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팟이야
pathiya
Type
Alignment
nom-acc
Head direction
final
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Classification and DialectsEdit

pathiya is an isolate a-priori language. The language is spoken on an island group in the chinese sea. It has three dialects, northern, southern and urban, these dialects however differ barely.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative s [ɕ] x
Affricate ts dz [tɕ dʑ]
Approximant j
Tap ɾ
Lateral Approximant ʎ

note that /ɲ/ and /ʎ/ can only occur in the coda of a syllable

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i u
High-mid e ə o
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Low a

Vowels can either have a low or high tone in a syllable, except for syllables ending in /n/, /ɲ/, /gz/, /bz/ or /ndz/, which are always in low tone.

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

HangeulEdit

Letter ㅁ(ㄻ)¹ ㅍ(ㄼ)¹ ㅌ(ㅅ)¹ ㅋ(ㄱ)¹
Sound m n ɲ p b t d k g
Letter ㄹ(ㄽ)¹
Sound s x ts dz ɾ ʎ gz bz ndz
Letter
Sound i e ɛ/ə ə a u o ɔ ɔ
Letter
Sound je ja ju jo ŭə ŭi

¹Consonants written in parentheses indicate syllable final variants for low tone syllables.

To write vowels indipendently ㅇ is used, this sign is also used for writing low tone syllables without a coda consonant.

KanaEdit

a i u ɛ/ə e ɔ o
- えい おう
k けい こう
g げい ごう
s せい そう
ts つぁ つぃ つぇ つぇい つぉ つぉう
j づぁ づぃ ヅェ づぇい づぉ づぉう
t たぅ てい とう
d だぅ でい どう
n ねい のう
h へい ほう
m めい もう
y (やぃ) やぇ やぇい よう
r れい ろう
w (わ) ゐ/C(u)ぃ (わぅ) ゑ/C(u)ぇ (ゑい) (を) (をう)
n

The kana orthography was shortly in the period of japanese occupation. Together with the kana the japanese tried to enforce kanji to minimal succes, as the language has little loanwords from chinese, especially compared to korean and japanese. Some of the simple kanji however remain in common use, even in the modern day hangeul orthography.

RomanisationEdit

Hangeul ㅁ(ㄻ)¹ ㅍ(ㄼ)¹ ㅌ(ㅅ)¹ ㅋ(ㄱ)¹
Latin m (mh) n nh p (b) b t (th) d k (g)  g
Hangeul ㄹ(ㄽ)¹
Latin s h ch j r (ls) l x/gs bs nj
Hangeul
Latin i e ae ê a u ou o ô
Hangeul
Latin ye yeh ya yu you yo we wi

ㅇ is initlially romanised as nothing, except if the previous syllable ended on a consonant in which case it is romanised as a '. At the end of a syllable it is romanized as h.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns in general have no regular form of ending, any word could be a noun. Noun is a somwhat wider part of speech than languages as english as all proper nouns, pronouns are considered nouns and locations are formed by a group of nouns combined with genitive and locative cases replace many of the (pre)positions.

Nouns get different clitics depending on if they end on a consonant or a vowel. For some cases however this does not matter and the clitic is the same.

table of casesEdit

on vowel on consonant
(vocative) ( - / -오 ) ( - / -아료 )
(-요로/-요라)
nominative -요/-야 -으요
accusative -노/-나 -앤
dative -개 -오
genitive -조
locative -챈
ablative -라 -아라
instrumental -뇨 -으노

List of cases and their usesEdit

The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence.

The accusative case is used for the direct object of a sentence.

The dative case is used for the indirect object of a sentence, and also for certain locations or destinations of something.

The genitive case is used to show owner ship of something.

The locative case is used for location of something.

The ablative case is used for origin of something.

The instrumental case is used for with something or someone something is done.

The vocative case is used when calling people, but it is also used to draw attention to either a nominative or accusative, in this case replacing that case.

VerbsEdit

Most regular verbs have a stem ending on -a (~ㅏ), this a can be mutated to change the form of the verb. Verbs conjugate to multiple things, voice, mood tense and aspect. These often are formed by a process of agglutenation of suffixes. The most important suffixes are for the mood, tense and aspect.

Table of common conjugationsEdit

positive negative
present 아승
future 이그 이승
perfective 으타 으타용 / 으타승
continuous 아라 아라용
habitual present 아라야
habitual future 아리교 아리승
conditional 아가라 아가릉
potential present 아각카 아기용
potential future 아기야
imperative present 아배 아승배
imperative future 아배기 아승배기
volitional present 애바래나 애승나
volitional future 애바리그 애승리그

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

sample wordsEdit

word note meaning romanised
남식 school namsig
남야기 student nam'yagi
대각 J university daegag
대각야기 university student daegag'yagi
요샘 human yosaem
으개 ogae
flower jam
잠섴 flower store jamsèk
여래 cat yèrae
여개 dog yègae
river sa
district anh

J - Japanese or sino-japanese loanword.

Example textEdit

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