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Fa'lysh
فعليش
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General information[edit | edit source]

For the most part, this page will be written in Romanized words (ie "a b c" not "ا ب س") for obvious reasons (because the author would like it to be easier to write). The IPA pronunciation/spelling of each word, however, may not be given, due to the sheer number of times the author would have to copy and paste.

In the immortalized words of Katniss Everdeen, "Thank you for your consideration."

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal/ Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive b t d k q
tˤ dˤ
Fricative f θ ð s z ʃ ʒ x~χ ɣ~ʁ ʕ~ʢ̰ ħ~ʜ h
ðˤ~zˤ
Approximant w ɫ j
Trill rˤ~r

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Back
Close i (iː) u (uː)
Near-open æ (æː)
Open a (aː) ɑ (ɑː) ɒ
Diphthongs iu̯ ai̯ (aj) au̯ (aw) (uj) u̯a (wa)


Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Since the written phonotactics differ from the spoken phonotactics, I will put both here.

(C=consonant V=vowel)

written= (C)(C)(V)(C)

spoken= (C)(C)V(V)(C)(C)


There are many combinations.

Orthography[edit | edit source]

Alphabet[edit | edit source]

Letter Transliteration Pronunciation Name
ا a or " [aː] /haːliv/
ب b [b] /bæːb/
ت t [t] /tæːm/
ث th [θ] /θæːm/
ج j [ʒ] /ʒiːmz/
ح kh [ħ] ~ [ʜ] /ħæːθ/
خ x [x] ~ [χ] /xæːl/
د d [d] /daːlin/
ذ dh [ð] /ðaːlin/
ر r [rˤ] ~ [r] /rai̯ː/
ز z [z] /zæːθ/
س s [s] /siːn/
ش sh [ʃ] /ʃiːn/
ص s' [sˤ] /sˤɒːdiv/
ض d' [dˤ] /dˤɒːdiv/
ط t' [tˤ] /tˤɒː/
ظ z' [ðˤ] ~ [zˤ] /zˤɒː/
ع a' [ʕ] ~ [ʢ̰] /ʕɒːnin/
غ gh [ɣ] ~ [ʁ] /ɣɒːnin/
ف f [f] /fæːθ/
ق q [q] /qæːθ/
ك k [k] /kæːθ/
ل l [ɫ] /ɫai̯ːm/
م m [m] /miːmni/
ن n [n] /nuːnmi/
ه h [h] /hæːb/
و u [uː u w] /wau̯ːn/
ي i [j iː] /jæːn/































Implied Letters[edit | edit source]

Not all of the vowels that are in the vowel phonology are listed in the alphabet, and that is for a reason. Sometimes, (perhaps most of the time) the vowels are implied using certain diacritics.

For example, if you were to write a word (ie shadiuz') you'd place a small diacritic, called fadh"kh (plural fadh"kh"i), above the sh (ش) like so شَ. Fadh"kh"i look like َ , and they denote a short /a/ sound. To denote the /i/ sound after the letter d (د), we place a kazr"kh (plural kazr"kh"i) below it. Kazr"kh"i look just like fadh"kh"i, but are placed below the letter they come after. In the afore mentioned word (shadiuz'), the kazr"kh would be placed below the d (د), and therefore look like this: دِ .

So, in essence, only the long vowels are written and the short vowels are sometimes written as small diacritics so as to be written swiftly and easily.

shadiuz' would therefore be pronounced as /ʃadiu̯zˤ/, and spelled 

shadiuz'





There is another vowel written aometimes as a diacritic, and that vowel is u (و). Written as a diacritic, this letter is called a d'aim"kh, and is written above the preceding consonant. The d'aim"kh diacritic looks like this: ُ  (like a small awareness ribbon).

For instance: in the word jusard' the u is short, so it may be written as


jusard'





Strange Diacritics[edit | edit source]

Some diacritics are not vowels, and some of those do not even have a phonemic value at all. An example of a diacritic with no phonemic value is a zukhun (plural zukhun"i). A zukhun may look like a small circle above a letter. The zukhun denotes that there is no vowel after the consonant that the zukhun is modifying.

Take into account the word xalban. There is no vowel between the l and the b, so to write this in the native Fa'lysh script, you would write

x"lban





Another example of a strange diacritic would be the jadd" (plural jadd"i). The only thing that they do is double the consonantal value (instead of writing two of the same letter, just write a jadd" over the consonant to be doubled)

That is to say that if you were to write the same exact name of the diacritic you are using in the name of the diacritic (does that make sense?) jadd", then you would write

jadd"

This example is nice because it also demonstrates the combination of two different diacritics, and how they could still be used in conjunction.



Diacritics[edit | edit source]

There are a couple diacritics (not including the fadh"kh"i, kazr"kh"i, zukhun"i, and jad"i), and they are used to change the pronunciation of some letters. These diacritics, in Fa'lysh, are called xhamz"i (singular xhamz"h). They look like a u with the top kicked over on its side to the right: ء

Whenever it is on the bottom of the letter a (ا), it changes the /aː/ sound to an /æ/ sound. When on the top, the /aː/ sound changes to the diphthong(s) /ai̯/ or /aj/

Like so:

Untitled-٤.png



However, when a xhamz"h is written on the letter u (و), it turns the /u/ sound into an /ɒ/ sound.

Like so:

Untitled-5.png




Grammar[edit | edit source]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Syntax[edit | edit source]

Vocabulary[edit | edit source]


No. English Fa'lysh
1Ihana'
2you (singular)hanto
3hekhuwa
4wena'ghnu
5you (plural)hantuno
6theyhumin
7thiskhadha
8thatdha'ilik"
9herekhin"
10therekhin"q
11wholudhin
12whatmai
13wherekhaith
14whena'ndima
15howkift
16notlai
17alljmiq
18manyraghidid
19somebaghid
20fewflil"j
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47cat
48dog
49louse
50snake
51worm
52tree
53forest
54stick
55fruit
56seed
57leaf
58root
59bark
60flower
61grass
62rope
63skin
64meat
65blood
66bone
67fat
68egg
69horn
70tail
71feather
72hair
73head
74ear
75eye
76nose
77mouth
78tooth
79tongue
80fingernail
81foot
82leg
83knee
84hand
85wing
86belly
87guts
88neck
89back
90breast
91heart
92liver
93drink
94eat
95bite
96suck
97spit
98vomit
99blow
100breathe
101laugh
102see
103hear
104know
105think
106smell
107fear
108sleep
109live
110die
111kill
112fight
113hunt
114hit
115cut
116split
117stab
118scratch
119dig
120swim
121fly
122walk
123come
124lie
125sit
126stand
127turn
128fall
129give
130hold
131squeeze
132rub
133wash
134wipe
135pull
136push
137throw
138tie
139sew
140count
141say
142sing
143play
144float
145flow
146freeze
147swell
148sun
149moon
150star
151water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
160earth
161cloud
162fog
163sky
164wind
165snow
166ice
167smoke
168fire
169ash
170burn
171road
172mountain
173red
174green
175yellow
176white
177black
178night
179day
180year
181warm
182cold
183full
184new
185old
186good
187bad
188rotten
189dirty
190straight
191round
192sharp
193dull
194smooth
195wet
196dry
197correct
198near
199far
200right
201left
202at
203in
204with
205and
206if
207because
208name


Example text[edit | edit source]

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