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<Hemfoz ne krajf nís söm prakraŋö veji, hesh vrech anvashaŋanö̃ nís ver anumodanö pro duv lehik sö jusroprakraŋö (Triton2009) nís. Vreshtsi koj zvami tú sájo, sakis vreshtsi sejg nís akshardosh tú sakis vijhabzdosh tú sájo, nö vreshtsi ne anvashaŋanö̃ nís ver anumodanö tú.>
<Anvashaŋan ver anumodanö nís, aŋja ad duv lehik charchö jusroprakraŋö nís.>

Imperial Afansevan, as an Indo-European language, shares many grammatical features in common with European languages, some languages of the Middle East, and most Indian languages.

Morphology[]

Nominals[]

Noun Template[]

Slot #-1

Inalienable Possession

Slot #0

Stem

Slot #1

Gender and Number

Slot #2

Alienable Possession

Gender and Number, Pronouns, and Articles[]

Like other Indo-European languages, Afansevan has lost the case system of Proto-Indo-European. Definiteness is formed by adding an article before the noun, which declines for the gender and number of the noun. Afansevan has retained grammatical gender, and pronouns consist of the only traces of PIE's case system (but personal pronouns don't decline for gender, much like what's happening in English right now with the word "they" as the LGBT community is becoming more accepted), declining for five cases: nominative, vocative (which has the same form as the nominative), accusative, genitive, and dative. The reflexive forms descend from PIE enclitic forms, and the third person pronouns are descended from PIE second person plural pronouns. The reflexive pronouns can also be used to mark when the pronoun as an object, using the definate article, switches places with the verb in the sentence.

Gender in Afansevan is basically impossible to predict in roots. If a noun ends with a consonant in the singular, it is masculine (drop the final vowel if there is one.). If it ends in <-a> in the singular, it is feminine (drop the final vowel if there is one and add <-a>.). If it ends with <-ö> in the singular and dual, then it is neuter (drop the final vowel if there is one and add <-ö>). There are a few irregular singular forms, usually due to phonotactics. An example is <príjo>, meaning "friend." Since <príjo> is masculine, it drops the final <-o>, becoming <*príj>. Since <*príj> violates phonotactical rules stating that /j/ cannot be placed after a consonant or /i/, the /j/ is dropped as well (hence <prí>). However, the Sanskrit loanword <visarij> "converging" (adjective), is still <visarij> in the masculine singular, making it a regular singular form as opposed to the native root <príjo>. The unchanged root is used when deriving new words (hence <príjoti> "to be a friend," as opposed to <*príti>).

On the origin of the plural suffix, researchers have highly debated for the past century. One hypothesis is that the plural is directly inherited from the nominative plural suffix in PIE. However, early Imperial records in the Mayan script dating before the evolution of tones seem to contest this hypothesis. It gives <-tri> as the plural suffix, which eventually simplifies to <-ri> due to tonogenesis. It then gets simplified even further to <-r>, hence the plurals ending in <-r>. The plural suffix is cognate with <trej> as a result.

The indefinite and definite article each evolved from heavily simplified numerals for "one" and "two" respectively in Early Afansevan. "One" originated as the singular, and "two" originated as the dual, and the numeral for "three" evolved into the plural article. But the system was simplified in Proto-Neosevan, where the plural form was lost, and the singular became the indefinite article and the dual became the definite article. These articles agreed with their noun with case, gender, and number. When the case system was lost, the old case articles were carried over to pronouns and the feminine and neuter articles with cases were lost as pronouns have lost grammatical gender. However, the indefinite article is falsely derived from genitive/dative interrogative pronouns in The Grammar of the Chosen Tongue.

In addition to being used as a 3rd person pronoun, <jú> can be used as a dummy pronoun.

To the left is the gender and number suffixes for nouns and adjectives. To the right is the pronouns. To the bottom is the articles.

Singular Dual Plural
Masculine -i -ar
Feminine -a -yr
Neuter
Personal Basic Interrogative Demonstrative Relative
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person/Dummy Pronomial Adjectival "This" "That" "There" "Here" Singular/Dual Plural
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Masculine/Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative, Vocative azh vej veji tukö tukyr jukö jukyr kis kos ka so sa tado todö sor sora todar shis sha shi jo ja jor jar jör
Accusative Normal ma unsme unsmej dve dvö dvyr usme usmö usmyr kim kom kam som sam söm todom tadom tödom soram tõram shim sham jom jam jöm jorom jarom jörom
Reflexive nos nosi te tyr vos vosö vosyr
Genitive Normal mane anso ansoj teve tevö tevyr jusero juserö juseryr kesmej kosmej kesmej kosmej sos sas sös todos todas tödos sores soras tõres shojs shas jos jas jös joros jaros jöros
Reflexive maj nos nosi toj tojö tojyr vos vosö vosyr
Dative Normal májijo unsmej unsmeji tevjo tevjö tevjyr usmej usmejö usmejyr ketso kotso kotso sof saf söf todjo todja todjö sorej soraj tõrej tsej shaj jofs jafs jöfs jorofs jarofs jörofs
Reflexive maj uns unsi toj tojö tojyr
Indefinate Definate
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
When used on a non-pronoun Masculine koj koji kojar duv duvi duvar
Feminine koja kojyr duva duvyr
Neuter kojö duvö
When used on a pronoun Nominative, Vocative kojs kojis kojares dufs duvis duvars
Accusative kojm kojim kojarens duvum duvim duvarens
Genitive kojos kojom duvos duvjos duvom
Dative kojej kojarm duvej duvjej duvarm
Interrogative Pronouns[]

The interrogative pronouns in Imperial Afansevan, in more detail, are as follows: (the masculine forms refer to masculine nouns, the feminine forms refer to feminine nouns, and the neuter forms refer to neuter nouns)

"What" Interrogative (this is the interrogative covered in the table above) "Who" Interrogative (its neuter form is a suppletive form that got suffixed onto the pronominal stem) "Which" Interrogative (acts like an adjective in certain circumstances) "Where" Interrogative "How" Interrogative
Pronomial Adjectival Singular "Which one" Dual "Which two" Plural "Which three" or "Which (number above three)" Formal (derived from a fossilized locative form) Informal (derived from a locative particle)
Masculine/Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine/Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative/Vocative kis kos ka kizvíros kizhmo koros kora korom kora koraj koroves koras kora kesmi kesmĩ ses sa kastusko kastuskene kastuskon
Accusative kim kom kam kizvírom kizhmonam korom koram koroms korams kesmim sem sma smö kastuskonam kastuskenem
Genitive kesmej kosmej kesmej kosmej kezvírtso kezhmanes korotso koras korotso korotsi korats korotsi korokom koravokom korokom kesmitso tso tsa tsö kastuŋes kastuskanjas kastuŋes
Dative ketso kotso kotso kezvírovej kezhmenej korovej koraj korovej korovi korej korovi koromos koramos koromos kesmjej si tse tsy kastuŋej kastuskanjaj kastuŋej
Mass Nouns[]

Mass nouns are expressed using numbers, followed by null subjects that agree in number with the number that precedes it, followed by the noun. The mass noun is present only in singular form and doesn't inflect for number. Most mass nouns are liquids.

Irregular Duals[]

There are many irregular duals that are formed through vowel alternation plus the regular suffix. This is descended from PIE words which formed their dual suffix for the nominative and accusative cases with the -h1 or -h2 laryngeals plus another sound. Many of these have been regularized, but some dual forms for common words retain this vowel alternation, like the words for "thought" and "foot", <mantis> f. and <pẽ> m., which have dual forms <mantesi> and <padi> respectively. This irregularity is pervasive in many common phrases due to this, including the phrase <parsheti koj presh vaji jusropadi nís>, which literally means "to question the tangled feet of a priest", but means "to have no response", e.g. <Ka parsheti koj presh vaji jusropadi tú?>, "Are you responding?, literally "Are you questioning the tangled feet of a priest?", and the phrase <juŋe dváje mantesi an jusero jusrokȁve̋za nís>, which literally means "to have two thoughts on someone's head", but means "to be confused", e.g. <Juŋe dváje mantesi an jusero jusrokȁve̋za jú.> "He/she/it is confused", literally "He/she/it/ has two thoughts on his/her/its head."

Genders of Names of People[]

Determening the gender of people's names in Afansevan is determined by the person's surname. Feminine names are among the most complicated, so I'll talk about them first.

Feminine surnames end in -VNC, -VNV, or -VN before gender is applied. Surnames with the ending -VNC have the final consonant dropped and replaced with an <a>. In those ending in -VNV, the final vowel is replaced by <a>, while those ending in -VN have an <a> inserted at the end of the word. -N- is changed to <n>, and any remaining -V- is replaced by <i>. Any person with a surname ending in <-a> is also feminine as well.

Neuter surnames end in a vowel other than <-a> before gender is applied, unless there is a nasal before that vowel. Masculine surnames are everything else.

Then, gender agreement is applied. The first name is treated like an adjective and must agree with the surname in gender. However, names are treated as uncountable and don't take any marking for number. Middle names, which are usually found in foreign names, still have to agree with the surname in gender.

Pronouns Connected to Nouns, Proper Nouns, and Other Pronouns[]

The first argument (the pronoun) must be placed before the second argument (nouns, proper nouns, and other pronouns). Imperial Afansevan mandates that you place the first argument in the accusative case, unless it must take other cases, as in linguistically-correct descriptive grammars of English. This is because the conjunction is always treated like it is a verb, with the first argument being the object and the second argument being the subject, and therefore the pronoun after the conjunction must always take nominative case, unless the pronoun must take other cases.

This reflects the word order of Proto-Neosevan (OVS), the language during Afansevan's evolution that the case system was lost under the influence of a now-extinct Indo-Iranian language that was closely related to Avestan, although some scholars suggest that the case system was lost under Chinese influence. Proto-Neosevan and this Iranian language had very different case systems, as Early Afansevan had an agglutinative case system under the dwindling influence of Proto-Samoyed. Verb-initial word order later evolved in Imperial Afansevan and all the other Afansevan dialects under the influence of the Mesoamerican sprachbund, which Afansevan is marginally a part of (The Mesoamerican languages also influenced Imperial Afansevan to evolve possession suffixes and prefixes, and wh-movement).

For example, <Vartar duv merkitos ma sake Hannah> "Me and Hannah went to the store" or "Hannah and I went to the store" is grammatical, but <*Vartar duv merkitos azh sake Hannah> is ungrammatical.

Pronomial Clitics (definately not inspired by a very real descendant of French: Ultrafrench)[]

Nominative and accusative personal pronouns are frequently prefixed to succeeding word-ending conjunctions with a null subject marker, only if a personal pronoun with nominative case occurs, thus creating some form of polypersonal agreement. It is very widespread among the higher classes, and tends to be used more often in men than in women, especially in a bureaucracy where the men lead the political and military sects of the Empire and frequently discuss the matters with themselves and the reigning Emperor (which must always be male, because of a strict agnatic primogeniture succession order). These suffixes are optional, however, and are not used when a noble talks with a peasant and vice versa.

1st person subject 2nd person subject 3rd person subject
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Intransitive zha- vej- vi- t- tö- tyr- y- ö- yr-
1st person object Singular mazha- (reflexive) mavej- mavi- mat- matö- matyr- my- mö- myr-
Dual uzha- nozvej- (reflexive) uvi- ut- utö- utyr- uj- ujö- ur-
Plural ozha- ozhvej- nozvi- (reflexive)

ozhvi- (non-reflexive)

dja- djö- djra- vy- vö- vra-
2nd person object Singular cha- dej- di- te- (reflexice) tö- tyr- ty- tök- tör-
Dual djön- djödej- djödi- djöt- atrö- (reflexive) achtyr- achty- achtök- achtör-
Plural djyr- djyrdej- djyrdi- djyrt- archtö- atyr- (reflexive)

archtyr- (non-reflexive)

archty archtök- archtör-
3rd person object Singular yzha- vy- udi- yt- ytö- ytyr- unf- (reflexive) vö- gvyr-
Dual közha- gvy- gujdi- kut- aktö- aktyr- ky- uzö- (reflexive) kyt-
Plural kyrzha- gvyrzha- argujdi- arkut- arktö- aktyryr- kyr- köryr- azgryr- (reflexive)

kyryr- (non-reflexive)

Quirky Subject[]

Imperial Afansevan has a phenomenon known as quirky subject, where the subject can be marked with different cases depending on the circumstances. This is only present in pronouns, as they are the only vestiges of the case system.

Case Marking
Accusative The subject of an accidental action
Genitive The subject of "to be" if it represents that the person is something
Dative The subject of "to have" (inherited from PIE)

Possession[]

The informal speech retains the genitive for possession. In the dialect spoken by the higher classes, possession is expressed with a set of prefixes which evolved from genitive pronouns coming before the noun it possesses for inalienable possession and after the noun for alienable possession. This has been extended to nouns possessing other nouns, but the noun or pronoun that possesses something cannot be dropped. Only nouns can take possession markers, and adjectives do not need to agree with their noun in possession.

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Masculine, Feminine Neuter
Inalienable Alienable Inalienable Alienable Inalienable Alienable Inalienable Alienable
Singular mane- -mane tev/tef- -tev/dev jusro(v)- -jusro jusrö(v)- -jusrö
Dual, Plural ansoj- -(a)nsoj tevyr- -tevyr/devyr jusrar- -jusrar jusryr- -jusryr

When a pronoun is possessing a noun which is modified by at least one adjective, the pronoun is required to decline for other cases in addition to the genitive to indicate the phrase's syntactic role in the sentence. The declension is directly inherited from Proto-Indo-European case markers, more specifically, PIE adjectival *u/wih2 declensions. The case markers, however, have to agree in gender with the possessee.

Singular Dual Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd perosn 1st person 2nd person 3rd perosn 1st person 2nd person 3rd perosn
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative manus maneve manu tevus teveve tevu juserus jusereve juseru andzve antseve antsove tevove teveve tevove jusero jusereve juserove anseves anso teveves tevo jusereves jusero
Accusative manum manevejam tevum tevevejam juserum juserevejam ansuns ansevens tevuns tevevens juseruns juserevens
Dative manevej manujavej tevevej tevujas juserevej juserujas andzvevej antsevöjavej tevovevej tevevöjavej juserovevej juserevöjavej ansumos ansujamas tevumos tevujamas juserumos juserujamas

Prepositions[]

As a language that has lost most of its case inflections entirely, Imperial Afansevan uses a myriad of prepositions to make up for the loss of case marking. Some of these prepositions are derived from verbs that have been heavily simplified, but most have been directly inherited from Proto-Indo-European, such as <an> "in." Others are derived from compounding. These can also be used as adverbs.

Note: Not done!
Usual English meaning Imperial Afansevan
Preposition Case

(if used when the pronoun is the head of the prepositional phrase)

Original verb stem (if derived from a verb)
"to, by, at" (the three terms can be distinguished based on context alone) ad dative (first meaning), nominative (second meaning), accusative (third meaning)
"in, on, onto" an dative (first meaning), accusative (second and third meanings), genitive (replacing <prech> below)
"aboard" prech Not used when the pronoun is the head pravishti "to enter," from Sanskrit
"until" shes nominative shes "to stop," "to cease"
"without" hesh genitive hels "to give up," "to surrender"
"for, of (when not talking about possessive phrases)" ver verzhom "to work"
"from" pro genitive ("from"), dative (replacing <anter> in the first meaning below)
"among, between" anter dative
"again" ati nominative
"as" zve nominative ("as"), accusative ("so")
"so" zvo Not used when the pronoun is the head, replaced by <zve>
"all, other" (the two terms can be distinguished based on context alone) al the appropriate case
"none" anal
"some" pav
"many" pafkelal
"few" ampafkelal
"up, over, above" uper nominative (first meaning), genitive (otherwise)
"down, below" anuper the appropriate case
"in front of" pare
"in the back of, behind, opposite, against (used if the thing that is being against is animate or an abstract thing)" anti genitive (first meaning), nominative (second and third meanings), accusative (fourth meaning, replaces the preposition below)
"against (used if the thing that is being against is inanimate, like a disease)" kol Not used when the pronoun is the head kojil "to help, to save"
"away from" ansri genitive
"enough" anash
Prepositions and Case[]

Like in many Indo-European languages, Imperial Afansevan's prepositions affect the case of the following noun. This is why pronouns distinguish fewer prepositions than regular nouns, as pronouns are the only vestiges of the case system remaining. Pronouns are also the only parts of speech to distinguish between "to (noun)", "at (noun)", and "by (noun)" as the preposition assigns different cases for each of the three meanings. For example "to me" is <ad májijo>, "at me" is <ad mane>, and "by me" is <ad azh>.

Adjectives[]

Gender and Number Agreement[]

Adjectives must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies. Doing so otherwise is considered ungrammatical.

Comparatives and Superlatives[]

To form a comparative, the first syllable of the adjective is reduplicated. To form a superlative, Imperial Afansevan uses ablaut reduplication, where the first syllable is reduplicated with ablaut and the original first syllable is unchanged. This has evolved first in Afansevan-speaking slaves in order to not get caught trying to plan to escape, followed by slave masters who learned what the slaves are trying to say, and then the majority of Afansevan speakers, partly due to many slave masters becoming members of the nobility and bringing this pattern with them. However, tonogenesis and other sound changes have eroded the original reduplication pattern slightly, like in this:

  • Vrenshti duvö anvírovrezhö ektsechontö jusrövanvírö azh. "I am the master's good slave"
  • Vrenshti duvö anvírovrezhö dvẽvezontö jusrövanvírö azh. "I am the master's better slave"
  • Vrenshti duvö anvírovrezhö dvãvezontö jusrövanvírö azh. "I am the master's best slave"
Suppletive Adjectives[]
"good" "bad" "more" (enclitic) "less" (enclitic)
Normal ektsechont fezetsont - -
Comparative dvẽvezont pepechrivont mezh-/mesh- ne mezh-/

ne mesh-

Superlative dvãvezont papechrivont m(a)- ne m(a)-

Vocative case[]

In Imperial Afansevan, the vocative case, retained from Proto-Indo-European, survives in some nouns. This includes names, nouns relating to religious figures, culturally-significant animals (like horses, wolves, and eagles), kinship terms, and words for males of higher power (it is rude to refer to noblewomen using the vocative case in Afansevan court culture).

To form the vocative case, the singular endings and superfluous endings inherited from PIE are dropped. The suffix that replaces those sounds depends on the noun's gender and number. In the singular, if the noun is masculine or feminine, the suffix is <-e>, and if the noun is neuter, the suffix is <-on>, which was historically developed from analogy, from PIE -n stems. In the dual, the suffix is <-e> in the masculine, <-a> in the feminine, and <-ona> in the neuter. In the plural, the suffix is <-os> in the masculine, <-ajes> in the feminine, and <-es> in the neuter. However, adjectives do not agree with case, and instead inflect for the regular nominative declension. The table for vocative case forms looks like this:

Vocative case forms Singular Dual Plural
Masculine -e -os
Feminine -e -a -ajes
Neuter -on -ona -es

In other nouns which have lost the vocative case, vocative forms are formed by placing the particle <o> before the noun.

Collective nouns[]

Most collective nouns in Imperial Afansevan are derived from nouns using the suffix <-ova>, a direct continuation of the Proto-Indo-European suffix *(o)-éh2. Like the vocative case in some nouns, superfluous endings from PIE are dropped and replaced with the suffix to form collective nouns. However, collective nouns are automatically assigned the feminine gender like in PIE.

Some collective nouns are formed through suppletion (<skjus> "fish" -> <möstsova> "school of fish", <sipách> "crocodile, alligator" -> <vehjova> (general collective for reptiles)).

Verbs[]

Verb Template[]

Slot #-1

Multiplicatives of numbers being prefixed to the verb stem

Slot #0

Stem and Past Tense

Slot #1

Passive (And verb agreement in the case of the verb meaning "to have")

Slot #2

Habitual and Distant Past/Future

Slot #3

Evidentiality

Tense and Aspect[]

Basic Tenses[]

Afansevan has two basic tenses: past and non-past. The past is represented by ablauting the vowels in the verb, while the non-past is unmarked. Tense can also be created by using the copula's declinations, followed by marking the specific tense in the verb.

Vowel Ablaut
i e
e a
a
o
u o
y ö
ö a
Copula Constructions[]

Verbs (other than "to be" and a few other irregular verbs) don't conjugate for person nor mood. Person marking on most verbs have been completely lost in Imperial Afansevan, unlike most Indo-European languages (including English, where remnants of the person marking can be seen with the -s suffix for 3rd person subjects in the present tense, like "he runs", but not "he ran",). However, this is retained in the vulgar Afansevan dialects, but evolved a class system, which later evolves into the American Turkic class system for person. This means that Imperial Afansevan, like in English, is an anti-drop language, as the verb does not clarify the subject, and that some inflections look indistinguishable and thus speakers can get very confused. The non-future copula root, <az>, descends from PIE e-grade*h1es "to be", and is a cognate with English is, Irish is, Latin est, Sanskrit asti, Persian ast, Old Church Slavonic jest. The future copula root, <fú>, descends from PIE *bʰuH "to grow, to become" and is cognate with English be, Latin futura ( > English future), Greek phúō ( > English physics, physical).

Unlike in English, however, the copula can be dropped in the present tense. Instead, the gnomic auxillary performs this role in the present tense (but this is optional: this auxillary can still be dropped), but the copula is never dropped in subjunctive or optative phrases, even in the present tense.

Afansevan Copula
Non-Future Future
Normal Subjunctive Optative Normal Subjunctive Optative
1st person Singular azmi aza atsaŋ fújeŋ fuka fújam
Dual azvoz azovos ase̋ve fúve fukovos fuke̋ve
Plural asamoz azomos asiŋe fuŋe fukomos fukeme
2nd person Singular azi azesi atsás fúje̋z fukesi fúja̋z
Dual astez azetes asítom fútom fuketes fújétom
Plural aste azete asíte fúte fukete fukéte
3rd person Singular asti azeti atsát fújét fuketi fúját
Dual astez azetes asítom fútam fuketes fukétam
Plural asenti azonti asikend fukend fukonti fukekend


Distant Past and Future[]

To form a distant past/future, a suffix (<-pedj>) is used. This was originally a word (<pajdajmo>) meaning "a long time" that was placed after the verb. The original word is still used by peasants when communicating with the Californian emperor.

Habitual[]

To form a habitual, use the suffix <-nö̃>. This is its own seperate word meaning "to use". The suffix was originally <nö̃> being placed after the verb to mark the habitual, but it has been suffixed to the verb to mark the habitual instead. The suffix also has a derivational property.

Resulting Tenses[]

Hence, the tense conjugations look like this:

Afansevan Tense Conjugations (Regular)
First Declension (verbs that end in a consonant)

<sherd> "to believe"

Second Declension (verbs that end in a vowel)

<gva> "to boil"

Distant past Active <shartpedj> <gvapedj>
Passive <shardarpedj> <gvarpedj>
Recent past Active <shard> <gva>
Passive <shardar> <gvar>
Present Active <sherd> <gva>
Passive <sherdar> <gvar>
Habitual Active <sherdnö̃> <gvanö̃>
Passive <sherdarnö̃> <gvarnö̃>
Recent future Active <(future copula) sherd> <(future copula) gva>
Passive <(future copula) sherdar> <(future copula) gvar>
Distant future Active <(future copula) sherdpedj> <(future copula) gvapedj>
Passive <(future copula) shertarpedj> <(future copula) gvarpedj>

Voice[]

Imperial Afansevan has two voices: passive and active. The active is unmarked, and the passive is marked with an <-(a)r> suffix.

Regular and Irregular Verbs[]

Imperial Afansevan distinguishes between regular and irregular verbs. Irregular verbs except for "to have" don't take the copula for the future tense, and unfortunately, the only way to go around this is brute-force memorization.

Verb (present stem) Distant Past Recent Past Present Habitual Recent Future Distant Future
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
<kja> "to leave, to escape" kjapedj kja kjan al alpedj
<fer> "to carry" farpedj far fer fern fernar fern fernar fempedj
<ad> "to eat, to consume" nempedj nem nerm ad ard andö̃ andörd and andar antpedj andörtpedj
<lajk> "to delete, to erase" lajkpedj lajk lajŋö̃ lajŋörd lajk lajkpedj
<am> "to give, to take" ampedj am arm am arm amö̃ armö̃ am arm ampedj
<aŋja> "to go" vartpedj vart aŋja aŋjö̃ faŋja faŋjapedj
"Have"[]

In Imperial Afansevan, the verb meaning "to have", which in IA is derived from a vowel alternation of the word "to possess", <jeŋ>, has irregularity comparable to the copula, as the function of "have" in Proto-Indo-European was derived from the third person copula with the subject taking dative case. It is slightly less irregular than the copula, featuring singular and plural subject agreement with the dual being absent unlike in the copula, but takes all of the forms that normal verbs take minus evidentiality and voice, which is taken up with a null subject marker. The different agreement suffixes between the copula and <juŋ> is remincient of a class system in Early Afansevan, where the -V and -H stems (which the copula belongs to) have endings comparable to the copula's endings in Imperial Afansevan, and the -C stems (which the verb meaning "to possess" in Imperial Afansevan belongs to) have endings comparable to the endings seen in <juŋ> in Imperial Afansevan with the dual being merged with the plural. However, <seza> has a special case, and belongs to an irregular class which merges the active endings with the mediopassive endings, forming the passive.

Normal Subjunctive Optative
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Future Recent fújeŋ juŋo fúve juŋmos fuŋe juŋmos fúje̋z juŋaj fútom juŋta fúte juŋta fújét juŋe fútam juŋonti fukend juŋonti fuka juŋo fukovos juŋmos fukomos juŋmos fukesi juŋaj fuketes juŋta fukete juŋta fuketi juŋe fuketes juŋonti fukonti juŋonti fújam juŋo fuke̋ve juŋmos fukeme juŋmos fúja̋z juŋaj fújétom juŋta fukéte juŋta fúját juŋe fukétam juŋonti fukekend juŋonti
Distant fújeŋ juŋopedj fúve juŋmospedj fuŋe juŋmospedj fúje̋z juŋajpedj fútom juŋtapedj fúte juŋtapedj fújét juŋepedj fútam juŋontipedj fukend juŋontipedj fuko juŋopedj fukovos juŋmospedj fukomos juŋmospedj fukesi juŋajpedj fuketes juŋtapedj fukete juŋtapedj fuketi juŋepedj fuketes juŋontipedj fukonti juŋontipedj fújam juŋopedj fuke̋ve juŋmospedj fukeme juŋmospedj fúja̋z juŋajpedj fújétom juŋtapedj fukéte juŋtapedj fúját juŋepedj fukétam juŋontipedj fukekend juŋontipedj
Present juŋo juŋmos juŋaj juŋta juŋe juŋonti aza juŋo azovos juŋmos azomos juŋmos azesi juŋaj azetes juŋta azete juŋta azeti juŋe azetes juŋonti azonti juŋonti atsaŋ juŋo ase̋ve juŋmos asiŋe juŋmos atsás juŋaj asítom juŋta asíte juŋta atsát juŋe asítom juŋonti asikend juŋonti
Habitual juŋonö̃ juŋmosnö̃ juŋajnö̃ juŋtanö̃ juŋenö̃ juŋontinö̃ aza juŋonö̃ azovos juŋmosnö̃ azomos juŋmosnö̃ azesi juŋajnö̃ azetes juŋtanö̃ azete juŋtanö̃ azeti juŋenö̃ azetes juŋontinö̃ azonti juŋontinö̃ atsaŋ juŋonö̃ ase̋ve juŋmosnö̃ asiŋe juŋmosnö̃ atsás juŋajnö̃ asítom juŋtanö̃ asíte juŋtanö̃ atsát juŋenö̃ asítom juŋontinö̃ asikend juŋontinö̃
Past Recent (azmi) joŋo (azvoz) joŋmos (asamoz) joŋmos (azi) joŋaj (astez) joŋta (aste) joŋta (asti) joŋe (astez) joŋonti (asenti) joŋonti aza joŋo azovos joŋmos azomos joŋmos azesi joŋaj azetes joŋta azete joŋta azeti joŋe azetes joŋonti azeti joŋonti atsaŋ joŋo ase̋ve joŋmos asiŋe joŋmos atsás joŋaj asítom joŋta asíte joŋta atsát joŋe asítom joŋonti asikend joŋonti
Distant (azmi) joŋopedj (azvoz) joŋmospedj (asamoz) joŋmospedj (azi) joŋajpedj (astez) joŋtapedj (aste) joŋtapedj (asti) joŋepedj (astez) joŋontipedj (asenti) joŋontipedj aza joŋopedj azovos joŋmospedj azomos joŋmospedj azesi joŋajpedj azetes joŋtapedj azete joŋtapedj azeti joŋepedj azetes joŋontipedj azeti joŋontipedj atsaŋ joŋopedj ase̋ve joŋmospedj asiŋe joŋmospedj atsás joŋajpedj asítom joŋtapedj asíte joŋtapedj atsát joŋepedj asítom joŋontipedj asikend joŋontipedj
"Do"[]

Perhaps the most irregular verb in Imperial Afansevan is the verb meaning "to do." <seza>, derived from a reduplicated form of the PIE root that gave rise to <sa>. Depending on the ending, it is used to mark stative verbs, or can be used independently. <Seza> retains much of the PIE verb morphology that was lost in other verbs, but the imperative auxillary and evidentials were suffixed recently and thoroughly simplified independently of any sound changes. The stative form is only used to mark stative verbs when an animate noun is the subject, otherwise the independent active form is used instead, e.g. <Seza marjeti ma duva steja> "The rock killed me" (i.e. "The rock caused me to die") and <Sezaj marjeti duva steja azh> "I killed the rock" (i.e. "I caused the rock to die," literally "I did cause the rock to die")

This verb only takes additional tense information if it is paired with an auxiliary verb, e.g. "Ketso vreshtsi sezatsajenö̃ nís tú", which means "What are you doing?", with the gerund being formed with an auxiliary, the habitual, and a null subject marker (note that the interrogative pronoun is in the dative). To mark tenses without using an auxiliary, the auxiliary <sa> is used to mark the distant tenses and habitual on this verb without needing another auxiliary verb. However, the future copula can function the way it is on all verbs.

No evidence Firsthand Indirect
Visual Non-Visual Reportative Inferential
Stative Independent Stative Independent Stative Independent Stative Independent Stative Independent
Active Passive (formed from fusing PIE active endings with middle endings) Active Passive (formed from fusing PIE active endings with middle endings) Active Passive (formed from fusing PIE active endings with middle endings) Active Passive (formed from fusing PIE active endings with middle endings) Active Passive (formed from fusing PIE active endings with middle endings)
Intransitive (sentence includes null object) Transitive (sentence does not include null object) Intransitive (sentence includes null object) Transitive (sentence does not include null object) Intransitive (sentence includes null object) Transitive (sentence does not include null object) Intransitive (sentence includes null object) Transitive (sentence does not include null object) Intransitive (sentence includes null object) Transitive (sentence does not include null object)
Non-Past Singular 1st person sezaj sezamja sezamjar sezajvó sezamivó sezmavó sedzafs sezamjafs sezmirafs sespre̋ sezmespre̋ sezmerspre̋ sezent sezment sezmasent
2nd person sezata sezatsaje sezatsachar sezadvó sezatsivó sezazdvó sezatafs sezatsjafs sedzachrafs sestaspre̋ setsispre̋ sedjraspre̋ setsent setsachrent
3rd person sezaj sezache sezachtar sezajvó sezadjvó sezadjdvó sedzafs sezachfs setstrafs sespre̋ sechespre̋ sedjdarspre̋ sezent sedjent sesachtrent
Dual 1st person sezave sezavos sezavozvas sezavó sezavzvó sezavzvó sezafs sezvofs sezvozvafs sezvespre̋ sezvospre̋ sezvozvaspre̋ sezvesent sezvosent sezvozvasent
2nd person sezaj sezatas sezataskta sezajvó sezadzvó sedzdgvó sedzafs sestasafs sestasktafs sezespre̋ sestaspre̋ sezatskspre̋ sezent sedzent sestasktsent
3rd person sezajer sezates sezateskte sezervó sezadzvó sedzgdevó sedzrafs setsafs sestekchafs sedzraspre̋ sestespre̋ sestesktespre̋ sedzresent sestesktsent
Plural 1st person sezame sezamos sezamosmas sezamvó sezmozvó sezmodzvó sezmjafs sezmofs sezamosmafs sezmespre̋ sezmospre̋ sezmospre̋ sezmesent sezmosent sezamosmasent
2nd person sezaj sezate sezatazva sezajvó sezadvó sedzvavó sedzafs sedzafs sestazvafs sezespre̋ sestespre̋ sestazospre̋ sezent sestent sezatazvant
3rd person sezajer sezante sezanteror sezervó sezandvó sezdervó sedzrafs sezdafs sedzrafs sedzraspre̋ sezdespre̋ sezdrorspre̋ sedzresent sedzent sezdrorsent
Past Singular 1st person sezaj sezam sezajvó sezamvó sedzafs sezmafs sezespre̋ sezanspre̋ sezent sezansent
2nd person sezata sezas sezasta sezadvó sezvó sezdvó sezdafs sezafs sestafs sestaspre̋ sezaspre̋ sestaspre̋ sestent sezasent sezatsent
3rd person sezaj seza sezato sezajvó sezvó sezadvó sedzafs sezafs sestofs sezespre̋ sezaspre̋ sestospre̋ sezent sezent sezatsent
Dual 1st person sezave sezave sezafkt sezavó sedzvó sezavgdvó sezvafs sezafs sesktafs sezvespre̋ sezvespre̋ sezekchpre̋ sezvent sezvesent sezvaktsent
2nd person sezaj sezatom sezatomát sezajvó sezanvó sestádvó sedzafs sezats sestaŋatafs sezespre̋ sestospre̋ sestoŋtspre̋ sezent sestonsent sestoŋatsent
3rd person sezajer sezatam sezatamáta sezervó sezatamvó sestaŋdvó sedzrafs sestamafs sedzraspre̋ sezdaspre̋ sestaŋataspre̋ sedzrent sestansent sestaŋtasent
Plural 1st person sezame sezame sezamemas sezamvó sezamvó sezmendzvó sezmafs sezmafs sezmemafs sezmespre̋ sezmespre̋ sezmemaspre̋ sezmesent sezmesent sezmezent
2nd person sezaj sezate sezatezve sezatedzve sezajvó sezadvó sezadzvó sestedzvó sedzafs sestafs sestezvjafs sestedzvjafs sezespre̋ sestespre̋ sestezospre̋ sestedzospre̋ sezent setsent sezatezvent sezatedzvent
3rd person sezajer sezanter sezantero sezanter sezajervó sezadrevó sezantrovó sezadervó sedzrafs sezdrafs sezdrofs sezdrafs sedzraspre̋ sezadrespre̋ sezdrospre̋ sezdrespre̋ sedzresent sezadronts sezadresent
Imperative Singular 2nd person sezarf sezasi sezantsar sezarvó sezadzvó sezandzvó sezarfs sedzafs sedzrafs sezarfspre̋ sedzaspre̋ sedzarspre̋ sezarfsent sedzent sezantsarsent
3rd person sezatarfti sezatu sezadzve sezatarvdvó sezaduvó sezadzvó sestrafchafs sezdvafs sezadzve sestafchspre̋ sezdvuspre̋ sedzospre̋ sestarfsent setsent sezadzvent
Dual 1st person sezevervoz sezarvoz sezarvosto sezarvozo sezevervozvó sezarvozvó sezvozdvó sezardzvó sezvervdzafs sezvzafs sedzvostafs sesravzofs sezevruspre̋ sezvrospre̋ sezvrostspre̋ sezurospre̋ sezveruzent sezravzent sezrustont sezaruzont
2nd person sezervdz sezatonftez sezatonftezmát sezervdzvó sezambvó sestovdzŋadvó sedzerdzafs sestoftsafs sezdudzeŋtafs sezvetspre̋ sestoftespre̋ sestonftezmát sezrudzent sestoftsent sestoftsŋtasent
3rd person sezatanftez sezatonftezmáta sezatamdzvó sestomdzŋadvó sestaftsafs sestaftespre̋ sezatonftezmáta sestaftsent sestoftezŋent
Pluralõõõõ 1st person sezamervz sezarmvoz sezarmvozmas sezamavzvó sezarmdzvó sezarmvozmazvó sezmruzafs serzvzafs sezmuzafs sezmeruspre̋ sezarmvospre̋ sezmurozmaspre̋ sezmervzent sezrevzent sezaruzmasent
2nd person sezajervz sezatõ sezatodzve sezatõ sezervzvó sezavdvó sezadzvó sezatõvó sedzarvzafs sezdafs sestodzvefs sezdafs sedzeruspre̋ sestodzbre̋ sestodzospre̋ sezatodzbre̋ sedzervzent sezadzent sezatodzvent sezatodzent
3rd person sezajervdz sezantu sezanturo sezantunto sezervdzvó sezandvó sezdurvó sezdudvó sedzervdzafs sezdvafs sezandrofs sezduntofs sedzerutspre̋ sezduspre̋ sezdurspre̋ sezdvdospre̋ sedzervdzent sedzent sezdursont sezduntsent

Evidentiality[]

Perhaps the most impacts of Amerindian and Turkic influence in Imperial Afansevan are in its system of evidentiality, which is marked with a series of optional verb suffixes. Using inflections to mark evidentiality is very rare among Indo-European languages, but in OTL evidentiality in Indo-European languages only exists in Bulgarian.

Firsthand Indirect
Visual Non-Visual Reportative Inferential
-vó -(v)afs -spre̋ -sent

Resulting Regular Verb Conjugation[]

As a result, there are 93 regular verb conjugations in Imperial Afansevan. In dialects that retain person and mood marking, verbs could be conjugated for over sixteen hundred different forms, which doesn't have time to be recorded here because listing it would crash your scrollbar and it would take until the end of the universe to list them out. Evidentility is completely regular, as it recently got suffixed on to the verb.

Tense No Evidence Firsthand Indirect
Visual Non-Visual Reportative Inferential
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
-C Future Recent FC (stem) FC (stem)-ar FC (stem)-vó FC (stem)-arvó FC (stem)-afs FC (stem)-arafs FC (stem)-spre̋ FC (stem)-arspre̋ FC (stem)-sent FC (stem)-arsent
Distant FC (stem)-pedj FC (stem)-arpedj FC (stem)-pedjvó FC (stem)-arpedjvó FC (stem)-pedjafs FC (stem)-arpedjafs FC (stem)-pechspre̋ FC (stem)-arpechspre̋ FC (stem)-pechsent FC (stem)-arpechsent
Present (stem) (stem)-ar (stem)-vó (stem)-arvó (stem)-afs (stem)-arafs (stem)-spre̋ (stem)-arspre̋ (stem)-sent (stem)-arsent
Habitual (stem)-nö̃ (stem)-arnö̃ (stem)-nö̃vó (stem)-arnö̃vó (stem)-nö̃vafs (stem)-arnö̃vafs (stem)-nö̃spre̋ (stem)-arnö̃spre̋ (stem)-nö̃sent (stem)-arnö̃sent
Past Recent (ablaut V) (ablaut V)-ar (ablaut V)-vó (ablaut V)-arvó (ablaut V)-afs (ablaut V)-arafs (ablaut V)-spre̋ (ablaut V)-arspre̋ (ablaut V)-sent (ablaut V)-arsent
Distant (ablaut V)-pedj (ablaut V)-arpedj (ablaut V)-pedjvó (ablaut V)-arpedjvó (ablaut V)-pedjafs (ablaut V)-arpedjafs (ablaut V)-pechspre̋ (ablaut V)-arpechspre̋ (ablaut V)-pechsent (ablaut V)-arpechsent
-V Future Recent FC (stem) FC (stem)-r FC (stem)-vó FC (stem)-rvó FC (stem)-vafs FC (stem)-rafs FC (stem)-spre̋ FC (stem)-rspre̋ FC (stem)-sent FC (stem)-rsent
Distant FC (stem)-pedj FC (stem)-rpedj FC (stem)-pedjvó FC (stem)-rpedjvó FC (stem)-pedjafs FC (stem)-rpedjafs FC (stem)-pechspre̋ FC (stem)-rpechspre̋ FC (stem)-pechsent FC (stem)-rpechsent
Present (stem) (stem)-r (stem)-vó (stem)-rvó (stem)-vafs (stem)-rafs (stem)-spre̋ (stem)-rspre̋ (stem)-sent (stem)-rsent
Habitual (stem)-nö̃ (stem)-rnö̃ (stem)-nö̃vó (stem)-rnö̃vó (stem)-nö̃vafs (stem)-rnö̃vafs (stem)-nö̃spre̋ (stem)-rnö̃spre̋ (stem)-nö̃sent (stem)-rnö̃sent
Past Recent (ablaut V) (ablaut V)-r (ablaut V)-vó (ablaut V)-rvó (ablaut V)-vafs (ablaut V)-rafs (ablaut V)-spre̋ (ablaut V)-rspre̋ (ablaut V)-sent (ablaut V)-rsent
Distant (ablaut V)-pedj (ablaut V)-rpedj (ablaut V)-pedjvó (ablaut V)-rpedjvó (ablaut V)-pedjafs (ablaut V)-rpedjafs (ablaut V)-pechspre̋ (ablaut V)-rpechspre̋ (ablaut V)-pechsent (ablaut V)-rpechsent

Auxillaries[]

In Imperial Afansevan, some verbal morphology is now expressed with auxillaries, as most of the inflectional morphology has been lost. Historically, the auxillaries were placed after the verb, but are now placed before it.

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Default auxillary

(<sa> "to place")

sam sofs sans sats satez sach sats sench
Epistemic auxillary

(<ta> "to stand")

tam tafs tans tats tach tats tench
Deontic auxillary

(<gyvoz> "to live")

gymi gyvoz gymoz gysi gytez gych gytez gynch
Imperative auxillary

(<hef> "to command, to give orders")

hemfi* hevoz hemfoz hefsi heftez hefti heftez hemfti
Gnomic auxillary

(<vresht> "to be true")

vrenshti vrezhdvoz vrenshtoz vreshtsi vreshtez vrech vreshtez vrech

*The imperative auxillary doesn't occur in the first person singular, as it is used to command other people.

Auxillary-Verb Combos and Null Subject Markers[]

To form tenses and aspects and moods that would not be possible using the verb conjugations or auxillaries, Imperial Afansevan relies on combinng the auxillary, the verb and one of its conjugations, and a null-subject marker, in that order. The null subject marker is used in order to prevent miscommunication, which could then be used to conjugate the entire phrase for tense and the habitual "tense" that normal verbs take, and agrees in voice and evidentiality with the verb.

Verb conjugation

Auxillary

Present Past (Recent and Distant)) Future (Recemt and Distant Habitual
Epistemic Present participle Past participle Future participle Progressive
Deontic Present perfect Pluperfect Future perfect Aorist
Gnomic Perfect progressive Potential Conditional Gerund
Imperative Prescriptive Jussive Hortative Benedictive

Verbs of Motion[]

Like one of its main source languages, Imperial Afansevan has a complicated set of motion verbs. However, these are more complex than in Russian. To start, every verb of motion in Imperial Afansevan has a distinction between a concrete and abstract form, which is further distinguished by a past and non-past form. Forming the past form often requires having a <z(V)-> prefix, ablaut, consonant alternation/deletion, and all too often, suppletion, and determining the past form of motion verbs is a game of brute-force memorization for learners. Inanimate subjects require that you have to use the concrete form as the default, and using the abstract form when an inanimate noun is the subject may be considered rude and vulgar by other member(s) of the conversation, as it implies that the inanimate noun is promoted to a higher animate position while the animate noun is demoted to a lower animate position, while the subject is downgraded to a lower animate position. For example, if you have an inanimate noun as the subject, and a human noun as the object, using the abstract form upgrades the subject to a higher animate position than the object, which is downgraded to a lower position, like in <*Vartandol duvö drevö duvö vrezhö> "The tree went to the emperor." Motion verbs further subdivide into the "by foot" classifier and the "by being carried" classifier, which denote if the subject is moving on its own or if it is dependent on another object respectively. Using the "by foot" classifier is absolutely required if an inanimate noun is the subject. The abstract forms are easy to predict, with them receiving a suffix <-(a)ndol> that translates to "random" as its own word. The by being carried classifier is predictable as well for non-suppletive forms, taking <-(V)zh> as a suffix. This is further subdivided into a singular, dual, and plural distinction, which is marked by using the same endings for number as in nouns and adjectives, and agree with the subject with number and gender. These verbs do not take evidentiality and voice, but evidentiality is referred to using a null subject marker that is placed after the verb. Motion verbs that are on the irregular verbs table have the concrete by foot form as the form shown. This class system is required for every motion verb, but these are the examples:

"go"
By foot (Flight falls into this category, even if in an airplane. Swimming also falls into this category) By vehicle/chariot/being carried by something (generally grouped as a single "by being carried" category)
Concrete Past vart (see irregular verbs table for conjugation) zaŋezh (past distant zaŋeshpedj)
Non-Past aŋja (see irregular verbs table for conjugation) aŋjazh (habitual aŋjödj, future recent (FC) aŋjazh, future distant (FC) aŋjashpedj)
Abstract Past vartandol (see irregular verbs table for conjugation, only with the -(a)ndol suffix coming last) zaŋezhandol (past distant zaŋeshpedjdol)**
Non-Past aŋjandol (see irregular verbs table for conjugation, only with the -(a)ndol suffix coming last) aŋjazhandol (habitual aŋjödjdol, future recent (FC) aŋjazhandol, future distant (FC) aŋjashpedjdol)**
"leave"
By foot (Flight falls into this category, even if in an airplane. Swimming also falls into this category) By vehicle/chariot/being carried by something, generally grouped as a single "by carried" category
Concrete Past kja (see irregular verb table for conjugation) chezh (distant past chepedj)
Non-Past kjazh (habitual kjödj, recent future (FC) kjazh, distant future (FC) kjashpedj)
Abstract Past zybos (distant past zybospedj)*** kozhandol (distant past koshpedjdol)**
Non-Past kjandol (habitual kjöndol, recent future (FC) kjandol, distant future (FC) kjapedjdol)** kjazhandol (habitual kjödjdol, recent future (FC) kjazhandol, distant future (FC) kjashpedjdol)**
"walk"*
By foot (Flight falls into this category, even if in an airplane. Swimming also falls into this category) By vehicle/chariot/being carried by something (generally grouped as a single "by being carried" category)
Concrete Past zvelg (distant past zvelkpedj) -
Non-Past valg (habitual valgnö̃, recent future (FC) valg, distant future (FC) valkpedj) -
Abstract Past a̋do (distant past a̋dopedj) -
Non-Past valgandol (habitual valgnö̃ndol, recent future (FC) valgandol, distant future (FC) valkpedjdol)** -
"run"*
By foot (Flight falls into this category, even if in an airplane. Swimming also falls into this category) By vehicle/chariot/being carried by something (generally grouped as a single "by being carried" category)
Concrete Past sheravalg (distant past sheravalkpedj) -
Non-Past shiravalg (habitual shiravalgnö̃, recent future (FC) shiravalg, distant future (FC) shiravalkpedj) -
Abstract Past plöjan (distant past plöjampedj) -
Non-Past shiravalgandol (habitual shiravalgnö̃ndol, recent future (FC) shiravalgandol, distant future shiravalkpedjdol)** -
"jump, leap, throw"
By foot (Flight falls into this category, even if in an airplane. Swimming also falls into this category) By vehicle/chariot/being carried by something (generally grouped as a single "by being carried" category)
Concrete Past zvá (distant past zvápedj) zézh (distant past zéshpedj)
Non-Past vá (habitual vánö̃, recent future (FC) vá, distant future (FC) vápedj) vázh (habitual vánödj, recent future (FC) vázh, distant future váshpedj)
Abstract Past átso (distant past átsopedj)**** plu (distat past plupedj)*****
Non-Past vaŋdis (habitual vanö̃ŋdis, recent future (FC) vaŋdis, distant future (FC) vapedjdis)** vazhdis (habitual vanödjdis, recent future (FC) vazhdis, distant future (FC) vapedjdis)
"swim"*
By foot (Flight falls into this category, even if in an airplane. Swimming also falls into this category) By vehicle/chariot/being carried by something (generally grouped as a single "by being carried" category)
Concrete Past TBA -
Non-Past TBA -
Abstract Past TBA -
Non-Past TBA -

*Using the "by carried" classifier is ungrammatical for this verb, because it does not make sense to use it.

**The nasal was deleted in certain conjugations because the illegal clusters <djnd> and <djŋd> were formed. These clusters are illegal as they violate the sonority hierarchy, and no consonant is allowed to serve as a nucleus of a syllable. The clusters were formed because vowel-initial suffixes suffixed after 1000 BCE/BC (the Early Afansevan period), when paired with a suffix with an affricate at the end of it, the affricate is treated as being the cluster most instances developed from historically (/sj/ for <ts>, /zj/ for <dz>, /tj/ for <ch>, and /dj/ for <dj>) and historical /j/ was being treated as a vowel /i/, causing the first vowel of the vowel-initial suffix to be deleted and forming the illegal cluster. However, the mutation does not apply to suffixes with an obstruent as the first consonant, because obstruents block the mutation from happening and are less vowel-like than sonorants.

***Originally a simplified version of a seperate word roughly translating to "hibernation," but has since got suppleted into the set of motion verbs as hibernation was once seen as leaving the cold in response to an invasion from Anhi during the dry season, which reportedly causes it to become cold.

****A suppleted form of <vaŋdis> that comes from the same root.

*****A loanword from Tocharian B, originally meaning "to float," that got suppleted and now joins the set of complicated motion verbs.

Infinitives[]

There are no infinitives in Imperial Afansevan, and the present tense is used instead. Infinitives are retained in many lower-class dialects, with a recorded suffix of <-(e)dz> plus corresponding verb agreement.

Conjunctions[]

In Imperial Afansevan, conjunctions are expressed with a single auxillary with sixteen different inflected forms.

Afansevan Conjunctions
Usual English Meaning Imperial Afansevan
Suffix Auxillary (uninflected form: <sa> "to place" ) Example
"and" -ke sake
"or" -kis sakis
"nor" -ŋis saŋis
"but" -vũ savũ
"while" -kja sája
"that" -tõ satõ
"whether" -dva sãva
"so" -zva sazva
"after" -skond saskond
"before" -nskond sanskond
"though" -to sato
"if" -kjo sájo
"since" -sent sasent
"until" -di sadi
"although" -so saso
"with" -shon sashon

Examples of Afansevan Conjunctions[]

  • AfansevanConverb1 <azmi jaŋ kojo farnasö sake zhvon azh> "I had a child and a dog (LIT: "I posessed a child and dog until recently")."
  • AfansevanConverb2 <fújeŋ ne shon sashon genamane mane, saŋis sésos azh< "I will not reunite with my wife, nor will I remarry (LIT: "I will not unite with my wife nor marry")."

Reduplication and Grassmann's Law[]

Conjunctions, along with prepositions and nominals, go through a process of reduplication for emphasis. However, like Ancient Greek and Sanskrit, Imperial Afansevan has to go through Grassmann's Law, although aspirated stops are no longer present and had since turned into fricatives or the cluster /kj/. When reduplication happens, the first CV pair is reduplicated and moved to the beginning of the word, although the first consonant is reduplicated if the word begins with a vowel. However, the reduplication takes place as if the word was in Proto-Indo-European, with Grassmann's Law in place in Proto-Afansevan, so that the consonant that should be reduplicated is a game of memorization. Take the word <zvesor> "sister" as an example. The <v> could either come from PIE *bh or *w, but looking at thousands of years of history, the word <zvesor> actually becomes <vezvesor> when reduplicated, because the <v> comes from the latter, *w. If the <v> came from *bh, then it would become <*pezvesor> instead.

Stress and Meaning[]

In Imperial Afansevan, you can emphasize a word in a sentence and change the sentence's meaning entirely. For example, <Hefti ad löf Bob nís> with emphasis on <nís> means "Let's eat Bob." However, when you put emphasis on <Bob>, the sentence's meaning changes to "Let's eat, Bob." This type of meaning-changing emphasis isn't reflected in the writing system, but in poetic writing, where this emphasis is frequently used, you can add a diacritic to the first vowel of the word that is being emphasized to let the reader know that he/she should emphasize that word.

Derivational Strategies[]

Imperial Afansevan uses <-tus> to form nouns from verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. This suffix usually assigns the newly-formed nouns to masculine gender, as the suffix was masculine in Proto-Indo-European. It uses <-(o)nt> to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns and verbs, but the vast majority of words using the suffix are derived from nouns, and uses <-li̋> (cognate of English -ly and -like) to form consttructions similar to English -like. To form a diminutive, <-pulo> is used. Also, to derive the exact opposite of the word, a prefix <an-> is used. It also uses <-ti> to derive verbs from nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. These strategies are increasingly being used in Imperial Afansevan as it becomes more agglutinative.

Another strategy that is still productive in Imperial Afansevan, like most the world's languages, is compounding. When combining at least one noun together with another part of speech, the first noun assigns the gender to the whole word.

Imperial Afansevan also uses a suffix <-ina> (in the singular) to mark feminine nouns that have a Sanskrit origin, but it is also used to derive feminine nouns from masculine and neuter nouns.

Vr̥ddhi derivations[]

Imperial Afansevan has preserved many vr̥ddhi derivations present in Proto-Indo-European. Unlike the ablaut present in verbs to transform them into the past tense, vr̥ddhi ablaut preserves many of the ablaut present in PIE. In some cases, the vowel can be in a different spot than the original vowel when producing the 3rd step, resulting in a completely different root.

Original grade Transitional grade Resulting grade
"Syllabic"

consonant

am m me, em, mo, om
an n ne, en, no, on
al l le, el, lo, ol
ar r re, er, ro, or
Vowel or "diphthong" ej j (j)e
oj (j)o
i (j)e
y
(j)i i
(j)u uj
(j)e ej
(j)o oj
ö v ve
ov vo
u
ve ö, y*
vo ov
a Ø a
e e
o o

Some vowels or "diphthongs" metathesize with succeeding consonant if there is one. The root is changed to fit phonotactics after the metathesis occurs.

Numbers[]

Afansevan uses a pure vigesimal system with a sub-base of five. It has an ordinal suffix <-ynch>, which was derived from American Turkic. The numbers one to three have irregular ordinal forms, because they were used commonly enough to resist the change. Numbers greater than 10 (except for non-compounds and numbers made of shortening of compounds) don't recieve their own ordinal suffix: it's just the individual numbers they are made out of plus ordinal suffixes. As hinted with the Mayan loanwords, Afansevan was part of the Mesoamerican sprachbund, which later expanded into American Turkic.

Numerical representation Afansevan
Arabic numerals Vigesimal Cardinal Ordinal Multiplicative Fractional Etymology (masculine cardinal)
Arabic-based representation Afansevan representation Derived from Sanskrit Native Afansevan
0 0 Afansevan0 nikynch ver ní, From Mayan
1 1 Afansevan1 m. kojnos, f. kojna, n. kojnom parumo ek-/eg- sem- afsom PIE *Hoinos
2 2 Afansevan2 m. dvá, f. dváje, n. dvajk viro dvi(j)- semi PIE *dwoh1
3 3 Afansevan3 m. trejes, f. tisres, n. trej tricho tri(j)- terchos PIE *trei
4 4 Afansevan4 kẽvor kẽvorynch chat-/chad- kẽvor- kẽrans PIE *kwetwor
5 5 Afansevan5 peŋe peŋynch padj-/pach- shom- shomans PIE *penkwe
6 6 Afansevan6 vesh veshynch shat-/shad- shozmi(j)- semi ver terchos PIE *weḱs. In Imperial Afansevan, the initial consonant is a <v> rather than an <s>, leading to nearly all scholars in this ATL reconstructing the PIE origin as *weḱs rather than *(s)weḱs as expected in most daughter languages, with the *s appearing under the influence of *septm̥, a similar phenomenon of which happened in the Slavic and Germanic languages with "nine" and "ten", and "four" and "five" respectfully. If the PIE form was indeed *seḱs as with an initial /s/ rather than a /w/ as expected with most of the daughter languages, then the Imperial Afansevan result would appear as <*sesh> instead.
7 7 Afansevan7 sètam sètamynch sapt-/sabd- shody(j)- sètamans PIE *septm̥
8 8 Afansevan8 oshtov oshtynch asht-/azhd- shodi(j)- semi ver kẽrans PIE *oḱtou
9 9 Afansevan9 nevan nevanynch nav-/naf- skev-/skef- nevans PIE *newn̥
10 A Afansevan10 deshant deshantynch dash-/dazh- desh-/dezh- deshans PIE *deḱm̥t
11 B Afansevan1
Afansevan10
deshantkojnos deshtkoj- deshankojnans PIE *deḱm̥t + *Hoinos
12 C Afansevan2
Afansevan10
deshandvá dezhdvi(j)- shomkojnotos PIE *deḱm̥t + *dwoh1
13 D Afansevan3
Afansevan10
deshantrej deshtri(j)- deshaŋe terchos PIE *deḱm̥t + *trei
14 E Afansevan4
Afansevan10
deshaŋẽvor deshaŋe kẽrans PIE *deḱm̥t + *kwetwor
15 F Afansevan5
Afansevan10
deshampeŋe deshaŋe shomans PIE *deḱm̥t + *penkwe
16 G Afansevan6
Afansevan10
deshanvesh deshaŋe semi ver terchos PIE *deḱm̥t + *weḱs
17 H Afansevan7
Afansevan10
deshansètam deshaŋe sètamans PIE *deḱm̥t + *septm̥
18 J Afansevan8
Afansevan10
deshantoshtov deshaŋe semi ver kẽrans PIE *deḱm̥t + *oḱtou
19 K Afansevan9
Afansevan10
deshanevan deshant nevans PIE *deḱm̥t + *newn̥
20 10 Afansevan1Afansevan0 kisati kisatynch vimshat-/vimshad- kisti- kistans PIE *dwih1ḱm̥ti, via Proto-Iranian
40 20 Afansevan2Afansevan0 dvakisati dvikistans Early Afansevan *dwək + *kisati
60 30 Afansevan3Afansevan0 trikisati keno- kojnotos Early Afansevan *trej + *kisati
80 40 Afansevan4Afansevan0 kẽfkist semi ver dvikistans Shortening of Early Afansevan *ketwor + *kisati
100 50 Afansevan5Afansevan0 shantom shantomynch shatam- shantom- shantans PIE *ḱm̥tom
120 60 Afansevan6Afansevan0 veshkis semike kojnotos Shortening of Early Afansevan *wesh + *kisati
140 70 Afansevan7Afansevan0 sekist seksans Shortening of Early Afansevan *septam + *kisati
160 80 Afansevan8Afansevan0 oshkist oshkans Shortening of Early Afansevan *oshtow + *kisati
180 90 Afansevan9Afansevan0 kiskalshant terchoske kojnotos Shortening of Early Afansevan *kisati + *kel + *shantom, literally "twenty minus one hundred."
200 A0 Afansevan10Afansevan0 dvashantom semike shantans PIE *dwoh1 + *ḱm̥tom
300 F0
Afansevan5
Afansevan5
Afansevan10Afansevan0
shantkeljyz terchoske shantans Shortening of Imperial Afansevan <shantom> + <kel> + <jyz>, literally "one hundred minus four hundred".
400 100 Afansevan1Afansevan0Afansevan0 jyz jyzynch kẽranske shantans Proto-Turkic *yǖŕ "one hundred", via American Turkic
1,000 2A0 Afansevan2Afansevan10Afansevan0 dvá jyz dvashantom viro jyzynch viro shantomynch zhes- zheslans
8,000 1,000 Afansevan1Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0 bin binynch oshtanske zheslans Proto-Turkic *bïŋ "one thousand", via American Turkic, which was in turn a loan from an Old Turkic dialect without the

b > m / #_ mutation that is now extinct today.

160,000 10,000 Afansevan1Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0 van vanynch deshaŋe semi ver terchoske dazheslans Middle Chinese 萬 (wàn), via American Turkic.
1,000,000 65,000 Afansevan6Afansevan5Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0 vesh van peŋe jyz veshynch vanynch peŋynch jyzynch zhezheslans
3,200,000 100,000 Afansevan1Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0 kinchil kinchilynch terchoske deshantke semike shantonzheslans Mayan k'inchil
64,000,000 1,000,000 Afansevan1Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0 alaw alawynch kojnotoske kẽranske zhezheslans Mayan alau, was borrowed from Afansevan into American Turkic as alo (au, aw > o during the Great American Turkic Vowel Shift)
1,280,000,000 10,000,000 Afansevan1Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0Afansevan0 hȁla hȁlynch deshanske semike kojnotoske oshtanske zhezheslans Mayan habla
Fractions[]

As you can notice here, fractions where the denominator is greater than 60 are a mixed decimal-sexagesimal system, not vigesimal, so the word for 1/1,000 has its own root while the fractions for 1/400 and 1/8,000 originate from decimal constructions rather than vigesimal constructions. Also, the word for 1/60 , <kojnotos>, derives from the number "one," which refrences the fact that the Californian Empire used a base 60 system for units of measurements as well as in mathematics due to its status as a highly composite number.

Numbers and Gender[]

Some numbers conjugate for gender, but not all numbers.

  • 0 is not conjugated.
  • The numbers from 1-3 are conjugated.
  • All other numbers are not conjugated.
Counting Numbers Greater than Twenty[]

To count numbers greater than twenty which aren't shown on the table above, use the following method:

  • The highest digit always comes first, e.g. the number for "billion or milliard" depending on what scale you use, ends up as <deshampeŋe alaw deshandvá kinchil deshant van>, corresponding to F,CA0,000 in Arabic-based vigesimal representation.
  • There is an exception to the above when the number is multiplying the value of the highest digit that comes after it by itself, where it comes before the highest digit. The Imperial Afansevan number above literally translates to "15 x 20^6 + 12 x 20^5 + 10 x 20^4."
  • Powers of 20 that have a power of 2 as the exponent and are greater than ten billion/ten milliard (written as 7G,500,000 in Arabic-based vigesimal representation) are directly borrowed from Sanskrit base-10 numbers greater than 10,000 and inflect for ordinality as if they were Sanskrit, so 20^8 would have the cardinal form <laksha> and the ordinal form <lakshatama>, 20^16 would have the cardinal form <prajuta> and the ordinal form <prajutatama>, 20^32 would have the cardinal form <kochi> and the ordinal form <kochitama>, 20^64 would have the cardinal form <arbuda> and the ordinal form <arbudatama>, and 20^128 would have the cardinal form <abdja> and the ordinal form <abdjatama>.

Polysynthesis[]

Imperial Afansevan, under the influence of Sanskrit, has evolved an optional system which effectively makes it a polysynthetic language. However, this is only present in the written language, where some sentences could be formed using a few words or less. Some sentences can even be formed using two words, like in this record dating to 1420:
AfansevanPolysynthesis
<Seza marjetispartakarjokitsú>
The above record translates to "He who kills Spartakans", which refers to Pulosembrahman I, who defeated the Spartakans at Chichen Itza and subsequently restored an independent Mayan kingdom in 1420. Only one sentence has been found to be written with one word, which is found in The History of Pulobudza:
AfansevanPolysynthesis2
<Ankirkizlanaŋjavansojansojkorjosarním>
The sentence translates to "On Kyrgyz land, our troops withdrew."

Syntax[]

Word Order[]

Afansevan has a very strict VOS word order. The word order got more verb-initial as most of the case system was lost in Proto-Neosevan, only being retained in pronouns, and as Mesoamerican influence began to kick in. Adjectives and adverbs come before the parts of speech they modify, but Noun - Adjective and Adjective - Noun - Adjective orders are common in poetry due to the gender and numher agreement with the nouns they modify. Adjectives modifying the same noun may be shuffled around frequently and the maning that is being communicated still makes perfect sense. The copula always preceeds the verb, and auxillary verbs come before the verbs they modify, but after the copula (except when an auxillary is modifying the verb but with a null subject marker after it, where it comes before the copula). The negative particle is placed before the verb, and after the copula and/or an auxillary verb if there is one.

There are some exceptions to the strict VOS word order, such as the object being placed before the verb if it is being linked to the subject by a copula and if the object is a pronoun that is being preceded by an article (hence the example in the writing system example in the "orthographies" section is <duvam vos azmi mar azh> and not <azmi mar azh duvam vos>).

However, the indirect object can be placed wherever you want to as long as it is placed before or after the subject. If there is a null subject, than the indirect object must be placed after the object, if there is one.

Questions and Preposition Stranding[]

To form a wh-question, the interrogative pronoun that is the closest to the end of a sentence switches places with the verb and becomes the first word to occur in the sentence. Placing the pronoun where it should belong in an interrogative sentence is ungrammatical in Imperial Afansevan. Imperial Afansevan also accepts preposition stranding in wh-questions by moving the pronoun's preposition to the end of a sentence. Preposition stranding is not allowed to exist within a non-interrogative sentence, so a sentence literally translating to "It is the place I live at" is ungrammatical.

Forming other interrogative sentences is easily accomplished by putting the particle <ka> at the beginning of the sentence or clause, e.g. <O, ka gyvoz aŋjanö̃ nís ad döŋtotus tú sazva nís?> "Oh, so are you going to school?" Note that the word for "school" derives from a PIE root *dewk "to lead", suffixed with the fossilized remains of the secondary third person ending *-nto (*dewknto "they led"), plus the noun-forming suffix <-tus>, making it a cognate with English tow and Latin educo, an inflection of which was borrowed into English as educate and education.

Conjunctions[]

Conjunctions in Imperial Afansevan are banned from starting or ending a sentence, and are therefore restricted to medial positions. BUT, there is a loophole around this rule. As said in a previous section, conjunctions are treated as verbs, but don't take any marking, and reflect the word order in Proto-Neosevan. Therefore, the null subject and object particles can be used in conjunctional phrases to create a loophole around the no conjunctions in sentence boundary rule, unlike in the prescriptivists' corrupted version of the English language.

Null Subjects/Objects[]

With a default VOS word order and as one of the few Indo-European languages to allow null-subjects, Imperial Afansevan speakers are highly likely to get misunderstandings from other Imperial Afansevan speakers. For example, simply saying <*Shiravalg jú> "He runs" is ungrammatical. Every Imperial Afansevan sentence cannot occur without at least two nouns and a verb, in order to avoid miscommunication due to null subjects and objects. To solve this, and to still allow null subjects and objects, a special syntactical word exists (<nís> for null subjects and <ním> for null objects) to mark null subjects and objects and is always placed at the end of a sentence. This was evolved from case markers that were treated as seperate words and were placed after the subject, and later got suffixed to the numeral for "zero" after the tonogenesis process and carried over the same function.

When there is no subject or object, than the word order defaults to VOS.

The grammatically correct version of the sentence "He runs" is <Shiravalg jú ním>, which literally translates to "He runs to," which doesn't make any sense in English but makes perfect sense in Imperial Afansevan.

Negative Statements[]

Basic Negation[]

Negative statements are formed in Imperial Afansevan by placing <ne> after the copula and before the verb.

Multiple Negatives and Questions[]

Historically, multiple negatives were mandatory, like in many synthetic Satem languages. In Imperial Afansevan, this system has been reduced to some questions and negative answers of questions.

Adverbial Answers[]
Answers to an Adverbial Sentence[]
English Imperial Afansevan
First speaker It's raining <Vrech akanö̃ nís ním nís.>
Agreement with speaker Yes, it's raining <Gerk, vrech akanö̃ nís ním nís.>
Disagreement with speaker No, it's not raining <Ne, vrech ne akanö̃ nís ním nís.>
Answers to a Negative Question[]
Negative Questions and Answers
Question Answer
Positive Negative
<Fuka van sa̋dà duv aŋoz tú?>

"Would you like to sacrifice a sheep?"

<Gerk, plé ním nís.>

"Yes, please."

<Ne, ne prísprandejvo ne dve ne azh.>

"No, thank you."

<Ne taŋ ne tõ tú?>

"Haven't you considered that?"

<Gerk, azmi azh ním.>

"Yes, I have."

<Ne, azmi ne azh ním.>

"No, I haven't."

<Fuka ne merŋem som tukyr?>

"Won't you buy this?

<Ne, fújeŋ merŋem usme veji.>

"No, we will buy it."

<Gerk, fújeŋ ne merŋem ne usme ne veji. (less common) / Ne, fújeŋ ne merŋem ne usme ne veji.>

"No, we won't buy it."

<Vreshtsi ne ved ad ma tú?>

"Aren't you angry at me?"

<Ne, vrenshti ved azh ním. (less common) / Gerk, vrenshti ved azh ním.>

"Yes, I am angry"

<Gerk, vrenshti ne ved azh ním. (less common) / Ne, vrenshti ne ved azh ním.>

"No, I am not angry."

Pivot Arguments[]

Imperial Afansevan, like English, is a syntactically nominative-accusative language, and therefore forbids accusative arguments serving as pivot arguments. To allow an accusative argument to serve as a pivot argument, it uses the passive voice, which is expressed in verbs using the suffix <-(a)r>.

The Particle <hi>[]

The particle <hi> is a very useful particle when relating to discourse. It can be placed after words or clitcize to any vowel-ending word as <-h> to create the meaning of "indeed", "of course", or "surely", like in the sentence <Azmi aŋja ad döŋtotus azh hi>, which means "Of course I went to school." Derived terms include <nehi> "not at all" and <vreshhi> "in fact."

Idioms[]

Imperial Afansevan has a rich array of idioms. Most of these are closely tied to the pre-Buddhist Afansevan religion. Without going into much detail, the Afansevans believed that world is a giant battle between the gods and a snake called Anhi. The snake creates clones of itself to possess humans to commit evil acts. Anhi himself is said to possess some of the gods during their sleep, causing cases of severe weather by hypnotizing them into killing the non-possessed population. The only way the gods can win the battle is for everyone commit good acts (like sacrificing animals to the gods) that raise their morale, but sadly, some people were brainwashed by the snake into not doing so, and it is therefore the Afansevans' sacred duty to conquer and subjugate cultures and people groups which they consider to be "uncivilized" and "barbaric."

Idioms and metaphors strongly tied to the formerly practiced religion include:

  • Life is a battle between two opposing factions.
  • Snakes are associated with negative emotions.
  • Hot temperatures are associated with evil.
  • Cold temperatures are associated with good.

An example of one of these idioms is the following: <Vreshtsi vreshtsi jeŋnö̃ nís ad Anhi tú>, which means "Are you having a bad day?" (literally: "Are you being possessed by Anhi?"

Some other idioms are also related to fishing, because the early Californian Empire's economy was focused on fishing, until the Empire declared war on a collection of Miwokan tribes in the San Francisco Bay area and conquered and subjugated them, and then resettled the area with Afansevan settlers. Shortly after, the Afansevans learned to farm rice via prolonged trade and contact with China, which was possible because the Afansevans had to build a navy to explore outwards along the coastline and trade with other peoples to get access to as much technology and knowledge from the outside world as possible to fuel their "civilizing" duties. This was later expanded to crops indigenous to the Americas following contact with Mesoamerican civilizations. Then, a massive irrigation canal was built between the cities of Séjos (OTL's San Francisco) to Vrezhoj (OTL's Los Angeles) to transport fresh water from the San Francisco Bay area to the Imperial capital, with gates to be manually activated with the push of a lever in the case of a tsunami to protect crops from getting destroyed, but however in recent times, earthquake detectors were placed inside the Pacific Ocean's surface to detect earthquakes in the area and activate the gates accordingly. To ensure fresh water is still transported to the area, a special canal was built from the natural river systems near the mountains to eventually be connected with the main canal.

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