|Example Sentences of Уацин|
|I am a man.|
|Ани ауврэ ио дун.|
|I love you.|
|Ани аувпэнэ фравэ.|
|I will give you horses.|
|Ани аувпунуёцин фравэ поукюнэп.|
|Do you hear the sound from the east?|
|Лильакеф фравэ вур шоцьэвэ деж цутньеж?|
|This is a constructed language.|
|Йецукю фэврэ и мпренцуви эпжурэце.|
Type: Fusional (Agglutinative)
Head Direction: Initial
Number of genders: 4
- 1 General information
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Grammar
- 4 Different/Abnormal Verbs (not neccessarily irregular)
- 5 Pronoun Case
- 6 Class/Determiners
- 7 Personal Pronouns, cont'd
- 8 Cardinal/Ordinal
- 9 Comparison
- 10 Demonstrative Pronouns
- 11 Modal Verbs
- 12 Interjections
- 13 Vocabulary
- 14 Example text
General information[edit | edit source]
A lot of the grammar is derived from German, but none of the Vocabulary, or anything else, really.
Phonology[edit | edit source]
Consonants[edit | edit source]
|Plosive||p||t̪ d̪||t d||k||ʔ|
|Fricative||f v||ʒ||ʂ ʐ||ç ʝ|
Vowels[edit | edit source]
|Diphthongs||u̯ä au aʊ oʊ uːɐ̯ ʊɐ̯|
Alphabet[edit | edit source]
|Аа||[ä ɑ a]||/ɑ/|
|Оо||[ɒ o ʌ ɔ ɯ]||/o/|
|Дд||[d̪ d d͡ɮ]||/dz̃ɑ/|
|Жж||[ʒ ʐ ʝ]||/ʝɑ/|
|Ии||[i ɪ j]||/i/|
|Лл||[l t͡ɬ d͡ɮ]||/lɑ/|
|Рр||[ɾ ɹ r]||/rɑ/|
|Тт||[t̪ t t͡ɬ]||/tɑ/|
|Уу||[u ʊ w y]||/u/|
|Ьь||[ʔ ʲ ə]||/t̪͡s̪ʲɑʔ/|
NOTE: У ONLY makes the /u̯/ or /w/ sounds if preceding another vowel (i.e. the word "Уацин" is pronounced as either /u̯ät̪͡s̪iːn/ or /wät̪͡s̪iːn/).
NOTE: И ONLY makes the /j/ sound if preceding another vowel, as with У. The only exception to this is the indefinite article for humanly-class, иo, pronounced iʲʌ.
NOTE: Й will make a /j/ sound whenever following a vowel. However, you add a schwa (ə) sound when at the end of a word. For example: the natural-class, dative-case form of the 2nd-person singular: фравэй is pronounced fɾ̥ɑveɪjə.
NOTE: Ь will, whenever present (unless after consonant), always denote a glottal stop. For instance: in the definite article for the magical-class (тлoьe), it will be pronounced tlɒʔe. However, when Ь is present after a consonant, it will immediately palatalize that consonant, much like what it does in Russian, (and, when at the end of a word, add a "schwa" sound) as in the dative-case, natural-class forms of Third Person Singular pronouns: равь, рувь, рэвь, ривь. They are pronounced, respectively: rävʲə ruvʲə revʲə rivʲə.
NOTE: Т and Л (along with Д and Л) will only make the /t͡ɬ/ (/d͡ɮ/) sound when they are placed together; they must, however, still be in that specific order.
Phonotactics[edit | edit source]
Syllables can take the form (C)(V)(R)(C)V(C)(R)(V)(C), "C" being any consonant, and "V" being any vowel.
The other syllabic combinations are as follows (in order from most used to least):
CVCVC, CVC, CCVCC, CVVC, CV, VC, VVC, CCV, CVV, VCC, VCV, VCR, VVR, VRV, RV, & R
Grammar[edit | edit source]
Nouns[edit | edit source]
Nouns in can inflect for several reasons:
Уацин nouns can be either singular (SG) or plural (PL).
They may be either definite (DEF) or indefinite (NDEF).
The nouns can belong to one of four classes: natural (NATR), magical (MAG), humanly (HUM), or inanimate (INMT).
There are four cases that they can decline according to: nominative (NOM), accusative (ACC), dative (DAT), or genitive (GEN).
Plurals[edit | edit source]
Whenever a word ends in a consonant, add "-эп" to the end to form a plural to any noun; if it ends in a vowel, add "-п" to the end. Nevertheless, when a noun ends in Ь, the ending will still be "-эп" but the Ь will change to a Й.
Adjectives[edit | edit source]
Adjectives come before the noun they modify. There are both attributive and absolute types of adjectives. There is no order in which the adjectives must go in, if there is more than one.
Numbers do not count as adjectives. Instead, numbers are determiners, and may be used in place of any definite article (adding on the appropriate suffix, according to class and case). You would, however, be able to say "Four..." instead of having to say "The four..."
Verbs[edit | edit source]
Conjugations[edit | edit source]
To conjugate regular verbs, you change the first couple letters of the verb to make it follow this chart:
|1st Person||ани (I)||ау______|
|2nd Person||фравэ (you)||ло______|
|3rd Person||равэ, рувэ, рэвэ, ривэ (he, she, it, gender neutral)||фэ______|
|1st Person||ауни (we)||ли______|
|2nd Person||жаувни (you pl.)||ли______|
|3rd Person||ежрэ (they)||ли______|
Gender neutral will mean any living humanoid who has a drawing to either sex, or none at all.
Verb-Doers[edit | edit source]
To make a verb turn into "one who ___s" or "a/an ___er" you would take away the лэ- prefix and add a different one. This prefix is "вю-" and it denotes a verb as a person who does that verb.
For instance, if you wanted to say "a lover" you would automatically give it a natural-class indefinite article, and say "и вювпэнэ" (taking away the лэ- and adding the вю-, of course).
If you wanted to say "a non-lover" you would add the -эн suffix to negate it "и вювпэнэнэн" but in that case there is already an Э on the end of the word, so you must add a Н.
Tense[edit | edit source]
To conjugate a verb for Past Tense, add the suffix -ви. There is no copula needed for past tense.
To conjugate a verb for Future Tense, add the suffix -цин. After you add said suffix, you must use a copula to express that it will happen.
Participles[edit | edit source]
To turn a verb into a regular participle (adjectival form), simply take away the prefix лэ-, and that's it.
However, if you would like to turn the verb into a past participle then you'd add on the suffix -ви to the end of the "already in adjectival form" participle; then move it to the end of the sentence/clause. Once there, you replace the same verb in the original sentence with a present perfect verb, usually the correctly conjugated form of to live (for regular past participles). Some of the past participle verbs that are extremely irregular are listed in a chart below, along with their meaning in English, its present perfect "replacement" (that must still be conjugated into context), and its translation in english.
|Past Participle||Present Meaning||Past Participle Meaning||Present Perfect Replacement||Present Perfect Replacement Meaning|
|цужйеви||flee (run away)||fled||лэвреут||to live|
|войежьаври||grow (by itself)||grown||лэвреут||to live|
|жеуфуцьуви||stay (remain)||stayed||лэвреут||to live|
For example, you would say "I live the scene fled," instead of "I live fled the scene," "I have fled the scene," and most definitely not "I fled the scene," as we say in English. The reason this is is because the ones who spoke Уацин thought it was strange to say that you have fled, because you technically did not have anything. If this doesn't make sense, take, for instance, the phrase "I have a picture." In this statement, you literally own a picture. Thus, you cannot own the action of fleeing. You did not have anything with you, on you, or in your hands that made you flee. You, instead must have lived through that experience.
I realize that that must have confuzed you, since I was using the words I and you interchangeably, but that is just so it felt like you, the reader, were saying the statements; I apologize for the inconvenience.
To make a name (or noun) the owner of an object, let's say "Valerie's name," you would write their name, in which case this does work out in this alphabet, and add ,п or ,эп depending on whether or not there is a vowel on the end.
To see it completely written down:
"Валери,п циан." [Valerie's name.]
So, just to clarify, instead of writing 's at the end of a name or using an apostrophe, you'd use a comma and then add ,п or ,эп. Just like plurals. More on ownership (Genitive Case) explained slightly in the Pronoun Case section.
Negation[edit | edit source]
To negate a sentence, add the word пурну at the end of the sentence, or, if very complicated, directly after the verb that is to be negated.
Word Order[edit | edit source]
Уацин has the “SVO” (Subject, Verb, Object) word order, which just so happens to be the English word order. However, Уацин can be free flowing word order, but with more complicated sentences, it is counted as SVO. In the case of questions, the word order is the same as English as well. For every interjection/exclamation, the verb comes first, then the subject/direct object/etc. much like the English version of the phrase "Thank you," Уацин's word order states that the verb (thank) will be stated before the subject/DO (you). Since "Thank you" is a shortened form of "I thank you," the direct object would have to be you.
The word order of questions, however, is like German. So, for instance, you ask someone, "Where are you going?" you would instead ask them "Where goest thou-NOM?" to take away the copula and make it the German transliteration. Thusly, in Уацин, it would read "Уе лицан фравэ?".
Nevertheless, if you were to ask "Do you hear the sound from the east?" you would transliterate it into "Hearest thou-NOM the-ACC sound from the-GEN east?". It would hereby read in Уацин "Лильакеф фравэ вур шоцьэвэ деж цутньеж?".
Different/Abnormal Verbs (not neccessarily irregular)[edit | edit source]
to live[edit | edit source]
To live, in Уацин does not mean "I live in a house."
Rather on the contrary, it means something like to stand in German; to stand (in German) usually means something like "That jacket stands on you well," or "The painting stands on the wall." It does not literally mean that the jacket or the painting are standing: it simply means that they are there.
The same goes for to live in Уацин. It means that it is there. Not that it is actually living, but that it is in a place or is doing something in a place, much like to stand in German, as I have now stated in this section many, many a time. There is another verb in Уацин that does mean "to live in something," as in a house or another place, such as a city, town, or whatever/wherever you live. The most literal translation of to live is actually "a state of being" so not necessarily in something, because that implies something else. I think you get the point.
Pronoun Case[edit | edit source]
To know exactly what I am basing this off of, view the chart on this page.
|3rd||равэ, рувэ, pэвэ, ривэ||нaвэ, нувэ, нэвэ, нивэ||равни, рувни, рэвни, ривни...|
However, if you want to see more in-depth charts about personal pronouns and their case/class then scroll down to the Personal Pronouns, cont'd section.
When you are in doubt on which pronoun to use - rather, which class to put it in - simply use the inanimate class (if the object is inanimated), but if the noun/thing/person you are talking to is living, then put it into the class-natural category.
Class/Determiners[edit | edit source]
Since Уацин is the official language of the dryads, there are four classes: Natural, Magical, Humanly, and Inanimate. The definite and indefinite articles of these classes are as follows:
The genitive case replaces, in English, the words "of the", "from the", or any other deviations as such, as in the Word order example above.
Personal Pronouns, cont'd[edit | edit source]
Singular[edit | edit source]
|First Person Singular|
|Second Person Singular|
|Third Person Singular (he, she, it, GN)|
|Nominative||равэ, рувэ, рэвэ, ривэ||равэ, рувэ, рэвэ, ривэ||равэ, рувэ, рэвэ, ривэ||рэвэ|
|Accusative||навэ, нувэ, нэвэ, нивэ||навэ, нувэ, нэвэ, нивэ||навэ, нувэ, нэвэ, нивэ||нэвэ|
|Dative||равь, рувь, рэвь, ривь||равю, рувю, рэвю, ривю||равё, рувё, рэвё, ривё||рэвут|
|Genitive||равни, рувни, рэвни, ривни||равниьэ, рувниьэ, рэвниьэ, ривниьэ||равнар, pувнар, рэвнар, ривниар||рэвнур|
Plural[edit | edit source]
|First Person Plural|
|Second Person Plural|
|Third Person Plural|
Cardinal/Ordinal[edit | edit source]
To make a number ordinal, add the prefix жа- to the cardinal form of the number.
The cardinal numbers can be found in the Dictionary.
Comparison[edit | edit source]
With regular adjectives, you'd add certain prefixes to denote comparative, superlative, and elative, according to the class and definitiveness of the noun they modify. Follow the below chart to see how to do this.
Demonstrative Pronouns[edit | edit source]
Like verbs, demonstrative pronouns all have their own prefixes (йе-), according to class and case. The demonstrative pronouns will be in the Уацин/Dictionary. Yet, they will be in the (technically speaking) "infinitive" form - as will the Nominative Case/Class Nature prefix.
Modal Verbs[edit | edit source]
All modal verbs are exactly the same as normal verbs. They also all begin with лэ-. The conjugation and placement of modal verbs is very much like the German conjugation and placement of the verbs according to modal verbs. This rule I am implying is as follows: "The modal verb will be conjugated normally, and modifies the infinitive verb, which is placed at the end of the sentence."
For example, "I want to read the book," would literally translate to, "I want the book to read."
So, in Уацин, it would read:
"Ани аунэт вур фуциьа лэциьэ."
Interjections[edit | edit source]
Formal[edit | edit source]
Now, this may seem silly, and it is kind of like German's command punctuation, but with all of Уацин's interjection punctuation, there is an exclamation point (!) at the end of every sentence (interjection). Another thing that every interjection sentence has is that they are speaking directly to someone, so if it is "Hello," it will literally translate to "Hello [Greetings] you!" (word order is stated in the Word Order section.) Keep in mind that all of these interjections are formal, none of them are informal.
|Hello! (to one person)||Ауриврэ фравэ!|
|Hello! (to more than one person)||Ауриврэ жаувни!|
|Goodbye! (to one person)||Ауйеавpэ фравэ!|
|Goodbye! (to more than one person)||Ауйеаврэ жаувни!|
Thank you! (to one person)
|Thank you! (to more than one person)||Аутларэ жаувни!|
|You're welcome! (literally "Welcome, you!" (singular))||Ауьуарэ фравэ!|
|You're welcome! (literally "Welcome, you!" (plural))||Ауьуарэ жаувни!|
Informal[edit | edit source]
However, the informal forms of the same phrases are below:
|Thank you (thanks)||Жотларэ|
|You're welcome (welcome)||Жоьуорэ|
Vocabulary[edit | edit source]
Full Dictionary/Lexicon can be found here.
Example text[edit | edit source]
The example translations will be located here.