Prepositions[edit | edit source]
Prepositions in Adwan are polygoverning, meaning they all govern more than one case. In the case of Adwanic prepositions, a preposition will span over three main meanings over the span of three different cases. The dative case is governed by prepositions denoting motion towards; incidently, beneficial prepositions also govern the dative. The ablative is governed by prepositions denoting motion from. The difference between the dative and the ablative is that, while both may indicate motion, the ablative denotes motion from the perspective opposite of the one in motion, therefore technically, not all prepositions governing the ablative denote motion; also, the ablative denotes instrument, motion within, and most temporal phrases. The locative, unlike the dative and ablative, never denotes motion but denotes location, so while the dative and ablative typically denote motion, the locative is always still. Below is a list of each Adwanic preposition with their English usages under the respective cases. Note, there are few prepositions that form prepositional phrases to express certain meanings rather than use one preposition alone.
Ví[edit | edit source]
- In (indicating year); ablative
- Ví nino 2011 graðwanás. -- I graduate in the year of 2011.
- In (indicating time in amounts); ablative
- Dwaentas mí stravosg ví cyvum sgcyvufi! -- I need to start on my work in ten minutes!
- Into; dative
- Tełẃ ví herno. -- He went into the forest.
- Divided by; Ablative
- Cyf ví cyve þyð uny. -- Ten divided by ten is one.
- In (indicating means, emotion, enrolled in, etc); ablative
- Scẃvreta cgescana vieðw ví ánlaney vievréc. -- The czech student read a book (in English).
- Chagiáfc ví faie sgmátersgi. -- They behaved in a respectful manner.
- Ví dýtlevem neifyzgney. -- In sickness and in health.
- In (locational); locative
- Ví hérnena það. -- I'm in a forest.
- Inside; locative
- Ví ċesga viósgcena þws? -- Are you in your house?
- Among: genitive
- Scunvráy þyst ví revi herni Nori. -- I found this among the trees of the Black forest.
- In between: ví + ag + mediżeg + genitive
- Scwnvrát þyst ví ag miédiżeg mia dwvias vieði. -- I found this in between my two books.
Ag[edit | edit source]
- To; dative
- Masga cgivóy ag cíno. -- I gave (to) the girl some gum.
- Toward, Towards; dative
- Teldéc ag þresgco. -- She walked towards the door.
- At (indicating location); locative
- Ag seia viósgcena það. -- I'm at my house.
- At (indicating time in selective periods); ablative
- Owrí myna stravy ag iosgté yð unié zgole. -- I will do (and finish) my work at ten o'clock.
Y[edit | edit source]
- Times; dative
- Cyf y cyvum þyð vera. -- Ten times ten is one hundred.
- For; dative
- Morscáy sgcgazgw (y) fum. -- I bought a bird for you.
- By (before given time); ablative
- Dwaiówr mí stravosg y cyve wesċi. -- I need to start on my work by ten AM.
- For (supporting); vïy (ví + y); dative
- Twði łavan þyla vïy łávacgno. -- All women are for feminism.
- According to; y + að cwýðwenech + genitive
- Y að cwýðwenech mia fevni. -- According to my mom.
- For (price); ablative
- Twe sgvestenáċ vieða y cyvum sgróvioho. -- I will send you [this] book for ten ounces.
- For, In role of, As; ablative
- Þa sachviż þyð dgagtaga dgiþyð y sachvyżiża dgagtagey. -- This language has been elected (to be as) a featured language.
Zwð/Ziw[edit | edit source]
Zwð and Ziw can be used interchangeably, though ziw is usually used before consonants while zwð before vowels.
- With; ablative
- Ziw łowa ciney ena þïa. -- She was with her cat.
- Including; ablative
- Entẃss, łema ziw. -- We all started, including her.
- Via, Using; ablative
- Tasié ag sgwsco ziw seia swacgé. -- I went to school using my car.
- Near; locative
- Ċeła sgwsca þyð ziw ċesga viósgcena? -- Is your school near your house?
Sað/Sia[edit | edit source]
- Without; ablative
- Owrí iosgtinn sað ezgmay að ryteneg sgwzivieði. -- I did my work without having to read the textbook.
- Except for; ablative
- Entẃss, łema sia. -- We all started, except for her.
Like zwð/ziw, sað/sia is used post-positionally.
- Far from; locative
- An, ma sgwsca þyð sia seia viósgcena. -- No, my school is far from my house.
Evo[edit | edit source]
- About; genitive
- In front of; locative
- Iag, ma viosgca þyð evo seia sgẃscena. -- Me, my school is in front of my house.
- Before (sequence, time); ablative
- Tws ag sgwsco evo meno. -- You go to school before me.
Olsa[edit | edit source]
- From (locational); locative
- Tiago (ag) Lóndonnam olsa Prágena. -- I am going to London from Prague.
- From (origin); genitive
- Ma gova þyð olsa Lóndonnis. -- My friend is from London.
- From over/on top of; olsa + smeðam + genitive
- Łováy olsa smeðam eleffanntu. -- I fell from the top of an elefant.
- From under; olsa + cewórðena + genitive
- Out of; ablative
- Sgcgazga fyvi olsa seia viosgcey! -- A bird came out of my house!
Dgencwí[edit | edit source]
- After; ablative
- Ví wevéstnena dgimozgim, þera dgencwí seia perley. -- I was after my sister in the lunch line.
- Around (direction); dative
- Y grevurðiłwfté, dwagyrim dgencwí tarthco mia sgwsci. -- For physical education, we have to run around my school's track.
- Behind; locative
- Þawras tan (ag) zgewrko sað þyð dgencwí seia viosgcena. -- I like to go to the river [that is] behind my house.
- Under (price); ablative
- Vieða þyð dgencwí cyfe sgrovieyn? -- Is this book under ten ounces?
- Until; dative
- Zaðáy ta dgencwí wesċo. -- I didn't sleep until this morning.
Stea[edit | edit source]
Note, stea is more commonly used postpositionally than prepositionally.
- Across; locative
- Stentas tovy stea. -- I'm standing across from you.
- Despite; ablative
- Di owrí stéfnamey stea. -- I did it despite the instructions.
- Versus; ablative
- Chyðawm chyðawmem stea. -- People versus people.
Odgi[edit | edit source]
- Because of; ablative
- Odgi teniw, tuðý tiosawlyr dwapeias. -- 'Because of you, I have to clean the whole bathroom.
- For the sake of; ablative
- Odgi ċesca sgwscastrave, wrðúy! -- For the sake of your academics, study!
- On behalf of, genitive
- Mezgmydgosgcgi þyð odgi sgnaw. -- This announcement is on behalf of us.
- Ago, ablative
- Scẃvretw þera ví iwnyférsytey odgi cyfe eyn cylem ninech. -- I was a student in university fourteen years ago.
- Outside of; locative
- Odgi ċesca viósgcena það. -- I'm right outside of your house.
Ċa[edit | edit source]
- Compared to, than; ablative
- Mynn puzg þyð tairoro ċa eð ċynech. -- My dog is bigger than your dog.
- Ċa ċesca perla, ma miwa þyð teiycna. -- According to your sister, my cat is the smallest.
Ży[edit | edit source]
- Like, According to; ablative
- Mynn puzc þyð roro ży eð ċynech. -- My dog is big, like yours.
- Þyð saż ena þwthay ży sgtem cgisgmey. -- That's what she said according to our teacher.
Oun[edit | edit source]
- On (temporal); ablative
- On, On the surface of; locative
- During; ablative