27th century English, natively Iŋgliš, is the instance of the spoken English language in the 27th century. It is most widely spoken in the Outer Solar System, with the Inner Solar System retaining many traditional features and vocabulary. Due to it being constantly evolving, it was reclassified from Germanic language to a separate category, Anglic language.

English (27th century)
Iŋgliš
Type
Isolating-Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Head-initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Consonants are almost identical to its 21st century counterpart (Received Pronunciation).

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Affricate t​​​​͡ʃ d​​​​͡ʒ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h
Approximant (w) ɹ j w
Lateral approximant l

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Vowels were simplified compared to its different accents before the Solar System Colonization. However, they are also similar to their RP counterparts in its perdecessor.

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid ɘ
Mid
Open-mid ɛ ɜː ɔː
Near-open æ ʌ
Open ɒ

Spelling[edit | edit source]

The spelling has been reformed to be much more phonemic - most silent letters were deleted and others were given a voice (such as debėt [dɛbɘt] = debt or nâmbė̄ [nʌmbɜː]).

IPA 27th century spelling Current English spelling Notes
b b b
d d d
d​​​​͡ʒ j, -ge dʒ is represented by d'ž
ð ð th
f f f, ph
g g g
h h h
j j y
k k k, c, q
l l l
m m m
n n n
ŋ ŋ ng
p p p
ɹ r r
s s s, c
ʃ š sh, ss, ti
t t t, -ed
t​​​​͡ʃ ch tʃ is represented by t'š
θ þ th
v v v
w w w
z z z, s
ʒ ž su, si
ʔ - - Not always phonemic
IPA 27th century spelling Current English spelling Notes
æ a a
ʌ â u
ɛ e e
ɘ ė e, a, o Unstressed
ɪ i i
ɒ o o
ʊ u u, oo
ā a(r)
ē e(re) Originally eə
ɜː ė̄ e(r), u(r), i(r)
ī ee
ɔː ō o([C]e)
ū oo

Alphabet order[edit | edit source]

A, Â, B, D, Ð, E, Ė, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, Ŋ, O, P, R, S, Š, T, U, V, W, Z, Ž, Þ, ◌̄

Grammar[edit | edit source]

The grammar is extremely easy and less irregular than its older counterpart. Some historically "regular irregularities" were preserved and applied to non-irregular words of the same structure.

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs have usually only 2 forms - one is used for the present, the other is used for the past. The past tense is created simply by adding -t to the end of a verb. If a verb already ends in -t or in -d, a suffix -it is added (example: hīt > hītit, constrasts with hit). There is also a suffix -iŋ which, as the current English -ing, is used to indicate continuous tenses.

Bi and hav[edit | edit source]

As one may have predicted, bi and hav are the equivalents of be and have, common auxiliary verbs. Their past tense was unchanged (except in spelling) for rather historical reasons - the past tense of bi is wos or wė̄, depending on the person, and the past tense of hav is had (same as 21st century English). Bi is often used as in sentences like "It bi rīl ðo", sentences indicating the state of an object. It is also commonly used together with present continuous.

Du[edit | edit source]

Du is the equivalent of do, and is now used as an auxiliar much rarer. "Do not" has transformed into a post-verban "not" - as such "Do not throw waste on the grass" is translated as "Jīt not šits on wīd", literally "Throw not wasteon grass". Questions now have a separate question particle used at the end of a sentence and separated by a comma - ðatrait, shortened to "rait". Du is one of the few verbs to retain an irregular past tense, which is dân, coming from the past participle form.

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Nouns are only declined according to number. Just like in older English, -s is added to a noun to form plural forms. If a word ends in one of the following - -s, -z, -š (inclusing tš) or dž, a suffix -is is added. Unlike its older versions, a word ending in -ou or -o does not acquire an additional infix "e" befor the suffix.

Etymologically, many nouns perserved their older form, with many more appearing while time was passing. Many expressions and interjections originated from nouns.

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

Adjectives have almost not changed, if spelling isn't accounted. Mō, les, most, līst are still used for comparative and superlative forms respectively. To create a QUALITY-OF noun, one adds - ās after the adjective: Example: smāt ās. The word ejef has the meaning of "very" and is post-adjectival.

Possessives[edit | edit source]

Possessives share the same form as their correspondent pronouns.

Determinatives[edit | edit source]

Determinatives are ðis, ðīz, ðat and ðōz. -z indicates plural determinatives.

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Subject Object Possessive Meaning Additional notes
Ai Mi Mai I/me/mine
You/you/your
Hi Hi His He/him/his
Ši Ši Hė̄ She/her/her
It It Its It/it/its
Wi Âs Ār We/Us/Our
Jol Jol Jo You/you/your Form was changed
Ðei Ðem/

'em

Ðē They/them/their

Articles[edit | edit source]

27th century English has the same articles as its older counterparts, however they can (and often are) omitted, especially in quick talking. They are most commonly used at the start of a sentence.

Interrogatives[edit | edit source]

Interrogative words are wât, witš, wen, , wum, wai and hau.

Lexicon[edit | edit source]

As the Human civilization has evolved, so has the English language. Words were added to the language specifically for objects that appeared in the Human race with time.

Slangs and expressions were adapted to the language, such as the word for throw being "jīt" and a word for friend being "hōmi".

Numerals[edit | edit source]

Name Value
zero 0
wan 1
tjūi 2
þrī 3
fōr 4
faiv 5
siks 6
sevn 7
eit 8
nain 9
ten 10
wantīn 11
tjū-tīn 12
þīrtīn 13
fōrtīn 14
faivtīn 15
sikstīn 16
sevntīn 17
eitīn 18
naintīn 19
tjūnti 20
þīrti 30
fōrti 40
faivti 50
siksti 60
sevnti 70
eiti 80
nainti 90
(wan) eitš 100
(wan) kei 1000
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