Ģaxemo
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Head-Final
Tonal Yes
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and Dialects[edit | edit source]

Ģaxemo (pronounced /ɣəˈχɛmɪ/, coll. Ģam) is a language isolate spoken in an autonomous zone in the Caucuses. It borrows from Germanic, Romance, and Semitic languages.



Phonology and Alphabet[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Alveolar / Dental Postalveolar Velar Uvular
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Plosive p b t̪ d̪ (tʃ dʒ) k g q
Fricative ϕ β s z ʃ (ʒ) x ɣ χ
Approximant w l j ʀ
Lateral fric. ɬ [ɮ]
Lateral aff. tɬ [dɮ]


Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid ɛ (ə) o
Low æː a

Phonemes in parenthesis were brought into the language through loanwords but are now integral. Phonemes in brackets are today rarely distinguished.


Vowel Suprasegmentals[edit | edit source]

Diphthongs
a
æː æɪ æə
ɛ ɛː ɛɪ ɛə
i
o əɪ əː
u

All occurrences of /ɪ/ here may be realized as /ɛ/ or /i/, and all occurrences of /ə/ here may be realized as /u/, /o/, /a/, /ɑ/, /ɒ/, or /ɔ/. Most all diphthongs in Ģaxemo are realized according to the chart, and are usually never fully pronounced (ex.: "ao", "au", "ae", "ai"; /aə/, /aə/, /aɪ/, /aɪ/).

There are 2 tones: normal (/a/) and rising-falling (/a᷈/). The latter cannot occurs on /æː/ or /ə/. All vowels can also be creaky voiced (/a̰/).

Nasalization often occurs before nasals, especially /n/ and /ŋ/, though it is often realized as a more low version of the vowel, or as simply /ɑ/ or /ɒ/ (ex.: "oņkeko" - /ɒkɘˈko/).


Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Many phonemes vary depending on their context in a given word:

  1. Coda /k/, /g/, /t̪/, and /d̪/ have no audible release.
  2. Coda /q/ becomes a glottal stop with no audible release (/ʔ˺/).
  3. Word-final long vowels have an implied /q/ following (ex.: /kaːʔ˺/).
  4. /ʀ/ is rarely pronounced as a trill (except when it is word-initial or directly precedes /a/), but is rather approximated, as /ɑ/ or /ɯ/, or when following a rounded vowel, as /w/ or a uvular approximant. Syllables with /ʀ/ often become diphthongs (ex. /imqoʀˈaʃə/ often becomes /imˈqɔaʃə/).
  5. Coda /l/ becomes /w/.
  6. Unstressed /a/ as becomes /ə/, unstressed /i/ becomes /ə/ or /ɪ/, unstressed /ɛ/ becomes /ɘ/ or /ʊ/, unstressed /u/ becomes /ɨ/, and unstressed /o/ becomes /ɤ/ or /ɪ/. These rules rarely apply to unstressed diphthongs.
  7. Some clusters like "tx", "tr", or "ns" are often reduced to the second consonant, or in the case of a nasal, the preceding vowel is also nasalized, or more often, pronounced more as /ɑ/, /ɒ/, or /ɔ/.

Allowable syllable structures: CV, VC, CVC. A geminated consonant is considered as two consonants.

Rominazation[edit | edit source]

Letter Ņņ Tt Dd Çç Jj Ff Vv Šš
Sound ŋ ϕ β ʃ
Letter Žž Ģģ Hh Yy Rr Ee Ęę or Aa aa
Sound ʒ ɣ χ j ʀ ɛ æː

The rominazation tries to be as close as possible to the actual writing system while removing all the ambiguities (discussed later). All other characters are exactly their corresponding IPA value. Rising-falling tone is written "â", glottal stops (see phonotactics) and high tone is written "aa'", "a'". Ejectives are written "t`", or sometimes "t'".



Grammar[edit | edit source]

Introduction[edit | edit source]

There are several terms that will be used to describe language patterns at least partly exclusive to Ģaxemo. Root words are generally CVC. The first consonant determines the root's (and all of its derivations') grammatical gender. Usually, if the first consonant is a stop, the root is masculine, if it is a fricative, the root is feminine, and if it is anything else, the root is neuter (in this case /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ are actually categorized as stops). If the first phoneme in a root is a vowel, the root is usually neuter, but many times it is irregular. The middle vowel of a root is called the IRV ("Inner Root Vowel") and always has a corresponding "natural vowel" (abbreviated "NV" or "N") that is frequently used in conjugation and word derivation.

Vowel NV
a i
e o
i i
o a
u e

Lenition is also unique. When lenition is mentioned, it is actually referring to this chart. When the lenitive form of a root consonant is mentioned, it is represented by "LC" or "L".

Stop LC
p š
b ž
t s
d z
k c
g j
q c

Forition is also unique. When fortition is mentioned, it is really referring to this chart. Note /ʀ/ does not change when undergoing fortition. Consonants that are the fortive form of a root consonant are represented by "FC" or "F".

Consonant FC Consonant FC Consonant FC Consonant FC
p f ɮ z d h q
b v k x š c m v
t s g ģ ž j n z
d z q h ɬ ŋ r
c š f p ɮ w b
j ž v b x k l d
ɬ s t ģ g y j



Verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbal Mood
Masc Fem Neut
Indicative tak kek pus sak sek xur nak mek ru
Conditional intakí kekó empusé issaká osseké exxurú nik mok rewé
Potential ímtak ómkek émpus ássak éssek úxxur ínakna ómekne éruwne
Imperative ak ek us saká seké xurú na me ru

Colloquially, conditional mood is used for simple past tense and potential mood is used for simple future tense.

Verbal Tense
Masc Fem Neut
Present tak sak nak
Past tak...ɸiə sak...ɸal nak...maq
Future tak...si sak...sar nak...βa

The auxiliaries always appear at the end of a clause.

Person Verbal Markings
Masc Singular Plural Dual Trial Singulative Collective (form.) - only in Masc.
1st -ta -tes -au -ran -ņge -ma
2nd -te -təs -eu -ron -ņgo -ma
3nd -FFə -sə -əi -iń -wou -nur
Fem Singular Plural Dual Trial Singulative
1st -i -kei -wa -ye -ru
2nd -o -kəi -wi -yu -ro
3nd -e -kai -wo -yi -re
Neut Singular Plural Dual Trial Singulative
1st -u -FFa -zu -xo -ģo
2nd -a -FFi -zo -xe -ģe
3nd -e -FFe -zi -xa -ģa


Nouns[edit | edit source]

Pronouns
Singular Singular Acc / Dat (form.) Plural (coll.)
1st ané am anó
2nd əná əl ənús
3nd Masc ə́smaw oz ə́smo
3nd Fem (coll.) ézray ey ézre
Verbal Nouns
Masc Fem Neut
sakí sakád nakál
Plural Dual Trial
If the IRV is "a" -(i)s -siu -ssi
If the IRV is "e" -(o)z -zot -sso
If the IRV is "i" -(i)n -nəi -ssi
If the IRV is "o" -(a)m -mot -ssa
If the IRV is "u" -(e)r -re -sse
Case Markings (only applicable to singular nouns)
Masc Fem Neut
Nom - a - e - o
Acc X
Dat - e - a
Gen - o - i - e
Loc - u - o - i
Lat - e -u
Abl - i - o - e
Instr (coll.) - ə

Genitive Case[edit | edit source]

Genitive phrases are produced thus:

"life-GEN book-ACC"

"book of life"


This form applies even to possessives and many adjectives. There are only a few "true adjectives" that are not just nouns in genitive case:

"me-GEN book-ACC"

"my book"


Definite Article[edit | edit source]

The definite article varies depending on the gender and case of the word it is modifying. The article always follows the noun it is modifying.

Masc Fem Neut
Nom ba ve mo
Acc/Ins
Dat be va ma
Gen bo vi me
Loc bu vo mi
Lat be vu mu
Abl bi vo me



Word Derivation[edit | edit source]

There are two ways in which words are derived: using commonly used stems and templates, known as "Ikasaasi Fató" (lit. "verb derivation" because many words derived this way stem from a verb), and coining new words, known as "Ikasaasi Rosó" (lit. "noun derivation" as most commonly used nouns are derived this way.

The most common Ikasaasi Fató stems and examples:

Base Verb / Noun fer
"to find / excavate"
Related Noun fêr
"fossil"
Tool férrana
"chisel"
Larger Concept óferaa'
"excavation"
Larger Object appári
"archeological site"
Adjective íperaas
"covered in dirt"

A base root (usually CVC and a verb) can have its inner vowel changed, most often with the "â" tone diacritic, or with a basic Ablaut (this form is the most irregular). The "tool" is derived with gemination of the last root consonant and the suffix "-ana". The larger concept contains the root within is the template "N-root-aa'", with the natural vowel of the inner vowel of the root taking initial stress. The "larger object" adds an "a-" prefix and an "-i" suffix as well as changes the root's inner vowel to "a" and the first root consonant undergoes fortition. In the adjective, the fortition remains, but with the prefix "i-" taking stress and the suffix "-aas".


Ikasaasi Rosó[edit | edit source]

In Ikasaasi Rosó, words are simply coined, and it happened that distinct "generations" of word derivation occurred. At different times in the language's history, words were simply derived in different ways, leaving a mess of words derived in different ways from different periods of time across history. The 4th generation extends to present day.

- 1st generation words: mainly compound words (ex. "taçasu", an assimilation of "taççə ane sub")

- 2nd generation words: combining borrowed words from different languages (ex. "mäsato", a combination of English "machine" and European "auto")

- 3nd generation words: borrowed words plus the suffix "-ó" (there is no stress diacritic if another appears earlier in the word), which is actually pronounced /õ~ɔ̃~ɑ̃~ɒ̃/ (ex. "kopuró", borrowed from English "computer")

- 4th generation words: borrowed words (ex. "porimu", borrowed from English "primer")

Some words were coined in between these distinct generations, namely "réligifatto" (meaning "religion"), which both contains a combination of the borrowed words "religion" and "faith / fate" (a characteristic of 2nd gen. words) and the suffix "-o" (a characteristic of 3nd gen. words).

All Ikasaasi Rosó words may undergo the following phonological changes:

  1. In older words, stress is generally penultimate, however in newer words stress is generally initial.
  2. #1 can be overridden by vowels with suprasegmentals, including diphthongs.
  3. #1 and #2 may be overridden if the compound words contains only one derivable root, and the root takes stress.
  4. A coda closed syllable containing /u/ is shortened to an open syllable and /u/ becomes /ɨ/.
  5. Strings of consonants (and sometimes vowels) that have similar places of articulation often assimilate, especially when unstressed.
  6. Vowel length and consonant gemination usually disappears, as can diphthongs, assimilating to the second vowel.
  7. Syllable-initial vowels generally disappear, especially when unstressed.
  8. As many consonant clusters are formed as possible around the stressed syllable. In older words, these clusters assimilate.
  9. Some endings that cause phonological difficulties (ex.: urępa-aas --> urępaaas) will assimilate ( --> urępaas).
  10. The older the word, the more extreme the phonological changes.
  11. Words that are old enough will be spelled to some degree phonetically and have done away with most conservative spelling.



Miscellaneous[edit | edit source]

Common postpositions:

sub - "in front of"

séçaar - "behind"

faktu meu - "inside of"

faktu ser - "outside of"

faktu e - "on top of"

faktu el e (sometimes written "faktu ewe") - "under"

faktu na - "next to"

faktu el na - "far from"

Basic sentence structure: Verb - Subj - Auxiliaries - Obj ("Auxiliaries" refers to things such as time expressions, etc.) Ex.:


EXAMPLE


Note: the copula is "ros". It never changes form and always appears first in a clause.

Negation is written with a "||" (sometimes "|") at the end of a clause, and is pronounced /||/ or /|| ||/. However, if the clause has a copula ("ros"), it is merely changed to "ross" and pronounced with a geminated "s".

Several adverbs, when used, must occur at the very beginning and the very end of the clause:

rak...rak - "merely, even"

Interrogative is marked with the last vowel of a clause having a high tone, however formally, this is marked by making the IRV of the last word of the clause have rising-falling tone, and if the vowel already has tone (see word derivation), the tone is placed on the following vowel, and if there is no other vowel, /â/ is added to the end of the word. However, this formal practice is becoming archaic.

Emphasis can also be placed on any word by making the word's last stop ejective. This can be used in place of instances when English would use volume and tone (ex.: "I didn't say she stole my money" versus "I didn't say she stole my money", etc.) Sometimes, if emphasis must be placed on a certain word but that word has no stops, ejective "p`" is added to the end of the word.

Numbers[edit | edit source]

Standard numbers are always Masc:

0 - nol

1 - çu

2 - wáizi

3 - róyok

4 - dámka

5 - rax

6 - sës

7 - meu

8 - tłę

9 - tła

10 - o

100 - óhdew


Outside of legal and mathematical use, traditional numbers are used. They are also Masc and are in Senary:

0 - fer

1 - dej

2 - tek

3 - mo

4 - lel

5 - ákda


To add a base, "-kaan" is used and increased with number suffixes and hyphens (stress is always in intial):

10 - dejkaan

12 - tekdejkaan

100 - dejkaantek


Writing System[edit | edit source]

The writing system is similar to the rominization used throughout, however with a few differences:

  1. Diacritical marks are only written for the noun suffix "-ó" (discussed earlier) or for certain words (especially large ones) that are not following a basic word template or are penultimate in stress. However, especially with old words, there are many exceptions.
  2. The phonemes /x/ and /χ/ are both written with the "Xx" letter (there is no "Hh" letter).
  3. There are no letters "Šš" or "Žž". "Ss" and "Zz" are used instead but with a diaeresis on the vowel between them (ex.: "sëp", /ʃɛp/). The same is applied to "Jj", even though it is not used for any other sound except /dʒ/. This system can often make it ambiguous as to which consonants around the marked vowel are pronounced postalveolar (ex.: "sïs" could logically be pronounced /siʃ/, /ʃis/, or /ʃiʃ/).
  4. /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ are both represented by "Łł", and /tɬ/ and /dɮ/ are both represented by "Tł tł" (in formal writing, "Dł dł" is sometimes used for /dɮ/).
  5. "Ņņ" is always written "Ņg ņg", except before a velar or uvular consonant.




Lexicon[edit | edit source]

Sample Text[edit | edit source]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights[edit | edit source]

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Ruwaler Sápesis Qemale Úrępao Bo Taççu Çue

S


GLOSS

GLOSS


/ʀɨˈwaləʀ ˈsapəsɪs qɘˈmalɘ ˈuʀɘpao bo ˈtatʃːɨ tʃɨɛ/

PHONE


Naxawmə - "Hello (form.)"

Nax - "Hello (coll.)"

Ka-əna' - "Who are you? / What's your name?"

Ros əna' - "How are you?"

Ros addatu - "Things are well (lit. Everything is on the ground / in order)"

Saweņg - "Okay / Come on (interjection)"

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