| Ģaxemo |
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Classification and Dialects
Ģaxemo (pronounced /ɣəˈχɛmɪ/, coll. Ģam) is a language isolate spoken in an autonomous zone in the Caucuses. It borrows from Germanic, Romance, and Semitic languages.
|Bilabial||Alveolar / Dental||Postalveolar||Velar||Uvular|
|Plosive||p b||t̪ d̪||(tʃ dʒ)||k g||q|
|Fricative||ϕ β||s z||ʃ (ʒ)||x ɣ||χ|
|Lateral fric.||ɬ [ɮ]|
|Lateral aff.||tɬ [dɮ]|
Phonemes in parenthesis were brought into the language through loanwords but are now integral. Phonemes in brackets are today rarely distinguished.
Vowel Suprasegmentals and Diphthongs
All occurrences of /ɪ/ can be realized as /ɛ/ or /i/, and all occurrences of /ə/ can be realized as /u/, /o/, /a/, /ɑ/, /ɒ/, or /ɔ/.
There are 2 tones (ex. on /a/): normal (/a/) and rising-falling (/a᷈/). The latter only occurs on /a/, /ɛ/, /i/, /o/, and /u/. All vowels can also be creaky voiced (/a̰/).
Nasalization occurs sometimes and /ɑ̆~ɒ̆~ɔ̆/ is the vowel most prone.
Many phonemes vary depending on their context in a given word:
- Coda /k/, /g/, /t̪/, and /d̪/ have no audible release.
- Coda /q/ becomes a glottal stop with no audible release (/ʔ˺/).
- Word-final long vowels have an implied /q/ following (ex.: /kaːʔ˺/).
- /ʀ/ is rarely pronounced as a trill (except when it is word-initial or directly precedes /a/), but is rather approximated, as /ɑ/ or /ɯ/, or when following a rounded vowel, as /w/ or a uvular approximant. Syllables with /ʀ/ often become diphthongs (ex. /imqoʀˈaʃə/ often becomes /imˈqɔaʃə/).
- Coda /l/ becomes /w/.
- Unstressed /a/, /ɛ/, and /i/ become /ə/, unstressed /u/ becomes /ɨ/, unstressed /o/ becomes /ɤ/ (unstressed /o/ and /i/ can also become /ɪ/).
- Some clusters like "tx" or "tr" are often reduced to the second consonant.
Allowable syllable structures: CV, VC, CVC. A geminated consonant is considered as two consonants.
|Letter||c||j||f||v||š||ž||h||r||č or ĉ||ĵ||y||e|
All other characters are exactly their corresponding IPA value. All Latin characters were used, otherwise simple replacements were used, especially to maintain a one-character-one-phoneme rule and a no-diacritic rule for vowels, except when it would be simpler and clearer to use the IPA.
There are several terms that will be used to describe language patterns at least partly exclusive to Ģaxemo. Root words are generally CVC. The first consonant determines the root's (and all of its derivations') grammatical gender. Usually, if the first consonant is a stop, the root is masculine, if it is a fricative, the root is feminine, and if it is anything else, the root is neuter (in this case /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ are actually categorized as stops). If the first phoneme in a root is a vowel, the root is usually neuter, but many times it is irregular. The middle vowel of a root is called the IRV ("Inner Root Vowel") and always has a corresponding "natural vowel" (abbreviated "NV" or "N") that is frequently used in conjugation and word derivation.
Lenition is also unique. When lenition is mentioned, it is actually referring to this chart. When the lenitive form of a root consonant is mentioned, it is represented by "LC" or "L".
Forition is also unique. When fortition is mentioned, it is really referring to this chart. Note /ʀ/ does not change when undergoing fortition. Consonants that are the fortive form of a root consonant are represented by "FC" or "F".
Colloquially, conditional mood is used for simple past tense and potential mood is used for simple future tense.
The auxiliaries always appear at the very end of a clause.
|Masc||Singular||Plural||Dual||Trial||Singulative||Collective (form.) - only in Masc.|
|Singular||Singular Acc / Dat (form.)||Plural (coll.)|
|3nd Fem (coll.)||ézray||ey||ézre|
|If the IRV is "a"||-s||-siu||-ssi|
|If the IRV is "e"||-z||-zot||-sso|
|If the IRV is "i"||-n||-nəi||-ssi|
|If the IRV is "o"||-m||-mot||-ssa|
|If the IRV is "u"||-r||-re||-sse|
|Nom||- a||- e||- o|
|Dat||- e||- a|
|Gen||- o||- i||- e|
|Loc||- u||- o||- i|
|Abl||- i||- o||- e|
|Instr (coll.)||- ə|
There is a sort of "construct state", which utilizes accusative and genitive case. Ex.:
"book of life"
This form applies even to possessives and many adjectives. There are only a few "true adjectives" in Imqorášə that are not just nouns in the "construct state". Ex.:
The definite article varies depending on the gender and case of the word it is modifying. The article always precedes the noun it is modifying.
There are two ways in which words are derived: using commonly used stems and templates, known as "Ikasaasi Fató" (lit. "verb derivation" because many words derived this way stem from a verb), and coining new words, known as "Ikasaasi Rosó" (lit. "noun derivation" as most commonly used nouns are derived this way.
The most common Ikasaasi Fató stems and examples:
|Base Verb / Noun||fer|
|"to find / excavate"|
|"covered in dirt"|
A base root (usually CVC and a verb) can have its inner vowel changed, most often with the "x̂" tone diacritic, or with a basic Ablaut (this form is the most irregular). The "tool" is derived with gemination of the last root consonant and the suffix "-ana". The larger concept contains the root within is the template "N-root-aa'", with the natural vowel of the inner vowel of the root taking initial stress. The "larger object" adds an "a-" prefix and an "-i" suffix as well as changes the root's inner vowel to "a" and the first root consonant undergoes fortition. In the adjective, the fortition remains, but with the prefix "i-" taking stress and the suffix "-aas".
In Ikasaasi Rosó, words are simply coined, and it happened that distinct "generations" of word derivation occurred. At different times in the language's history, words were simply derived in different ways, leaving a mess of words derived in different ways from different periods of time across history. The 4th generation extends to present day.
- 1st generation words: mainly compound words (ex. "taçasu", an assimilation of "taççə ane sub")
- 2nd generation words: combining borrowed words from different languages (ex. "mäsato", a combination of English "machine" and European "auto")
- 3nd generation words: borrowed words plus the suffix "-ó" (there is no stress diacritic if another appears earlier in the word), which is actually pronounced /õ~ɔ̃~ɑ̃~ɒ̃/ (ex. "kopuró", borrowed from English "computer")
- 4th generation words: borrowed words (ex. "porimu", borrowed from English "primer")
Some words were coined in between these distinct generations, namely "réligifatto" (meaning "religion"), which both contains a combination of the borrowed words "religion" and "faith / fate" (a characteristic of 2nd gen. words) and the suffix "-o" (a characteristic of 3nd gen. words).
All Ikasaasi Rosó words may undergo the following phonological changes:
- In older words, stress is generally penultimate, however in newer words stress is generally initial.
- #1 can be overridden by vowels with suprasegmentals, including diphthongs.
- #1 and #2 may be overridden if the compound words contains only one derivable root, and the root takes stress.
- A coda closed syllable containing /u/ is shortened to an open syllable and /u/ becomes /ɨ/.
- Strings of consonants (and sometimes vowels) that have similar places of articulation often assimilate, especially when unstressed.
- Vowel length and consonant gemination usually disappears, as can diphthongs, assimilating to the second vowel.
- Syllable-initial vowels generally disappear, especially when unstressed.
- As many consonant clusters are formed as possible around the stressed syllable. In older words, these clusters assimilate.
- The older the word, the more extreme the phonological changes.
- Words that are old enough will be spelled to some degree phonetically and have done away with most conservative spelling.
Syntax and Miscellaneous
Basic sentence structure: Verb - Subj - Auxiliaries - Obj ("Auxiliaries" refers to things such as time expressions, etc.) Ex.:
Note: the copula is "ros". It never changes form and always appears first in a clause.
Negation is written with a "||" (sometimes "|") at the end of a clause, and is pronounced /||/ or /|| ||/. However, if the clause has a copula ("ros"), it is merely changed to "ross" and pronounced with a geminated "s".
Naxáwmə - "Hello (form.)"
Nax - "Hello (coll.)"
Ka-ə̀ná - "Who are you? / What's your name?"
Rosə̀ná' ([ɒɔsˈná]) -"How are you?"
Ros addátu - "Things are well (lit. Everything is on the ground / in order)"
Saweng - "Okay / Come on (interjection)"