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<Hemfoz ne krajf nís söm prakraŋö veji, hesh vrech anvashaŋanö̃ nís ver anumodanö pro duv lehik sö jusroprakraŋö (Triton2009) nís. Vreshtsi koj zvami tú sájo, sakis vreshtsi sejg nís akshardosh tú sakis vijhabzdosh tú sájo, nö vreshtsi ne anvashaŋanö̃ nís ver anumodanö tú.>
<Anvashaŋan ver anumodanö nís, aŋja ad duv lehik charchö jusroprakraŋö nís.>

Consonants[]

Labial

<gastusont>

Alveolar

<vudont>

Retroflex/Palatal

<daŋivazont>

Guttural

<sojtusont>

Normal

<chijn vudont>

Sibilant

<snegozvóstusont vudont>

Nasal

<nas>

m

/m/

n

/n/

ŋ

/ŋ ~ N/*

Stop/Affricate

<shestus>

Voiceless

<anrajpnozont>

p

/p ~ ph ~ p'/**

t

/t ~ th ~ t'/**

ts

/t͡s ~ t͡sh ~ t͡s'/**

ch

/ʈ͡ʂ ~ ʈ͡ʂh ~ ʈ͡ʂ'/**

k

/k ~ kh ~ k'/**

Voiced

<rajpnozont>

b

/b ~ p/

d

/d ~ t/

dz

/d͡z ~ t͡s/

dj

/d͡ʐ ~ ʈ͡ʂ/

g

/g ~ k/

Fricative

<flatus>

Voiceless

<anrajpnozont>

f

/ɸ/

s***

/θ ~ s̪/

sh

/ʂ/

h, x*****

/x ~ h/

Voiced

<rajpnozont>

v

/β ~ ɸ/

z***

/ð ~ z̪ ~ θ ~ s̪/

zh

/ʐ ~ ʂ/

r

/ʁ/

Approximant

<anchijn grejtus>

l j w****

*<ŋ> is backened when next to <r> or a stressed or secondary stressed back vowel.
**Voiceless plosives become aspirated whenever they occur in a monoconsonantal onset in stressed syllables. In nobles that come from mountainous regions, these aspirated plosives become ejectives.
***The dental fricatives are allophones of the dental laminal alveolar sibilants, but both sounds can be pronounced whatever you want them to be when <s> or <z> occur.
****/w/ only occurs in foreign loanwords.
*****<x> only represents /x/ when it is used to distinguish /sx/ <sx> from /ʂ/ <sh>, and <h> is used everywhere else to represent /x/.

Vowels[]

Front

<daŋivazont>

Back

<sojtusont>

Unrounded

<chijn daŋivazont>

Rounded/Central

<gastusont daŋivazont>

High

<ferki>

i y /y ~ ʉ/


ö /ø ~ ʉ/

u
Mid

<shelapras>

e /ɛ/ o /ɔ/
Low

<leh>

a

Vowel Allophony[]

  • Vowels tend to be realized with glottal stops before them at the beginning of words.
  • <y> and <ö> tend to be realized as [ʉ].
  • Vowels become nasalized when followed by a coda nasal consonant.
  • Vowels other than <a> are lowered when followed by a coda <r>, so <ir> becomes [e̞ʁ], <er> becomes [æʁ], <yr> becomes [ø̞ʁ ~ əʁ], <ör> becomes [ɶʁ ~ əʁ], <ur> becomes [o̞ʁ], and <or> becomes [ʌ̞ʁ].

Tone[]

Afansevan has developed a six-tone system following the loss of plosives in coda position (other than when there are two plosives in the coda, where the first one is lost, which makes tone phonemic). Note that the vowel in this example is <a>, and that the tone occurs at the end of the nucleus. In especially formal vocabulary that was loaned from Sanskrit, a high tone can be used to denote syllables that were stressed in the original language. However, this tonal system tends to be classified as a pitch accent system by most linguists, since Imperial Afansevan behaves like a non-tonal language grammatically.

Normal

<chijn awnach>

Glottalized

<shestusont awnach>

Romanization

/IPA/

Historical Plosive Romanization

/IPA/

Historical Plosive
High

<ferki>

á

/a˥/

k

/a˥ʔ/

g
Mid

<shelapras>

a

/a˧/

t (or none) ã

/a˧ʔ/

d
Low

<leh>

à

/a˩/

p ȁ

/a˩ʔ/

b

Tone sandhi[]

Imperial Afansevan has several tone sandhi rules, which aren't shown in writing, nor in the romanization, because it is a non-phonemic feature.

  • Whenever there are one to two syllables after a syllable with a nucleus with a low or high tone, the first one becomes glottalized and the second one becomes low, mid, or high depending on the place of articulation of the succeeding consonant (low if labial, mid if alveolar, retroflex, or palatal, and high if velar or uvular) without counting glottal stops.
  • Whenever there is a high tone preceded by a mid or low tone (phonemically), the second syllable becomes a mid tone but retains its glottalization if there is.
  • If there is a low tone that is succeeded by a syllable followed by a syllable with a glottalized vowel, the second syllable becomes glottalized and the third syllable becomes a high tone.
  • If there are two high or glottalized tones within two adjacent syllables, the second tone assimilates in glottalization with the succeeding syllable (or removes glottalization if there is no succeeding syllable) and assimilates towards a high tone, so that a low tone shifts to a mid tone and a mid tone shifts to a high tone.
  • If there are two glottalized syllable succeeded by a non-glottalized syllable, the non-glottalized syllable becomes glottalized.

Pseudo-Diphthongs[]

Imperial Afansevan allows a set of pseudo-diphthongs, which is formed by combining any vowel with an approximant <j> or <w>. Diphthongs ending with -w are only allowed to occur in loanwords, while the pseudo-diphthong <ij> is not allowed to exist in native words at all, often being used to transcribe long /i/, especially in words from Sanskrit and Nahuatl.

Ending with -j

<daŋivashtusont>

Ending with -w

<gastushtusont>

Front

<daŋivazont>

Back

<sojtusont>

Front

<daŋivazont>

Back

<sojtusont>

Unrounded

<chijn daŋivazont>

Rounded/Central

<gastusont daŋivazont>

Unrounded

<chijn daŋivazont>

Rounded/Central

<gastusont daŋivazont>

High

<ferki>

ij yj


öj

uj iw yw


öw

uw
Mid

<shelapras>

ej oj ew ow
Low

<leh>

aj aw

Phonotactics[]

Afansevan's syllable structure is (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C), where C is any consonant, and V is any vowel. Consonant clusters made of two plosives are not allowed in the coda (unless in loanwords). All permitted consonant clusters in the onset are any obstruent (other than <r>) followed by <r> or <l>, or a sibilant followed by an obstruent, followed by an oprional <r> or <l>. Voiced and voiceless obstruents (other than <r>) are not allowed to go together in coda-onset clusters, in that case, the last one assimilates the other ones in voicing (e.g. /pzf/>/psf/). Also, voiced obstruents (other than <r>) are not allowed to end a word, as they become voiceless in that environment, but voiced obstruents are still represented in the romanization, the orthography, and the IPA in phonemic transcriptions (Devoicing at the end of words doesn't exist in the dialect spoken by the Californian royal family). Obstruents of the same place of articulation and manner of articulation of different voicing placed next to each other is also not allowed.

Stress System[]

Stress always falls on the first syllable, while secondary stress falls on the last syllable. Unstressed and non-secondary stressed vowels are reduced towards the schwa. However, vowel reduction is more complicated in dialects spoken by nobles that come from the extreme north of OTL's California.

Romanization[]

As mentioned in the section Afansevan#Orthographies, there is no standard romanization system in use for Imperial Afansevan. The romanization system used in the Afansevan article and all of its sub-articles is the Hopkins-Beaulieu Romanization, which was a modified version of the older Beaulieuan Romanization created by an Englishman named Paul Hopkins in 1990, and has since achieved widespread popularity. The older Beaulieuan romanization, created by a Frenchman named Régis Beaulieu in 1928, is listed below:

Consonants Labial Alveolar Retroflex/Palatal Guttural
Normal Sibilant
Nasal m

/m/

n

/n/

ŋ

/ŋ/

Stop/Affricate Voiceless p

/p/

t

/t/

ts

/t͡s/

tch

/ʈ͡ʂ/

k

/k/

Voiced b

/b/

d

/d/

dz

/d͡z/

dj

/d͡ʐ/

g

/g/

Fricative Voiceless f

/ɸ/

s

/θ ~ s̪/

ch

/ʂ/

h, x

/x/

Voiced v

/β/

z

/ð ~ z̪/

j

/ʐ/

r

/ʁ/

Approximant l /l/ y /j/ w /w/
Vowels Front Back Tones Normal Glottalized
Unrounded Rounded/Central
High i /i/ u /y/


ö /ø/

ou /u/ High á /a˥/ a̋/a˥ʔ/
Mid e /ɛ/ o /ɔ/ Mid a

/a˧/

ã

/a˧ʔ/

Low a /a/ Low à

/a˩/

ȁ

/a˩ʔ/

However, many have argued that the two romanizations above are too eurocentric and biased towards European languages. In 2012, a romanization system based on the romanization system used for Sanskrit was created; this romanization is now called the Indic Romanization which is listed below:

Consonants Labial Alveolar Retroflex/Palatal Guttural
Normal Sibilant
Nasal m

/m/

n

/n/

/ŋ/

Stop/Affricate Voiceless p

/p/

t

/t/

ć

/t͡s/

c

/ʈ͡ʂ/

k

/k/

Voiced b

/b/

d

/d/

/d͡z/

j

/d͡ʐ/

g

/g/

Fricative Voiceless f

/ɸ/

s

/θ ~ s̪/

/ʂ/

h

/x/

Voiced v

/β/

z

/ð ~ z̪/

/ʐ/

r

/ʁ/

Approximant l /l/ y /j/ w /w/
Vowels Front Back Tones Normal Glottalized
Unrounded Rounded/Central
High i /i/ ü /y/


ö /ø/

u /u/ High á

/a˥/

/a˥ʔ/

Mid e /ɛ/ o /ɔ/ Mid a

/a˧/

ã

/a˧ʔ/

Low a /a/ Low à

/a˩/

ȁ

/a˩ʔ/

This system has the advantage of every sound being represented by exactly one glyph.

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