case.

Gender in this language is determined by the ending. Usually, ending for masculine nouns is a consonant, in most situations, but there are always some exceptions. Feminine nouns could end in -o or -ö, -a, -ą or -ä,  and there is also -u and -ų ending.

Number is also determined by the ending(s). A lots of nouns have the regular 'plural making by putting -r at the end of the word(s), but, as always, there are some exceptions. Some nouns are singularia or pluralia tantum.

Cases are the most interesting thing in the language. It has different cases with all, different endings. Here's the table of the noun endings:

Case Singular Plural
1. Nominative - -r
2. Genitive -įr
3. Dative -on* -yon*

4. Accusative

-t -ay
5. Vocative - -
6. Instr./comitative -ow, -oh -oj, -oš
7. Possessive -wą -won*
8. Causal -s -z
9. Adessive -nna -nnar
10. Inessive -rrą -rrąn
11. Ablative -cs -csė
12. Elative -i** -il
13. Illative -n -ny
14. Essive -llo -lle
15.  Allative -u -ua
16. Abessive -mur -mer
  • there are also nasals in this language, on and an are nasals and they're pronounced just like the French ones.
    • the elative case comes with the preposition don, and it's unique. Other cases do not come with prepositions. ____________________________________________________________________________________


Declension[]

Case Singular Plural
1. luen luenėr
2. luenį luenįr
3. luenon luenyon
4. luenėt luenay
5. luena* luene*
6. luenoh luenoš
7. luenwą luenwon
8. luenės luenėz
9. luenėnna luenėnnar
10. luenėrrą luenėrrąn
11. luencs luencsė
12. don lueni don luenil
13. luenn lueny
14. luenėllo luenėllė
15. luenu luenua
16. luenmur luenmer

The vocative case is special, so it's different for each noun.

We have two declensions of the nouns - I or consonant declension and II or vowel declension. Mostly masculine nouns are in the first, and the feminine nouns are in the second declension.

Adjectives[]

Adjectives are the words that describe nouns closely. Adjectives in this language have number and case declension. The declension of adj. is pretty confusing, because adjetives are not changed as the nouns are. All locative cases are not included in adj. decl. So, in that case, adjectives have to be amended by other cases. Each locative case has its mate as non-locative case. So, adessive - dative, inessive - dative, ablative - genitive, elative - genitive, illative - accusative, allative - dative.

For ex.: a beautiful house - pėcsė luen

Case Singular Plural
1. pėcsė luen pėcsėr luenär
2. pecsį luenį pėcsįr luenįr
3. pėcson luenon pėcsėyon luenyon
4. pėcsėt luenėt pėcsay luenay
5. - -
6. pėcsoh luenoh pėcsoš luenoš
7. pėcswą luenwą pėcswon luenwon
8. pėcsės luenės pėcsėz luenėz
9. pėcson luenėnna pėcsėyon luenėnnar
10 pėcson luenėrrą pėcsėyon luenėrrąn
11. pėcsį luencs pėcsįr luencsė
12. don pėcsį lueni don pėcsįr luenil
13. pėcsėt luenn pėcsay lueny
14. pėcson luenėllo pėcsėyon luenėllė
15. pėcsu luenu pėcsua luenua
16. pėcsėmur luenmur pėcsėmer luenmer


Comparison of adjectives[]

Ėlėniya's adjectives have three levels of comparison: Positive, first level, comparative, second level and superlative, third level. Comparative is formed by putting the suffixes at the end of the words, and superlative is formed by putting suffixes at the end, and preffixes at the beginning af the words

So, suffix for comparative is -yyi, and template for forming the superlative is wu- + -yyi. For ex. let's take some exampels.

Positive Comparative Superlative
okošė okošėyyi wuokošėyyi
gdyeše gdyešeyyi wugdyešeyyi
oriste oristeyyi wuoristeyyi

okošė means diligent , gdyeše means valuable, oriste means wide.


Pronouns[]

Pronouns refer to persons, things and characteristics. All pronouns are separated in two groups: noun and adjective (possessive) pronouns.

Noun pronouns[]

Personal pronouns[]

1st person - sg. pl.
1. eg hemm
2. egį hemmįr
3. egon hemmyon
4. egit hemmey* (exc.)
5. - -
6. egow hemmoj
7. egewą* (exc.) hemmėwon
8. egis hemmėz
9. eginna hemmėnar* (exc.)
10. egirrą hemmėrąn* (exc.)
11. egecs* (exc.) hemmicsė* (exc.)
12. don ege* (exc.) don hemmėl (exc.)
13. egin hemmėny
14. egillo hemmėlė* (exc.)
15. egu hemmua
16. egmur hėmmer (irreg.)
2nd person - sg. pl.
1. jįn lemm
2. jįnį lemmįr
3. jįnon lemmyon
4. jįnit lemmey* (exc.)
5. - -
6. jįnow lemmoj
7. jįnįwą* (exc.) lemmįwą (exc.)
8. jįnis lemmiz
9. jįninna lemminar* (exc.)
10. jįnirrą lemmirąn* (exc.)
11. jįnics lemmicsė
12. don jįni don lemį* (exc.)
13. jįnin lėny* (irreg.)
14. jįnillo lemmilė* (exc.)
15. jįnu lemmua
16. jįnmur lėmmer (irreg.)
3rd person - sg. (m./f.) pl. (m./f.)
1. wär, wir wämm, wimm
2. wärį, wirį wämmįr, wimmįr
3. wäron, wiron wämmyon, wimmyon
4. wärit, wiret wämmey*, wimmey* (exc.)
5. - -
6. wäröw, wirow wämmoj, wimmoj
7. wärwą, wirwą wämmwą, wimmwą
8. wäris, wiris wämmiz, wimmiz
9. wänna*, winna* (exc.) wämmnar*, wimminar* (exc.)
10. wärrą, wirrą wämmrąn*, wimmirąn* (exc.)
11. wärräcs, wirics wämmcsė, wimmicsė
12. don wäri, wir* (exc.) wämmil, wimmel* (exc.)
13. wärin, wirin wämmany, wimminy
14. wärllö, wirllo wämmille, wimmile* (exc.)
15. wärü, wiru wämmüä, wimmua
16. wärmur, wirmur wämmer, wimmer

Peronal pronoun csen[]

It is equivalent to English: myself, yourself, himself... In ėlėniya, it is just one word, and it hasn't any declensions.


Adjective pronouns[]

There are:

1) Possessive pronouns: egewą, jįnįwą, wärwą, wirwą, hemmėwon... These are rarely used, almost never because their use is too much complex.

2) Demonstrative pronouns: dhį, fon this, dha, fiy that, fay, täy, öng this large...

3) Interrogative pronouns: när which, yag whose, dzuh how, yatti who, ya what...

4) Indefinite pronouns: ötnär some, ila somehow, we someone's, kur how much...

5) Negative pronouns: ötnär no one, ötdzuh none, at all, you just need to add preffix ÖT and the pronoun will become negative.

6) General pronouns: felä each, är moš whichever, mö är whoever...


Numbers[]

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more"). The numbers are changeable and noun types of word, which means that they have a declension.

They are divided into: cardinal, ordinal and cumulative numbers.

Cardinal numbers[]

Not all cardinal numbers have declension, just numbers from 1 to 5, and also these declensions are incomplete, that means that not all cases are used. That's good, isn't it?

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 100000 10000000 100000000000
N. dzey muph ell is ot eng iyo alom piya dzita elew ehad ison otton ešon engon iyon alon piyon yeš yeš muph iseš oteš eireš engeš iyoš aloš piyeš eles elleles iseles oteles ešeles engeles iyeles aleles piyeles tišim millio milliur billiur
G. muphį ellį isį otį ešį
D. muphon ellon ison ötön* ešon
Akk. muphat ellit isit ötöt* ėšėt*
Instr./com. muphow/j ellow/j isew/j otow/j ešow/j

For ex.: dzey luenį*, muph luen, el'luenär, ot luenär...


Cumulative numbers[]

They are formed by putting -oro at the end of the cardinal numbers. For ex.: elloro, isoro... and their meaning is two of them, three of them... They are formed from number 2 to infinitely.


Ordinal numbers[]

In linguistics, ordinal numbers are the words representing the rank of a number with respect to sequential order, in particular order or position (i.e. first, second, third, etc.). Its use may refer to size, importance, chronology, etc. In this language, first three are irregular. Regular ones are formed by putting -a at the end af the cardinal number.


English Ėlėniya
first ista
second thia
third dhura
fourth ota
fifth eša ...

ista luen, thia luen, dhura luen...

Advertisement