The author wishes to make it clear this project is currently undergoing significant construction or revamp.
By all means, take a look around. Thank you.

Classification and Dialects[edit | edit source]

It is one of the many rich and vibrant languages of the moon, Fosena. Akəla is related to Losa.

Culture[edit | edit source]

Mythology[edit | edit source]

Legend has it that the language descended down from Heaven on Creation Day. It was gifted to mortals from Naləkilə, the god of languages.

Kinship[edit | edit source]

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Labial Alveolar Dorsal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop Voiceless p t k ʔ
Voiced b d g
Fric. Voiceless f s x~χ h
Voiced v z ɣ
App. Medial w r~ɹ~ɾ j
Lateral l

/n/ turns into /ŋ/ when there is a velar stop after it.

/ŋg/ turns into /ŋ/.

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-Mid e~ɛ
Mid ə o
Open-Mid
Open a~ɑ

Diphthongs[edit | edit source]

i u
a ai au
e/ɛ ɛi eu
o oi


Allophony/Sound changes[edit | edit source]

[ɛ] turns into [e] at the end of a word. [ɛ] occasionally turns into [e] in a stressed syllable. [n] turns into [ŋ] when there is a velar stop after it. [ŋg] turns into [ŋ].

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]


Writing System[edit | edit source]

Alphabet[edit | edit source]

Uppercase Letter Lowercase Letter IPA value Pronunciation of the letter (IPA)
A a a~ɑ a~ɑ
B b b bi
D d d da
E e e~ɛ e~ɛ
Ə ə ə ə
F f f fa
G g ɡ gi
Ġ ġ ɣ ɣa
H h h ha
I i i i
K k k ka
L l l la
M m m mu
N n n nu
ŋ aŋa
O o o o
P p p pa
R r r~ɹ~ɾ aɹa
S s s sa
T t t ta
U u u u
V v v vi
W w w we
X x~χ x exe
Y y j jadə
Z z z zi
ʔ oʔi

Stress[edit | edit source]

When in a stressed syllable, a is notated á, e is notated é, i is notated í, o is notated ó, u is notated ú. Ə is never in a stressed syllable.

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Cases[edit | edit source]

Singular Plural
Nominative Ø -s
Genitive vu- vu-, -s
Accusative -dra -dras
Dative -van -vans
Ablative -ma -fan
Locative la- las-,-s
Allative -nus -nustas
Instrumental -ku -kus
Example[edit | edit source]

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Conjugations[edit | edit source]

verbs ending in "a" (1st conjugation)[edit | edit source]
Singular Plural
Indicative Past -ka -kas
Present -me -rus
Future -ta -tas
Imperative -tra -tras


verbs ending in "-e" (2nd conjugation)[edit | edit source]
Singular Plural
Indicative Past -la -lan
Present -ka -kan
Future -da -dan
Imperative -ra -das


verbs ending in "-o" (3rd conjugation)[edit | edit source]
Singular Plural
Indicative Past -sa -san
Present -n -tus
Future -mo -mos
Imperative -ra -ras
verbs ending in "-tu" (4th conjugation)[edit | edit source]
Singular Plural
Indicative Past -sa -sas
Present Ø -s
Future -ta -tas
Imperative -ra -ras


Examples[edit | edit source]
kána (1st conjugation)- to talk
Singular Plural
Indicative Past kánaka kánakas
Present káname kánarus
Future kánata kánatas
Imperative kánatra kánatras
se (2nd conjugation)- to need
Singular Plural
Indicative Past séla sélan
Present séka sékan
Future séda sédan
Imperative séra seran
eko (3rd conjugation)- to injest
Singular Plural
Indicative Past ekosa ekosan
Present ekon ekotus
Future ekomo ekomos
Imperative ekora ekoras
matu (4th conjugation)- to care for
Singular Plural
Indicative Past matusa matusas
Present matu matus
Future matuta matutas
Imperative matura maturas
ámatu (irreg)- to love
Singular Plural
Indicative Past sámatu sámatus
Present ámatu ámatus
Future ámata ámatas
Imperative ámatura ámaturas

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

Add -to to the end of the word after the case ending or verb ending.

Adverbs[edit | edit source]

Add -li to the end of the word

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Singular Plural
1st Person Exclusive ni nis/niz
Inclusive nos/noz
2nd Person ra ras/raz
3rd Person su sus/suz

Articles[edit | edit source]

Singular Plural
Definite
Indefinite

Syntax[edit | edit source]

There aren't any supines, participles, or infinitives. Akəla word order is SVO (Subject Verb Object).

Lexicon[edit | edit source]

Akəla Word (the unmodified versions) English Word Part of Speech Words it is derived from Transliteration Sound changes (from words it is derived from) Notes
na now Adjective
-tu makes a noun a verb particle Unrelated to tu (gift)
color Noun
ma parent Noun
parental Adjective
matu to care for Verb ma+tu
Ora light, pale; solar Adjective
day, the star Fosena orbits, light, sunlight Noun
to brighten, turn pale, shine Verb
pa sky Noun
Fosena ground, soil, the planet that the Akəli tribe lives on Noun place (of) life s → Ø

i → Ø

derived from archaic form of osi, which is fosi.
séna life Noun
sénatu to live Verb séna+tu
oka plant, vegetation, herb Noun
to plant Verb
le

house, home, habitat, a dwelling

Noun
to dwell Verb
raga

song, singing

Noun
song-like Adjective
to sing Verb
tu gift Noun
tuta to give, gift Verb tu+-tu u → a
lei

dark

Adjective
night, darkness, midnight Noun
to darken Verb
ilo time Noun
luna

star, nightlight, moon, constellation

Noun
lunar, stellar Adjective
Orale solar eclipse Noun Star dark

i → Ø

da and Conjunction
aġa unless Conjunction
ha

sustenance

Noun
hatu to sustain, give food/water Verb ha + tu to give sustenance
eko to ingest Verb
dasa torso Noun
vena hair Noun
oto to smell, stink Verb
smelly Adjective
stench, odor, nose Noun
se a need Noun
to need Verb
sea hunger/thirst Noun se+ha need sustenance h → Ø
to hunger/thirst Verb
vala

speed

Noun
quick, fast Adjective
quickly Adverb
to hurry Verb
ela ear Noun
To listen, hear Verb
kána

speech, mouth

Noun

to talk, converse, have a conversation

Verb
áma

love

Noun

ámatu to love Verb áma+-tu
vo permission Noun

to allow, let, enable, give permission

Verb
saka mind, head, neck, soul Noun

main, leading

Adjective
to control, steer, rule, lead Verb
oko eyes Noun
to look, see Verb
ocular Adjective
fira fire; cooking element, chemical reaction, heat source Noun object (of) Ora o → i

s → Ø

i → Ø

derived from archaic form of osi, which is fosi.
to light (on fire) Verb
flammable Adjective
haka any part of a plant that is edible Noun ha+oka sustenance plant o → Ø
yero hatred Noun
to hate, despise Verb
osi person, animal, place, thing, object Noun
ráxa bad, evil, foul, terrible, dirty, disgusting, corrupt, toxic, crazy, drunk, psychotic, awful, despicable, poisonous, venomous, strange, foreign, deceptive Adjective
evil, devil, demon, dirt, filth, pollution, disease, poison, lie, liar, venom, lunatic Noun
to lie, decieve Verb
badly, filthily, crazily, fouly, terribly, awfully, drunkenly, venomously, deceptively Adverb
makes a word derogatory Particle
ráxamáxa to dirty, turn evil, corrupt, intoxicate, foul Verb ráxa+máka to make evil/intoxicated k → x
roka poisonous plant Noun rax̌a+oka evil plant

a → Ø

χ → Ø

a → Ø

sudə

good, angel

Noun
to do that is just Verb
good, just, righteous Adjective
justly Adverb
firai sunrise, sunset Noun fira+pa fire sky

p → Ø

a → i

peta flower Noun
péño toe, foot, leg; a walk Noun
to walk Verb
máka creation Noun
to create Verb
róta to turn Verb
ánə finger, hand, arm Noun
lápə sleep Noun
to sleep Verb
lápsəna dream Noun lápə+séna sleep life ə → Ø

ɛ → ə

to dream Verb
Úka‘úka Heaven Noun úka+úka above above Ø → ʔ
Pélopélo Hell/The Underworld Noun pélo+pélo below below

Prepositions[edit | edit source]

Akəla English What it is used for Cases it is used with
ki in, within, inside Location Locative
out from Motion from Ablative
into Motion towards Allative
ke on Location Locative
from the top of Motion from Ablative
onto Motion towards Allative
ko outside Location Locative
out from Motion from Ablative
out to Motion towards Allative
úka above Location Locative
down from, from above Motion from Ablative
up to Motion towards Allative
pélo below Location Locative
up from, from below Motion from Ablative
down to Motion to Allative

Numerals[edit | edit source]

This language has a base 6 number system.

Akəla English Word Combination Sound Changes from words it is derived from Notes
senal (base 6) decimal

(base 10

za 0 0
re 1 1
ti 2 2
xa 3 3
ne 4 4
le 5 5
rozu 10 6
roro 11 7
rota 12 8
roxa 13 9
rone 14 10
role 15 11
tazu 20 12
taro 21 13
tata 22 14
taxa 23 15
tane 24 16
tale 25 17
30 18
31 19
32 20
33 21
34 22
35 23
40 24
41 25
42 26
43 27
44 28
45 29
50 30
many

Body[edit | edit source]

Body Parts (Akəla)
saka

vena
ela oko oto oko ela
kána
dasa
ánə ánə
péño péño
Body Parts (translated)
Head

Hair
Ear Eye Nose Eye Ear
Mouth
Neck and/or Torso
Finger, Hand, and/or Arm Finger, Hand, and/or Arm
Leg, Foot, and/or Toe Leg, Foot, and/or Toe

Colors[edit | edit source]

Akəla Transliteration English Sound Changes
color (of) the sky, the ocean and plants blue, gray, green, purple
color (of) night, darkness black, dark blue, dark gray
color (of) fire and Ora red, orange, yellow, white
color (of) the moon silver
color (of) Fosena brown, gray, brownish-gray, dark brown

Example text[edit | edit source]

Akəla[edit | edit source]

Ni ekon venadras vuni.

Case Translation[edit | edit source]

ingest-1stPresentSg hair-Pl-Acc of 1st-Sg-Gen.

Transliteration[edit | edit source]

I ingest the hair of I.

Translation[edit | edit source]

Akəla
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Head-Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 89%
Statistics
Nouns 70%
Verbs 97%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 98%
Words 48 of 1500
Creator Sgt Haleakala

I eat my hair.

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