Conlang
Advertisement

This is an auxiliary romance language based on multiple romance languages. It contains the most common sounds from romance languages.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labialized velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ*
Affricate* t͡s* d͡z* t͡ʃ* d͡ʒ*
Fricative f v s* ʃ*
Non-lateral sonorant r* ʝ
Lateral l ʎ

Notes:

  • The sounds in the row marked "Affricates" can also be pronounced as fricatives.
  • /s/, /ʃ/, /m/, /n/, and /r/ can be geminated.
    • /s/ and /ʃ/ may be pronounced voiced, but their geminates are always voiceless.
    • /r/, in addition to being trilled, may be pronounced as a tap /ɾ/ or the French/Portuguese uvular R /ʁ/, though when it is at the beginning of a word or geminated, it is always trilled or uvular.
  • The glottal stop is optionally silent.
  • All voiced stops have fricative allophones when pronounced intervocalically.

Vowels[]

Front Center Back
High i u
Med. high e o
Med. low ɛ ɔ
Low a

Notes:

  • The medium low vowels are always stressed.

Orthography[]

This language uses the Latin alphabet except for the letters K and W, and has 9 letters with accent marks:

Aa Áá Bb Cc Çç Dd Ee Éé Èè Ff Gg Hh Ii Íí Jj Ll Mm Nn Oo Óó Òò Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Úú Üü Vv Xx Yy Zz

  • The acute accent marks stress on a vowel.
  • The grave accent marks openness and stress on E and O (è is pronounced /ɛ/, ò is pronounced /ɔ/).
  • The diaeresis is used in certain digraphs with U (see below).
  • The cedilla is used on soft C before A, O, or U.

The alphabet mostly corresponds to the sounds, with these exceptions:

  • /ɲ/ is spelled nh.
  • /k/ is spelled qu before E or I, and c anywhere else.
  • /ɡ/ is spelled gu before E or I, and g anywhere else.
  • /kʷ/ is spelled before E or I, and qu anywhere else.
  • /ɡʷ/ is spelled before E or I, and gu anywhere else.
  • /ʔ/ is spelled h.
  • /t͡s/ is spelled c before E or I, ç before any other vowel, and z anywhere else.
  • /d͡z/ is spelled z.
  • /t͡ʃ/ is spelled ch.
  • /d͡ʒ/ is spelled g before E or I, and j anywhere else.
  • /ʃ/ is spelled x.
  • /ʝ/ is spelled y.
  • /ʎ/ is spelled ll.

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

Like in most romance languages, nouns decline only for number. There are three noun declensions: First declension nouns end with -a and are mostly feminine, second declension nouns end with -o and are mostly masculine, and third declension nouns end with -e or a consonant and can be masculine and feminine. To form the plural, the following rules apply:

  • To form the plural of most nouns, an S is added to the end.
  • If a noun ends in -s, -ch, or -x, add -es.
  • If a noun ends in -z, change the -z to a -c and add -es.

Pronouns[]

Subject or prepositional Object Possessive
1st sing. èu (subj.) / mi (prep.) me meu, mea, meus, meas
2nd sing. tu te tuo, tua, tuos, tuas
3rd sing. ello (m.) / ella (f.) o (m.) / a (f.) suo, sua, suos, suas
1st plur. nos or nosaltros (m.) / nosaltras (f.) nos nòstro, nòstra, nòstros, nòstras
2nd plur. vos or vosaltros (m.) / vosaltras (f.) vos vòstro, vòstra, vòstros, vòstras
3rd plur. ellos (m.) / ellas (f.) os (m.) / as (f.) suo, sua, suos, suas

The third person singular object pronouns are also used as definite articles. The definite articles are usually used before possessive pronouns.

Other pronoun-like words:

  • on (everyone/people in general), èn (of it, like French en or Italian ne)
  • qüi (here), hi (there), la (there (further away))
  • qüesto, qüesta, qüestos, qüestas (this), qüesso, qüessa, qüessos, qüessas (that), qüello, qüella, qüellos, qüellas (that (further away))
  • que (that), qué (what), perqué (why), còmo (how), qui (who), ove (where), quando (when), qual (which), quanto/quanta/quantos/quantas (how much)

Numbers[]

# Cardinal Ordinal
0 zero
1 uno/una primo/prima
2 dòs/duas segondo/segonda
3 tres terço/terça
4 quatro quarto/quarta
5 cinco quinto/quinta
6 sèis sèxto/sèxta
7 sèt sètimo/sètima
8 ocho otavo/otava
9 nòve noveno/novena
10 dèz dècimo/dècima
11 once undècimo/undècima
12 doce dodècimo/dodècima
13 trece tredècimo/tredècima
14 quatorce quatordècimo/quatordècima
15 quince quindècimo/quindècima
16 sece or decessèis sedècimo/sedècima or decessèxto/decessèxta
17 decessèt decessètimo/decessètima
18 deceocho deceotavo/deceotava
19 decenòve decenoveno/decenovena
20 vinte vigèsimo/vigèsima
21 vintuno/vintuna unvigèsimo/unvigèsima
22 vintedòs/vinteduas dovigèsimo/dovigèsima
23 vintetrés trevigèsimo/trevigèsima
24 vintequatro quatorvigèsimo/quatorvigèsima
25 vintecinco quinvigèsimo/quinvigèsima
26 vintesèis sevigèsimo/sevigèsima
27 vintesèt setenvigèsimo/setenvigèsima
28 vintocho ochovigèsimo/ochovigèsima
29 vintenòve novenvigèsimo/novenvigèsima
30 trinta trigèsimo/trigèsima
40 quarenta quadragèsimo/quadragèsima
50 cinqüenta quinqüegèsimo/quinqüegèsima
60 sexenta sexagèsimo/sexagèsima
70 setenta septuagèsimo/septuagèsima
80 ochenta otogèsimo/otogèsima
90 noventa novengèsimo/novengèsima
100 cènto centèsimo/centèsima
200 ducèntos ducentèsimo/ducentèsima
300 trecèntos trecentèsimo/trecentèsima
400 quatrocèntos quatrocentèsimo/quatrocentèsima
500 quinhèntos quinhentèsimo/quinhentèsima
600 seiscèntos seiscentèsimo/seiscentèsima
700 setcèntos setcentèsimo/setcentèsima
800 ochocèntos ochocentèsimo/ochocentèsima
900 novecèntos novecentèsimo/novecentèsima
1000 mill millèsimo/millèsima

Numbers can agglutinate, e.g.: The number 8549176320 is ochobillonsquinhentosquarentanovemillonscentosetentaseismillstrecentosvinte (pronounced /ot͡ʃobiʎonskiɲɛntoskʷarentanɔvemiʎonst͡sɛntosetentasɛi̯smiʎstret͡sɛntosvinte/).

Prepositions and articles[]

Like in many romance languages, prepositions and articles can combine:

o a os as un una unos unas
de do da dos das dun duna dunos dunas
a au á aus ás
en no na nos nas nun nuna nunos nunas
per pelo pela pelos pelas

Verbs[]

There are five verb conjugations: -ar, -er, -re, -ir without the -ix- infix, and -ir with the -ix infix.

-ar verbs (e.g. travallar)[]

Present Simple past Imperfect Future Conditional Subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Future subjunctive
èu travallo travallai travallava travallaró travallareva travalle travallás travallar
tu travallas travallaste travallavas travallarás travallarevas travalles travallasses travallars
ello/ella travalla travallau travallava travallará travallareva travalle travallás travallar
nos travallamos travallammos travallávamos travallaremos travallarévamos travallemos travallássemos travallarmos
vos travallats travallastes travallávats travallarets travallarévats travallets travallássets travallardes
ellos/ellas travallan travallaron travallavan travallarán travallarevan travallen travallassen travallaren
Present participle Past participle
travallando travallado

-er verbs (e.g. temer)[]

Present Simple past Imperfect Future Conditional Subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Future subjunctive
èu temo temei temeva tembró tembreva tema temés temèr
tu temes temeste temevas tembrás tembrevas temas temesses temèrs
ello/ella teme temeu temeva tembrá tembreva tema temés temèr
nos tememos tememmos temévamos tembremos tembrévamos temamos teméssemos temèrmos
vos temets temestes temévats tembrets tembrévats temats teméssets temèrdes
ellos/ellas temen temèron temevan tembrán tembrevan teman temessen temèren
Present participle Past participle
temèndo temudo

-re verbs (e.g. vendre)[]

Present Simple past Imperfect Future Conditional Subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Future subjunctive
èu vendo vendei vendeva vendró vendreva venda vendés vendèr
tu vendes vendeste vendevas vendrás vendrevas vendas vendesses vendèrs
ello/ella vende vendeu vendeva vendrá vendreva venda vendés vendèr
nos vendemos vendemmos vendévamos vendremos vendrévamos vendamos vendéssemos vendèrmos
vos vendets vendestes vendévats vendrets vendrévats vendats vendéssets vendèrdes
ellos/ellas vendon vendèron vendevan vendrán vendrevan vendan vendessen vendèren
Present participle Past participle
vendèndo vendudo

One-stemmed -ir verbs (e.g. dormir)[]

Present Simple past Imperfect Future Conditional Subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Future subjunctive
èu dòrmo dormí dormiva dormiró dormireva dòrma dormís dormir
tu dòrmes dormiste dormivas dormirás dormirevas dòrmas dormisses dormirs
ello/ella dòrme dormiu dormiva dormirá dormireva dòrma dormís dormir
nos dormimos dormimmos dormívamos dormiremos dormirévamos dormamos dormíssemos dormirmos
vos dormits dormistes dormívats dormirets dormirévats dormats dormíssets dormirdes
ellos/ellas dòrmon dormiron dormívan dormirán dormirevan dòrman dormissen dormiren
Present participle Past participle
dormindo dormido

Two-stemmed -ir verbs (e.g. finir)[]

Present Simple past Imperfect Future Conditional Subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Future subjunctive
èu finixo finí finiva finiró finireva finixa finís finir
tu finixes finiste finivas finirás finirevas finixas finisses finirs
ello/ella finix finiu finiva finirá finireva finixa finís finir
nos finimos finimmos finívamos finiremos finirévamos finiamos finíssemos finirmos
vos finits finistes finívats finirets finirévats finiats finíssets finirdes
ellos/ellas finixen finiron finivan finirán finirevan finixan finissen finiren
Present participle Past participle
finindo finido

Auxiliary verbs (estre)[]

Present Simple past Imperfect Future Conditional Subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Future subjunctive
èu so fui era estró estreva se fòs fòr
tu ès fòste eras estrás estrevas ses fòsses fòrs
ello/ella è fòu era estrá estreva se fòs fòr
nos somos fòmmos éramos estremos estrévamos simos fòssemos fòrmos
vos estes fòstes érats estrets estrévats sits fòssets fòrdes
ellos/ellas son fòron eran estrán estrevan sen fòssen fòren
Present participle Past participle
essèndo sudo

Auxiliary verbs (estar)[]

Present Simple past Imperfect Future Conditional Subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Future subjunctive
èu estó estui estava estaró estareva esté estás estar
tu estás estaste estavas estarás estarevas estés estasses estars
ello/ella está estú estava estará estareva esté estás estar
nos estamos estammos estávamos estaremos estarévamos estemos estássemos estarmos
vos estats estastes estávats estarets estarévats estets estássets estardes
ellos/ellas están estaron estavan estarán estarevan estén estassen estaren
Present participle Past participle
estando estado

Auxiliary verbs (ir)[]

Present Simple past Imperfect Future Conditional Subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Future subjunctive
èu vado fui iva iró ireva vada fòs fòr
tu vas fòste ivas irás irevas vadas fòsses fòrs
ello/ella va fòu iva irá ireva vada fòs fòr
nos imos fòmmos ívamos iremos irévamos vadamos fòssemos fòrmos
vos its fòstes ívats irets irévats vadats fòssets fòrdes
ellos/ellas van fòron ivan irán irevan vadan fòssen fòren
Present participle Past participle
indo ido

Auxiliary verbs (haver)[]

Present Simple past Imperfect Future Conditional Subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Future subjunctive
èu ho havi haveva haveró havereva hava havés havèr
tu has haveste havevas haverás haverevas havas havesses havèrs
ello/ella ha have haveva haverá havereva hava havés havèr
nos havemos havemmos havévamos haveremos haverévamos havamos havéssemos havèrmos
vos havets havestes havévats haverets haverévats havats havéssets havèrdes
ellos/ellas han havèron havevan haverán haverevan havan havessen havèren
Present participle Past participle
havèndo havido

Common irregularities[]

  • First person singular present indicative and all persons all numbers present subjunctive may differ from the rest of the conjugations: tener = tèngo, venir = vèngo, pondre = pongo, poder = pòsso, voler = vòllo
  • Fare: Indi.: faço, faces, faz, facemos, facets, façon; Subj.: faça, faças, faça, façamos, façats, façan
  • Dire: Indi. digo, dices, diz, dicemos, dicets, digon; Subj.: diga, digas, diga, digamos, digats, digan
  • Trare: Indi. trago, trais, trai, traemos, traets, tragon; Subj.: traga, tragas, traga, tragamos, tragats, tragan
  • Future and conditional tenses are always regular, except for in second conjugation verbs, where they are conjugated as if they were third conjugation.

Vocabulary[]

  • Food
    • sucre - sugar
    • lach - milk
    • mèl - honey
    • pan - bread
    • formagen - cheese
    • allo - garlic
    • lachuga - lettuce
    • tomat - tomato
  • Animals
    • bòve - ox
    • can - dog
    • cavallo - horse
    • gato - cat
    • páxaro - bird
    • pex - fish
  • Colors
    • azuro - blue
    • bluo - blue
    • blanco - white
    • grijo - grey
    • negro - black
    • porpra - purple
    • aranja - orange
    • roxo - red
    • vermello - red
    • verde - green
  • Body parts
    • capte - head
    • mano - hand
    • braço - arm
    • naso - nose
    • òllo - eye
    • pèd - foot
    • boca - mouth
  • Family
    • fillo - son
    • filla - daughter
    • madre - mother
    • padre - father
    • fradre - brother
    • sòrre - sister
    • avo - grandfather
    • ava - grandmother
    • nèto - grandson
    • nèta - granddaughter
    • tiu - uncle
    • tia - aunt
    • nebodo - nephew
    • neboda - niece
    • cosino - cousin
    • cosina - cousin
    • sògro - father-in-law
    • sògra - mother-in-law
    • conhado - brother-in-law
    • conhada - sister-in-law
    • gèndro - son-in-law
    • nòra - daughter-in-law
  • Nature
    • agua - water
    • er - air
    • arvre - tree
    • cèlo - sky
    • tèrra - earth
    • riu - river
    • estella - star
    • fògo - fire
    • luna - moon
    • mar - sea
    • pèdra - rock
    • sol - sun
  • Days of the week
    • domengo - Sunday
    • luns - Monday
    • martes - Tuesday
    • mèrcres - Wednesday
    • jòves - Thursday
    • vèndres - Friday
    • sábado - Saturday
  • Months of the year
    • janeiro - January
    • fevreiro - February
    • março - March
    • abril - April
    • mayo - May
    • junho - June
    • jullo - July
    • ougosto - August
    • septèmbre - September
    • octobre - October
    • novèmbre - November
    • decèmbre - December
  • Seasons
    • invèrno - winter
    • primavera - spring
    • estad - summer
    • outonho - autumn
  • Time units
    • segondo - second
    • minuto - minute
    • hora - hour
    • dia - day
    • setimana - week
    • mes - month
    • anho - year
    • hèr - yesterday
    • hoje - today
    • matina - tomorrow
  • Zodiac signs
    • Arièt - Aries
    • Touro - Taurus
    • Gemellos - Gemini
    • Cancro - Cancer
    • León - Leo
    • Vergen - Virgo
    • Livra - Libra
    • Escorpión - Scorpio
    • Sagitário - Sagittarius
    • Capricorno - Capricorn
    • Aquário - Aquarius
    • Pexes - Pisces
  • Planets
    • Mercúrio - Mercury
    • Vèndre - Venus
    • Tèrra - Earth
    • Marte - Mars
    • Jòve - Jupiter
    • Saturno - Saturn
    • Urano - Uranus
    • Neptuno - Neptune
    • Plutón - Pluto

Transcription of Greek loanwords[]

Greek letter Latin letter
α a
β b
γ g
δ d
ε, η, αι, οι e
ζ z
θ, τ t
ι, υ, ει i/y
κ c
λ l
μ m
ν n
ξ x
ο, ω o
π p
ρ r
σ s
ου u
φ f
χ c/qu
ψ ps
αυ au
ευ eu

Samples[]

UHDR:[]

Todos os estres humanos naxen liveros e eguales en dignidad e en direchos. Son dotados de raçón e de consciència e deven agir os unos con os altros con espírito de fraternidad.

Advertisement