- 1 About
- 2 Descriptive Nouns
- 3 Syntax Test Sentences
- 4 Calendar
- 5 Colors
- 6 Music
- 7 ...
- 7.1 Alphabet
- 7.2 Structure
- 7.3 Numbers
- 7.4 Nouns
- 7.5 Adjectives
- 7.6 Basic Verb Forms
- 7.7 Sentence Ending Particles
- 7.8 Subordinate Clauses
- 7.9 More Verb Forms
- 7.10 Current Vocabulary
About[edit | edit source]
I am going to revamp the language. This page is being kept as a reference and may turn into a vocabulary page in the future.
Descriptive Nouns[edit | edit source]
not many or few
Syntax Test Sentences[edit | edit source]
- The sun shines.
- sun NOM shine
- The sun is shining.
- sun NOM PROG-shine
- The sun shone.
- sun NOM shine-PST
- The sun will shine.
- sun NOM shine-FUT
- The sun has been shining.
- sun NOM PROG-shine-PST
- The sun is shining again.
- The sun will shine tomorrow.
- sun NOM next.day shine-FUT
- The sun shines brightly.
- sun NOM be.bright manner INST shine
- The bright sun shines.
- be.bright sun NOM shine
- The sun is rising now.
- sun NOM this.time appear
- All the people shouted.
- all.person NOM shout-PST
- Some of the people shouted.
- Many of the people shouted twice.
- Happy people often shout.
- The kitten jumped up.
- The kitten jumped onto the table.
- My little kitten walked away.
- It's raining.
- rain NOM PROG-fall
- The rain came down.
- rain NOM fall-PST
- The kitten is playing in the rain.
- The rain has stopped.
- Soon the rain will stop.
- I hope the rain stops soon.
- Once wild animals lived here.
- Slowly she looked around.
- Go away!
- Let's go!
- You should go.
- I will be happy to go.
- He will arrive soon.
- The baby's ball has rolled away.
- The two boys are working together.
- This mist will probably clear away.
- Lovely flowers are growing everywhere.
- be.beautiful flower NOM all.place LOC PROG-grow
- We should eat more slowly.
- You have come too soon.
- You must write more neatly.
- Directly opposite stands a wonderful palace.
- Henry's dog is lost.
- Henry GEN dog NOM be.lost
- My cat is black.
- 1 GEN cat NOM be.black
- The little girl's doll is broken.
- I usually sleep soundly.
- The children ran after Jack.
- I can play after school.
- We went to the village for a visit.
- We arrived at the river.
- 1.group NOM river LOC arrive-PST
- I have been waiting for you.
- The campers sat around the fire.
- A little girl with a kitten sat near me.
- The child waited at the door for her father.
- Yesterday the oldest girl in the village lost her kitten.
- Were you born in this village?
- Can your brother dance well?
- Did the man leave?
- Is your sister coming for you?
- Can you come tomorrow?
- Have the neighbors gone away for the winter?
- Does the robin sing in the rain?
- Are you going with us to the concert?
- Have you ever travelled in the jungle?
- We sailed down the river for several miles.
- Everybody knows about hunting.
- On a Sunny morning after the solstice we started for the mountains.
- Tom laughed at the monkey's tricks.
- An old man with a walking stick stood beside the fence.
- The squirrel's nest was hidden by drooping boughs.
- The little seeds waited patiently under the snow for the warm spring sun.
- Many little girls with wreaths of flowers on their heads danced around the bonfire.
- The cover of the basket fell to the floor.
- The first boy in the line stopped at the entrance.
- On the top of the hill in a little hut lived a wise old woman.
- During our residence in the country we often walked in the pastures.
- When will your guests from the city arrive?
- Near the mouth of the river, its course turns sharply towards the East.
- Between the two lofty mountains lay a fertile valley.
- Among the wheat grew tall red poppies.
- The strong roots of the oak trees were torn from the ground.
- The sun looked down through the branches upon the children at play.
- The west wind blew across my face like a friendly caress.
- The spool of thread rolled across the floor.
- A box of growing plants stood in the Window.
- I am very happy.
- 1 NOM be.very.happy
- These oranges are juicy.
- Sea water is salty.
- The streets are full of people.
- Sugar tastes sweet.
- The fire feels hot.
- The little girl seemed lonely.
- The little boy's father had once been a sailor.
- I have lost my blanket.
- A robin has built his nest in the apple tree.
- At noon we ate our lunch by the roadside.
- Mr. Jones made a knife for his little boy.
- Their voices sound very happy.
- Is today Monday?
- this.day NOM Monday COP Q
- Have all the leaves fallen from the tree?
- Will you be ready on time?
- Will you send this message for me?
- Are you waiting for me?
- Is this the first kitten of the litter?
- Are these shoes too big for you?
- How wide is the River?
- Sit here by me.
- Keep this secret until tomorrow.
- Come with us.
- Bring your friends with you.
- Be careful.
- Have some tea.
- Pip and his dog were great friends.
- John and Elizabeth are brother and sister.
- You and I will go together.
- They opened all the doors and windows.
- He is small, but strong.
- Is this tree an oak or a maple?
- Does the sky look blue or gray?
- Come with your father or mother.
- I am tired, but very happy.
- He played a tune on his wonderful flute.
- Toward the end of August the days grow much shorter.
- A company of soldiers marched over the hill and across the meadow.
- The first part of the story is very interesting.
- The crow dropped some pebbles into the pitcher and raised the water to the brim.
- The baby clapped her hands and laughed in glee.
- Stop your game and be quiet.
- The sound of the drums grew louder and louder.
- Do you like summer or winter better?
- That boy will have a wonderful trip.
- They popped corn, and then sat around the fire and ate it.
- They won the first two games, but lost the last one.
- Take this note, carry it to your mother; and wait for an answer.
- I awoke early, dressed hastily, and went down to breakfast.
- Aha! I have caught you!
- This string is too short!
- Oh, dear! the wind has blown my hat away!
- Alas! that news is sad indeed!
- Whew! that cold wind freezes my nose!
- Are you warm enough now?
- They heard the warning too late.
- We are a brave people, and love our country.
- All the children came except Mary.
- Jack seized a handful of pebbles and threw them into the lake.
- This cottage stood on a low hill, at some distance from the village.
- On a fine summer evening, the two old people were sitting outside the door of their cottage.
- Our bird's name is Jacko.
- The river knows the way to the sea.
- The boat sails away, like a bird on the wing.
- They looked cautiously about, but saw nothing.
- The little house had three rooms, a sitting room, a bedroom, and a tiny kitchen.
- We visited my uncle's village, the largest village in the world.
- We learn something new each day.
- The market begins five minutes earlier this week.
- Did you find the distance too great?
- Hurry, children.
- Madam, I will obey your command.
- Here under this tree they gave their guests a splendid feast.
- In winter I get up at night, and dress by yellow candlelight.
- Tell the last part of that story again.
- Be quick or you will be too late.
- Will you go with us or wait here?
- She was always, shabby, often ragged, and on cold days very uncomfortable.
- Think first and then act.
- I stood, a little mite of a girl, upon a chair by the window, and watched the falling snowflakes.
- Show the guests these shells, my son, and tell them their strange history.
- Be satisfied with nothing but your best.
- We consider them our faithful friends.
- We will make this place our home.
- The squirrels make their nests warm and snug with soft moss and leaves.
- The little girl made the doll's dress herself.
- I hurt myself.
- She was talking to herself.
- He proved himself trustworthy.
- We could see ourselves in the water.
- Do it yourself.
- I feel ashamed of myself.
- Sit here by yourself.
- The dress of the little princess was embroidered with roses, the national flower of the Country.
- They wore red caps, the symbol of liberty.
- With him as our protector, we fear no danger.
- All her finery, lace, ribbons, and feathers, was packed away in a trunk.
- Light he thought her, like a feather.
- Every spring and fall our cousins pay us a long visit.
- In our climate the grass remains green all winter.
- The boy who brought the book has gone.
- These are the flowers that you ordered.
- I have lost the book that you gave me.
- The fisherman who owned the boat now demanded payment.
- Come when you are called.
- I shall stay at home if it rains.
- When he saw me, he stopped.
- Do not laugh at me because I seem so absent minded.
- I shall lend you the books that you need.
- Come early next Monday if you can.
- If you come early, wait in the hall.
- I had a younger brother whose name was Antonio.
- Gnomes are little men who live under the ground.
- He is loved by everybody, because he has a gentle disposition.
- Hold the horse while I run and get my cap.
- I have found the ring I lost.
- Play and I will sing.
- That is the funniest story I ever heard.
- She is taller than her brother.
- They are no wiser than we.
- Light travels faster than sound.
- We have more time than they.
- She has more friends than enemies.
- He was very poor, and with his wife and five children lived in a little low cabin of logs and stones.
- When the wind blew, the traveler wrapped his mantle more closely around him.
- I am sure that we can go.
- We went back to the place where we saw the roses.
- "This tree is fifty feet high," said the gardener.
- I think that this train leaves five minutes earlier today.
- My opinion is that the governor will grant him a pardon.
- Why he has left the city is a mystery.
- The house stands where three roads meet.
- He has far more money than brains.
- Evidently that gate is never opened, for the long grass and the great hemlocks grow close against it.
- I met a little cottage girl; she was eight years old, she said.
Calendar[edit | edit source]
proposal 1[edit | edit source]
Due to many variables, the Earth's seasons aren't consistent each year. Trying to match each month with the start of a season results in an irregular number of days each month. Trying to make the number of days in each month the same will make the seasons fall out of sync. Unfortunately, it's impossible to create a consistent calendar and no matter what, there will have to be extra days in some years. Unless you redefine what a "day" is, but then the concept of morning and night will go out of sync.
This calender will take the latter approach. The year consists of 4 seasons of 90 days each. A week consists of 6 days, giving 15 weeks in each season and 60 weeks in a year.
At the end of each year, a special New Year's week is added, consisting of either 5 or 6 days (leap year), whichever one that would make the first day after the New Year's week fall on the Northward Equinox. (First day of Spring in the Northern Hemisphere; First day of Autumn in the Southern Hemisphere.)
There are no "weekends" where most people get days off from school or work. In the workplace, a rule allows people to take any 24 days of their choice off from work each month, limited to up to two days a week. Of course, their schedule needs to be worked out in advance with upper management.
Below is the table for the current year.
|Name||Season (Northern Hemisphere)||Gregorian date (2013–2014)|
|?||Spring||Mar 20 - Jun 17|
|?||Summer||Jun 18 - Sep 15|
|?||Autumn||Sep 16 - Dec 14|
|?||Winter||Dec 15 - Mar 14|
|?||New Year's||Mar 15 - Mar 19 (5 days)|
|?||Spring||Mar 20 - Jun 17|
proposal 2[edit | edit source]
Uses the Hanke-Henry Permanent Calendar. Each quarter consists of 13 seven-day weeks. Every 5 or 6 years, an extra leap week of 7 days is added after December.
Colors[edit | edit source]
Music[edit | edit source]
The language uses a twelve-tone system. This system is relative, where <ta> is always the tonic note in the Ionian scale.
|Syllable||Tonic Sol-fa Equivalent||Example with F as Tonic|
...[edit | edit source]
Alphabet[edit | edit source]
|Group 1||Group 2||Group 3|
|nasals + approximants||n||l||j||m||w||ŋ|
|unvoiced stops + fricatives||t||s||∫||p||f||k|
|voiced stops + fricatives||d||z||ʒ||b||v||g|
Note that Group 1 consonants are coronal, group 2 consonants are labial, group 3 consonants are velar.
The order for collation starts at the top-left of the grid, going left to right, then up to down.
Phonology[edit | edit source]
The consonants, <i>, and <u> represent their IPA equivalents. As for the other vowels,
- <a> ranges from [a] to [ɑ]
- <e> ranges from [e] to [ɛ]
- <o> ranges from [o] to [ɔ]
- <r> is a rhoticized schwa [ɚ]
The pronunciation of the consonants by themselves, such as when spelling something out, is formed by taking the letter and combining it with the vowel /a/.
The penultimate syllable of each word is stressed.
Structure[edit | edit source]
Syllable Structure[edit | edit source]
The syllable structure is (C)V(N), where
- (C) is an optional consonant.
- V is a vowel (or diphthong).
- (N) is an optional nasal.
There are rules for which nasal can be used. Taking a sample word with structure C1V1(N1)C2V2N2,
- N1 must match the group of C2.
- (word final) N2 must match the group of V2.
- There can only be one nasal between V1 and V2. It will be analyzed as being C2.
Other restrictions are as follows:
- /j/ may not follow or precede /i/.
- /w/ may not follow or precede /u/.
- /i/ may not follow /e/.
- /u/ may not follow /o/.
Sentence Structure[edit | edit source]
The word order of the language is SOV. Its morphological type is agglunative. Its morphosyntactic alignment is nominative-accusitive.
Numbers[edit | edit source]
Basic Numbers[edit | edit source]
This language will use a dozenal base.
|o / uo||o||zero|
The symbols for the numerals use an underlined letter. Reading out a string of digits is as simple as reading out the letter with the vowel /o/. The word for "zero" has two possible pronunciations. It is normally /o/, but if an ambiguity can occur between the number <o> and the letter <o>, then the pronunciation /uo/ is used.
Larger Numbers[edit | edit source]
<ki> is "dozen" and <ku> is "gross". You need to explicitly say "one dozen" and "one gross" instead of simply "dozen" and "gross".
|Name||Symbol||English Equivalent||Base 10 Equivalent|
|noki-no||nn||one dozen and one||13|
|noku-jo||noj||one gross and three||147|
|noku-loki-jo||nlj||one gross, two dozen, and three||171|
|foku-foki-fo||fff||eleven gross, eleven dozen, and eleven||1727|
Nouns[edit | edit source]
Nouns do not decline. A noun can represent one of any number, gender, or definiteness.
Case Particles[edit | edit source]
Particles will be used to indicate the case of nouns. They are placed after the noun they modify.
|akr||Locative/Temporal||A specific location/time|
|ako||Ablative/Egressive||A starting location/time|
|ake||Lative/Terminative||An ending location/time|
|mu||Instrumental||Means by which an action is accomplished|
Noun Classes[edit | edit source]
Every noun falls into one of five main classes.
|tase||Non-human animate things|
Of course, the classes themselves are nouns in their own right. One thing that classes are used for is counting nouns. Each of these classes have sub-classes for extra precision, but there is nothing wrong with using the main class.
Determiners[edit | edit source]
For normal nouns, the determiners <kedi>, <pidi>, and <pudi>, meaning "which", "this", and "that", respectively, are placed before the noun. A short form exists for the special words in the following table, although the full form can still be used.
Note that the determiner for non-existence uses the word for "zero", so that <on ta∫i> literally means "zero people".
Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]
The most general way to refer to a person is by using their name, even when talking directly to them. A second-person pronoun exists, but it is mainly to be used if you don't know the name of who you are speaking to. However, using your own name to speak about yourself is considered childish or egotistic, so only the first-person pronoun sees general use.
Note that there is no third person pronoun. Again, the name of who you are talking about is to be used if it is known. Otherwise, use the phrase <podi ta∫i>; "that person".
The suffix <-koi> is added to indicate a group including the person you are talking about. This can be used to pluralize the pronouns, but it is not limited to being added to pronouns. e.g. <aikoi> = we, <iukoi> = you, <Smith-koi> = Smith and his group.
Adjectives[edit | edit source]
All adjectives will be gradable. All other adjectives as we know them in English will be expressed by stative verbs.
Each adjective has a root that may not use <l> as its final consonant. The nominal form will have <-la> appended to the root. Words toward the positive direction end with <-li>; toward the negative direction, <-lu>. (Positive/Negative here does not necessarily correlate to desirable/undesirable.) Neutrality is formed with <-lr>. Reduplicating the last syllable forms a greater degree. It is possible to reduplicate the last syllable multiple times, but it is discouraged in non-casual situations.
not many or few
not hot or cold
The suffixes <-le> and <-lo> are used to say that you want it toward the direction of the <-li> word and the <-lu> word, respectively. Depending on which word it is used with, it will form constructions such as the comparative and excessive degree. <melrle> means "it is neutral and I want it toward the direction of hot", basically meaning "hotter". <melule> means "it is cold and I want it toward the direction of hot", basically meaning "too cold".
Adding <-lele> and <-lolo> to the root forms the superlative.
Adjectives are placed directly before a noun to modify it. e.g. <solu tana> = "small thing".
Basic Verb Forms[edit | edit source]
Verbs conjugate according to mood and tense.
Copula[edit | edit source]
The copula is <da>. It is used to say that a noun is another noun.
ai na ta∫i da.
1 NOM human be
I am human.
The copula is a specialized verb and conjugates differently compared to other verbs.
In order to use an adjective in the predicate position, you need to attach the adjective to one of the noun class words.
pudi kosi na soli tana da.
that house NOM big thing be
That house is big.
In English, the verb "to be" can also show existence. This is a separate verb in 9.
Existence[edit | edit source]
The verb to show existence is <naba>.
grwo na pitamo akr naba.
dog NOM here LOC exist
There is a dog here.
This verb can also mean "to have".
ai di miwa na naba.
1 GEN cat NOM exist
I have a cat.
Note that the genitive case is used, so it literally says "A 'my cat' exists".
Indicative[edit | edit source]
The basic form of a verb ends in <-a>. To make verbs negative, add <-n>.
James na pitamo akr naban.
James NOM here LOC exist-NEG
James isn't here.
Tense[edit | edit source]
There is no separate future tense. The base form of the verb is used for both the present and future. The past tense of the copula is <daku>, and its past negative is <dakum>. For other verbs, the past tense is formed by adding the auxiliary word <azu> before the verb.
did not exist
did not do
did not see
did not hear
Sentence Ending Particles[edit | edit source]
In order to turn a statement into a question, add <ke> to the end of a sentence.
au di miwa na naba ke?
2 GEN cat NOM exist INT
Do you have a cat?
In order to turn a statement into a command, add <go> to the end of a sentence.
Subordinate Clauses[edit | edit source]
The particle <ui> marks off a subordinate clause.
More Verb Forms[edit | edit source]
Progressive[edit | edit source]
To indicate an action in progress, change <-a> to <-r>. Add <-ŋ> to form the negative. The copula has no progressive form.
|Affirmative||Progressive||Negative Progressive||Past Progressive||Past Negative Progressive|
was not doing
was not eating
was not drinking
Current Vocabulary[edit | edit source]
Abbreviations used: adj - adjective; det - determiner; n - noun; nc - noun class; pn - pronoun; pt - particle; sfx- suffix; v - verb; # - number
|ai||pn||(1st person pronoun)|
|au||pn||(2nd person pronoun)|
|taŋr||n, nc||idea, concept|
|ta∫i||n, nc||human, person|
|ku||#||gross (a dozen dozen)|