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(Conjugations)
(Pronouns)
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Revision as of 20:01, February 25, 2020


Akala
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Head-Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Only used for pronouns
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 89%
Statistics
Nouns 95%
Verbs 76%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 100%
Words 40 of 1500
Creator Sgt Haleakala

Classification and Dialects

It is one of the many rich and vibrant languages of the planet Jaalvar, which is known by the Akali tribe as Foghena. Akala is believed to be a language isolate.


Mythology

Legend has it that the language descended down from the heavens on Creation Day. It was gifted to mortals from Nalakhila, the god of languages.

Phonology

Consonants

Labial* Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal

Nasal

m n
Stop Voiceless p t k ʔ
Voiced b d g
Fricative

Voiceless

f s x χ h

Voiced

v z ɣ
Approximant Medial w** ɹ** j
Lateral l**

*Includes Bilabial, Labio-Dental, and Labial-Velar

**Allophonic with similar sounding phonemes

Vowels

Front Near-Front Central Near-Back Back
Fricative
Close i y u
Near-Close ɪ ʊ
High-Mid e o
Mid ə
Low-Mid ɛ ʌ ɔ
Near-Open æ
Open a

Phonotactics

Two consonants in a row are only found in conjugation endings.

Writing System

Uppercase Letter Lowercase Letter IPA value Pronunciation of the letter (IPA)
A a a a
Ä ä æ æ
B b b bi
D d d di
E e e e
È è ɛ ɛ
Ë ë ə ə
F f f ɛf
G g g gi
GH gh ɣ ɣi
H h h heɪ
I i i i
Ì ì ɪ ɪ
Į į
K k k keɪ
KH kh x xeɪ
L l

l

ɛl
M m m ɛm
N n n ɛn
O o o o
Ò ò ɔ ɔ
Ö ö ʌ ʌ
P p p pi
R r ɹ
S s s ɛs
T t t ti
U u u u
Ù ù ʊ ʊ
Ü ü y y
V v v vi
W w w weɪ
X x χ ɛχ
Y y j jad
Z z z zi
ʔ oʔi

Grammar

Nouns

Cases

Singular Plural Use
ending translation ending translation
Subjective -so the noun -vaz the nouns subject
Predicative -n the noun -ka the nouns predicate
Genitive -fò of the noun -züna of the nouns possession
Dative -tisi to/for the noun -go to/for the nouns indirect object
Accusative -k noun -ba nouns direct object
Ablative -khas from the noun

out of the noun

-mat from the nouns

out of the nouns

motion from
Perlative -se through the noun -pur through the nouns motion through
Instrumental -yi by means of the noun -gèna by means of the nouns thing used to do the action
Locative -ni in the noun

on the noun

by the noun

at the noun

under the noun

inside the noun

next to the noun

near to the noun

-xè in the nouns

on the nouns

by the nouns

at the nouns

under the nouns

inside the nouns

next to the nouns

near to the nouns

location
Allative -lus to the noun

onto the noun

into the noun

as far as the noun

-mi to the nouns

onto the nouns

into the nouns

as far as the nouns

motion to
Causal -ma because of the noun -yu because of the noun answers why
Temporal -we -gha time
Oblique -lù concerning the noun -ker concerning the nouns miscellaneous
Sociative -pì with the noun gès with the nouns accompaniment
Vocative -le o noun -r o nouns direct address

Verbs

Conjugations

Singular Plural
Present 1st person Inclusive -m -mùr
Exclusive -mùs
2nd person -s -tìs
3rd person -t -nt
Past 1st person Inclusive -bam -bamùr
Exclusive -bamùs
2nd person -bas -batìs
3rd person -bat -bant
Future 1st person

Inclusive

-bo -bìmùr
Exclusive -bìmùs
2nd person -bìs -bìtìs
3rd person -bìt -bunt
Unknown/Unspecified 1st person

Inclusive

-wi -wimùr
Exclusive -wimùs
2nd person -witis -wistis
3rd person -wit -werunt

Voice

Use the prefix do’o- to make it passive. Don't use affixes (in addition to the conjugations) to make it active.

Mood

To make it indicative, use the prefix sa-. To make it imperative, use the prefix fi-. To make it subjunctive, use the prefix wa-.

Adjectives

Just the root of the word. Only changes for comparative. There isn't superlative. Comparative: add the prefix mo-.

Adverbs

Add -li to the end of the root word

Pronouns

Singular Plural
1st

person

Inclusive

ego
Exclusive
2nd

Person

Common vos
Deity
3rd

person

Common Humans and Animals Maculine is
Feminine ea

Unknown/Unspecified/Neuter

id
Plants and Fungi Masculine
Feminine

Unknown/Unspecified/Neuter

Forces of Nature Masculine
Feminine

Unknown/Unspecified/Neuter

Inanimate
Deity Maculine
Feminine

Unknown/Unspecified/Neuter


Syntax

There aren't any supines, participles, or infinitives. Akala word order is SVO (Subject Verb Object).

Lexicon

Akala Word (the unmodified versions)

English Word

Part of Speech

Word combination

Sound changes
keu

light, pale; solar; yellow, white

Adjective
day, sun, light, sunlight Noun
to brighten, turn pale, shine Verb
si sky Noun
blue, gray Adjective
lo

plant, vegetation

Noun

to plant

Verb
green Adjective
lua the ground, soil Noun
brown, Adjective
ni in Preposition
le

house, home, habitat, a dwelling

Noun
to dwell Verb
lole treehouse Noun plant + house
akaù

song

Noun
song-like Adjective
to sing Verb
du to give, gift Verb
gift Noun
ku

water, beverage

Noun
to water (a plant) Verb
leì

dark, black

Adjective
night, darkness Noun
to darken Verb
sia time Noun
luna

star, nightlight, moon, constellation

Noun
lunar, stellar Adjective
keuleì solar eclipse Noun light+dark
fyaùna lunar eclipse Noun fire+moon

l → Ø

u → ʊ

i → j

ha

food

Noun
dua to feed Verb give + food h → Ø
hani to eat Verb

food + in

kuni to drink Verb beverage + in n → Ø
odo to smell, stink Verb
smelly Adjective
stench, odor, nose Noun
se to need Verb
a need Noun
sea hunger Noun need + food h → Ø
seku thirst Noun need + water
va’a

speed

Noun
quick, fast Adjective
quickly Adverb
to hurry Verb
sìmaì ear Noun
To listen, hear Verb
kano

speech

Noun

to talk, converse, have a conversation

Verb
amo

love

Noun

to love Verb
permission Noun

to allow, let, enable, give permission

Verb
adi human Noun
loli animal Noun
myu cute animal noise (meow, woof) Noun
ka mind, head, soul Noun

main, leading

Adjective
to control, steer, rule, lead Verb
oko eyes Noun
to look, see Verb
ocular Adjective
fira flame Noun
to light (on fire) Verb
red, orange; flammable Adjective
halo any part of a plant that is edible Noun food + plant
loa fertilizer, anything a plant needs to live Noun plant + food h → Ø
hiero hatred Noun
to hate, despise Verb
osi object, thing Noun
raxa bad, evil, foul, terrible, dirty, disgusting, corrupt, toxic, crazy, drunk, psychotic, awful, despicable, poisonous, venomous Adjective
to dirty, turn evil, corrupt, intoxicate, foul Verb
evil, devil, demon, dirt, filth, pollution, disease, poison, venom, lunatic Noun
badly, filthily, crazily, fouly, terribly, awfully, drunkenly, venomously Adverb
makes a word derogatory Particle
ro poisonous plant Noun

a → Ø

χ → Ø

a → Ø

l → Ø

sùda good, just, righteous Adjective
justly Adverb

good, angel

Noun
firaì sunrise, sunset Noun fire + sky

s → Ø

i → ɪ

pèno toe, foot, leg; a walk Noun
to walk Verb
ane finger, hand, arm Noun

Example text

Akala:

Egoso hanim hak. Egoso kuim kuk.


Transliteration:

I food in food. I water in water.


Translation:

I eat food. I drink water.

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