Ainglej (['aɪŋ.glex]), also sometimes called Firgerej ([fir.'xe.rex]) locally, and "Firgerian" internationally, is an Old English descendant language spoken in the area of Firgeria, at the north of Spain, between the regions of Cantabria and the Basque Country.

Firgerian
Ainglej
Type Fusional
Alignment Nom-Acc
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 46%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 83%
Syntax 25%
Words 20 of 1500
Creator Milyard

Inspiration[edit | edit source]

A friend suggested me to make a conlang based on the idea of an English heavily-influenced by Spanish, which made me wonder the following:

What if a small part of the Anglo-Saxon population fled the British isles during the Norman invasion towards the south, settling on the Iberian Peninsula, and their language suffered similar sound changes to the ones Latin went through to become Spanish?

General information[edit | edit source]

Like Old English, Ainglej is a head-initial SVO language, with adjectives usually preceding the noun. When making a question, the word order changes to VSO.

The cases mostly disappear from the nouns and adjectives, keeping only the genitive apart from the nominative, and adopting the accusative plural as the nominative plural. The only parts of the language that keep full case distinctions are articles, pronouns, and determiners. In addition, adjectives lose their strong form.

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Labial Dental-Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ~h
Fricative f θ s x (ʔ~h)
Affricate t͡ʃ
Approximant w j (w)
Trill r̥ r
Flap or tap ɾ̥ ɾ
Lateral l ʎ

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

There is a bit of leeway in the actual vowel realization depending on context.

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

The stress of a word usually falls in the second to last syllable. When it doesn’t, it is marked with an acute accent.

Writing System[edit | edit source]

The orthography is relatively regular, influenced a bit by Spanish orthography. Most consonants have their IPA values, except:

  • [b, d, g] have [β, ð, ɣ] allophones between vowels, like in Spanish
  • The palatal nasal is written <ñ>, like in Spanish
  • The alveolar affricate is written <ch>, like in Spanish
  • The palatal approximant is written <y>'
  • <z> is pronounced [θ] always
  • <c> is pronounced [θ] in front of <e, i>, or pronounced [k] elsewhere
  • <j> is pronounced [x] always
  • <g> is pronounced [x] in front of <e, i>, or pronounced [g] elsewhere
  • [ɾ̥] and [r̥] are both represented <rh>
  • <lh> is pronounced [ʎ]

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Declination example: strong nouns


Masculine

Yengel ‘angel’

Feminine

Jip ‘ship’

Neuter

Suerh ‘sorrow’

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Nominative

Yengel Yenglas Jip Jipo Suerh Suerga

Genitive

Yengles Yengla Jipes Jipa Suerges Suerga

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

Adjectives form the comparative form by attaching -ra except after <r, s>, in which case it becomes -sa. The superlative form is created by adding -st if the adjective ends in vowel, or -Vst where V is the last vowel in the plain form.

Declination example: adjective goda ‘good’



Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

goda

‘good’

Singular

goda god god

Plural

godan godan god

Comparative: biétera, superlative: bietest

Declination example: adjective arh ‘bad’



Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

goda

‘good’

Singular

arh argu arh

Plural

arge arga argu

Comparative: argra, superlative: argast

Determiners[edit | edit source]

Ainglej has 2 determiners, the first of which is se, which works as either the definite article (‘the’) or the distal determiner (‘that’), with the following declension table:

Case

Masculine

Neuter

Feminine

Plural

Nominative

se zait sei za

Accusative

zon za

Genitive

zais zair zaira

Dative

zain zan

Instrumental

zui zara zain

The other determiner, zes, is the proximal determiner (‘this’), with the following declension table:

Case

Masculine

Neuter

Feminine

Plural

Nominative

zies zes zeis zas

Accusative

zesn zas

Genitive

zesses zesr zesra

Dative

zesson zesson

Instrumental

zuis zíes zíos

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Personal pronouns[edit | edit source]

First and second pronouns keep their dual forms (‘we two’, ‘you two’).

First person

Case

Singular

Dual

Plural

Nominative

ic bet be

Accusative

mec oncet usec

Genitive

min oncre ur

Dative

me onc us

Second person

Case

Singular

Dual

Plural

Nominative

zu get ge

Accusative

zec encet eibec

Genitive

zin encre eibre

Dative

ze enc eib

Third person


Cases

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Nominative he

híe

hei het
Accusative hen híe hío
Genitive hes hiera her heira hes
Dative hen hen hen

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Syntax[edit | edit source]

Lexicon[edit | edit source]

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