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limba alamanalya
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
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Tense Aspect

General information[]



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m t tʰ d ɲ k g
Plosive p b n c ɟ ŋ
Fricative (f) v ð s̪ z̪ s z (ʃ) ʒ ç ʝ x ʁ (h) ɦ
Affricate d͡ʒ
Approximant j w
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l ɫ


Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i iː y u uː
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid e ø ɤ o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɔ
Near-open æ
Open a


Standard Alphabet[]

A Ä B C D E Ë F G Gy Ġ H Hy
I Î J K L Ly M N Ng Ny O Ö Õ
Ô P Q R Ry S T Th U V X Xy Z Ż

Eastern Alphabet[]

A Ae B C Ç D Dh E Ë F G Gy Gj H Hy İ
I J Jh K Ky L Ly Ll M N Nc Ng Ny Nz O Ö
Ø P R Ry S Ş T Th U Ü V X Z

IPA Chart[]

IPA Value Name Notes
A a a a
Ä ä Ae ae æ a-laut Only used in loanwords
B b b ba
C c Ns ns ciq /s̃/ in educated speech
C̲ c̲ Ç ç t͡ʃ c̲iq
D d Dh dh ð de
Ḏ ḏ D d d ḏe
E e e e
Ë ë ə s̲va Silent at the end of a word (c̲apë /t͡ʃap/, corn)
Ẽ ẽ I ı ɪ ec̲euv Only used in loanwords
F f f fa Only used in loanwords
G g g ge
Gy gy ɟ gye
Ġ ġ Gj gj d͡ʒ ġota
H h Hy hy h hec̲ Only used in loanwords
Hy hy H h ɦ hec̲-ipsiloṅ
I i İ i i i
Î î Ü ü y î
J j Jh jh ç jec̲
J̲ j̲ J j ʝ j̲ec̲
K k/ḵ* K k/kc* k c kec̲ /c/ at the end of a word, /k/ otherwise
L l l la
Ly ly İ i j elyj̲
Ḻ ḻ Ll ll ɫ ḻel Only used in loanwords
M m m eme
N n n ene
Ng ng ng ŋ nga /ng/ at the beginning of a word, /ŋ/ medial or final
Ṅ ṅ (none) ˜ nasali Nasal vowels are non-existant in the Eastern dialect
Ny ny ɲ enye
O o o o /u/ at the end of a word or in the penultimate syllable, after "u" or "î" and after /o/; /ɔ/ after "a" and "ö", and before "ly"; /o/ in all other cases
Ö ö ø ö
Õ õ Ø ø ɤ iː oc̲euv /iː/ at the beginning of a word; /ɤ/ elsewhere
Ô ô V v w v haqono Only used in loanwords. /w/ in the standard dialect, /v/ in the eastern dialect
P p p
Q q Ky ky c kʼ qu /kʼ/ when at the end of a word and in the word q' (or), /c/ otherwise
R r ɾ ru /r/ in educated speech
Ry ry ɾ ryu
S s s si
S̲ s̲ Ş ş ʃ s̲i Only used in loanwords
T t t te
Th th tʰ tʼ the /tʼ/ when at the end of a word and in the word t' (by), /tʰ/ otherwise
U u u u Mostly used in loanwords and diphthongs
V v v vi
X x Ch ch x ix
Xy xy Gh gh ʁ ġelix
Z z z ze
Ẕ ẕ C c ʒ ẕe
Ż ż Nz nz żek /z̃/ in educated speech

*At the end of the word, when a /k/ sound is made, it is written as (standard) or kc (Eastern).

There is also one trigraph not included in the alphabet: skj /ɧ/

Vowel Length and Diphthongs[]

Vowels are often regular length (hence explaining the low amount of words beginning in õ and those containing "u"), but they can be lengthened. Just like in Estonian and Finnish orthography, this is done by writing the vowel twice. For example:

tîḏruke (girl) - / vs. tîḏruuke (quilt) - /tydruːke/

mõke (steel) - /mɤke/ vs. mõõke (waterfall) - /mɤːke/

Diphthongs are also quite rare, but do occur at times. Diphthongs with the sound ɪ are usually made with the letter ly rather than i.

Diphthong IPA Value
ae æ
au au̯
eu eu̯
oa ɒ
ou u
ui øː


Stress in Alamanalya is not in a fixed position. Instead, it has a more melodious flow, similar to Swedish and Italian. The stress is often on every third syllable, or on the penultimate syllable of each word.

For example:

Piac̲aarain konan zde-aalpeḏeḏi. (The raindrops fell rather softly.) (colloquially pronounced: /pʰaˈt͡ʃaːɹeɪ̃ ˈkoˑ.nã ʒeɪ.aːlpeˈðeɪˑɾiˑ/, formally pronounced: /pʲaˈt͡ʃaːreɪn ˈkona zde.ˈaːlpeˈdedi/)

Gyooarain qëbavõn zde-aalpeḏeḏi. (The snowflakes drifted rather softly.) (colloquially pronounced: /gʲu.raɪ.ˈeɪ̃ː kʼˈbaˑvɤ̃ ˈʒeɪ.aːlpeˈðeɪˑɾiˑ/, formally pronounced: /ɟoː.ˈareɪn cəˈbavɤn zˈde.aːlpeˈdedi)

Formal and Colloquial Pronunciation[]

The standard dialect and the Eastern dialect vary quite a lot in vocabulary, but the two dialects have similar pronunciations, on in educated and colloquial speech. This article is written with formal IPA and standard vocabulary, unless where stated otherwise. Colloquial pronunciation varies in the following ways, plus several others depending on the area:

  • Stops /p/ and /b/ are pronounced /pʰ/ and /bʰ/, respectively, before /a/, /e/, /i/, and /ø/
  • Trill /r/ often becomes approximant /ɹ/ in the initial and medial positions
  • The nasal consonant /n/ often becomes /˜/ in the final position
  • In unusual consonant clusters beginning with /s/ or /z/, such as /sg/ or /zv/, the cluster is pronounced /ʃ/ or /ʒ/; in such clusters beginning with /t/ or /d/, such as /tk/ or /dl/, it is pronounced /θ/ or /ð/; in clusters beginning with /k/ or /g/, such as /kx/ or /gp/, it is pronounced /ʝ/; in clusters beginning with /p/ or /b/, it is pronounced /m/; in clusters beginning with /v/, it is pronounced /ʃ/; in clusters beginning with /l/, /j/, or /ɫ/, is it pronounced /ʎ/; and in clusters beginning with /r/, /ɾ/, /ʁ/, /x/, /ɦ/, /ɧ/, or /ð/, it is pronounced /ɧ/
    • Examples
      • zceraqamë /ʒeɹak.ʔam/
      • tkormis /θoˑɾmis/
      • gpauv /ʝau̯v/
      • vqangiipge /ʃaˑŋiːme/
      • xyvuilyjastou /ɧøːʎaˑʃu/
  • Stop /ɟ/ becomes /gʲ/ and /c/ becomes /kʼ/ in all cases
  • Stop /d/ often becomes /ð/ or /ɾ/
  • Medium-length vowels, such as /yˑ/, are placed at times, with no certain pattern
  • Diphthong /eɪ/ and long vowel /iː/ usually has a short /aɪ/ preceding it
  • /x/ and /ʁ/ become /j/


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes Yes No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


There are four classes of nouns: those ending in -is (I, or clanaun), those ending in -a, -e, or  (II, or clanadî), those ending in -î or -õ (III, or clanathalyar), and those ending in -o, -ou, or -ly (IV, or clanavist). They can be declined into eight cases: nominative (NOM), accusative/dative (AC/D), genitive (GEN), prepositional (PRE), instrumental (INS), comitative (COM), ablative (ABL), and semblative/translative (SE/T). They are also declined by number, either singular, dual, or plural, when no article or other means of disambiguation are attached. When there is an article, the singular form is always used.

See also: Examples of the Declination of Nouns

Class I Noun Declination[]


Singular Dual Plural
NOM -is -os -es
AC/D -ist -ista -iste
GEN -in -ina -ine
PRE -il -ila -ile
INS -igy -ig -ige
COM -it -itha -ite
ABL -i -ika -ik
SE/T -ir -iry -e
-i Singular Dual Plural
NOM -i -is -ise
AC/D -ist -ista -iste
GEN -in -ina -ine
PRE -il -ila -ile
INS -igy -ig -ige
COM -it -itha -ite
ABL -i -ika -ik
SE/T -ir -iry -i
Singular Dual Plural
NOM -ös -öse
AC/D -ist -ista -iste
GEN -in -ina -ine
PRE -il -ila -ile
INS -igy -ig -ige
COM -it -itha -ite
ABL -i -ika -ik
SE/T -ir -iry

Class II Noun Declination[]


Singular Dual Plural
NOM -a -u -o
AC/D -et -ete -eta
GEN -ant -ante -anta
PRE -el -ele -ela
INS -aġ -aġe -aġa
COM -ath -athe -atha
ABL -aq -aqe -aqa
SE/T -anka -ale -ala
-e Singular Dual Plural
NOM -e -u -o
AC/D -et -ete -eta
GEN -ant -ante -anta
PRE -el -ele -ela
INS -aġ -aġe -aġa
COM -ath -athe -atha
ABL -ak -aqe -aqa
SE/T -anka -ale -eli
Singular Dual Plural
NOM -u -o
AC/D -ët -ëte -ëta
GEN -ant -ante -anta
PRE -ël -ële -ëla
INS -aġ -aġe -aġa
COM -ath -athe -atha
ABL -aq -aqe -aqa
SE/T -anka -ale -ala

Class III Noun Declination[]

Singular Dual Plural
NOM -u -o
AC/D -õt -õte -õti
GEN -õn -õne -õni
PRE -il -ila -ile
INS -igy -ig -i
COM -ith -ite -idi
ABL -ev -eve -eryi
SE/T -en -el
Singular Dual Plural
NOM -u -o
AC/D -õt -õte -õti
GEN -õn -õne -õni
PRE -il -ila -ile
INS -iṅ -ig -i
COM -ith -ite -idi
ABL -ev -eve -eryi
SE/T -en -el

Class IV Noun Declination[]

-o Singular Dual Plural
NOM -o -i -es
AC/D -ost -osto -osta
GEN -ont -onto -onta
PRE -ol -olo -ola
INS -osle -oslo -osla
COM -ot -oto -ota
ABL -ov -oc̲ -ova
SE/T -oka -ola -ovii
-ou Singular Dual Plural
NOM -ou -u -ous
AC/D -ost -osto -osta
GEN -ont -onto -onta
PRE -ol -olo -ola
INS -osle -oslo -osla
COM -ot -oto -ota
ABL -ov -oc̲ -ova
SE/T -oka -ola -ovii
-ly Singular Dual Plural
NOM -ly -li -lyes
AC/D -lyost -lyosto -lyosta
GEN -lyont -lyonto -lyonta
PRE -lyol -lyolo -lyola
INS -lyosle -lyoslo -lyosla
COM -lyot -lyoto -lyota
ABL -lyov -lyoc̲ -lyova
SE/T -lyoka -lyola -lyovii


The definite article is attached as a suffix, while the indefinite article is a separate word placed before the noun. If the first letter of the article is a vowel, it is left out when added as a suffix to a noun ending in a vowel. The opposite applies to nouns ending in a consonant.

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative er ek em
Accusative/Dative va ve vo
Genitive ere eke eme
Prepositional et en em
Instrumental ena ene eme
Comitative/Semblative eto elo eno
Ablative ete el la


Personal pronouns are declined into five cases. They are not marked by gender. The genitive pronoun, as a suffix or a separate word after a noun, also is used for possession.

In the chart below, (S) represents the singular form, and (P) represents the plural form.

1, S 2, S 3, S 1, P 2, P 3, P 4
Nominative mi lya żo so lye de
Accusative/Dative ni go że sa ge po
Genitive/Instrumental im ît aly os ely ed
Prepositional/Comitative imot îtot akot ożot olyt ekot ejit
Ablative imor îtor akor ożor olye ekor qir
Semblative imo îto ako ożo oly eko qi


Verbs have two infinitive endings: -ad, and -õd. There are four tenses: present, past, future, and imperative.

-ad Present Past Future Imperative
Mi -o -om -odely
-os -osam -osely -õs
Lya -a -am -adely
Żo -am -amam -amely -õm
So -aly -alyam -alyely -õk
Lye/De -an -anam -anely -õn
-õd Present Past Future Imperative
Mi -o -om -odely -a
-õs -õsim -õsely -as
Lya -im -õdely -a
Żo -õm -õmim -õmely -am
So -õlyim -õlyely -ak
Lye/De -õn -õnim -õnely -an

There are only two irregular verbs: lyõd "to be", and nad "to have".

lyõd Present Past Future Imperative
Mi lyo iki lyona a
lyos iter lyosa se
Lya î pon lyosî sov
Żo c̲a lyoqõ qu
So qõs c̲oly lyoqõs qul
Lye/De qas kaly lyoqas qup
nad Present Past Future Imperative
Mi voly van vod ve
valy van vad ve
Lya la lan laḏ ve
Żo õ lam ve
So get hyem ged ve
Lye/De palyv haly palyd ve

Adjectives and Adverbs[]

Adjectives are attached to the beginning of the noun they describe and often end with consonants (some speakers, especially those of the Eastern dialect, add in a connecting vowel of their choice, often a or ë). They are invariable by case. (i.e. rööd + siga + er becomes röödsigar, the red pig NOM; röödsigeter becomes röödsigeter, the red pig ACC). Adjectives also double as adverbs when the suffix -i is attached (i.e. tahy + i becomes tahyi, quickly). For the rare number of adjectives that end with a vowel, the final vowel changes to i (i.e. bloode + i becomes bloodi, lazily).


There are three main conjunctions: os (and), l'co (but), and q' (or; pronounced /kʼ/). They are not declined.


There are six interrogative pronouns in Alamanalya: ku (when), min (who), hvär (where), merite (why), hvä (what), hyul(u) (which), and skjölaa (how).

Hyul is written as hyulu or hylu (in the Eastern dialect) when the word following it begins with a vowel, such as in the sentence Hylu dolanis î rebetdolanistîta? (Which store is your favorite?).

Relative Pronouns[]

These use mostly the same wordset as the interrogatives, with the exceptions of hvär and merite. Hvär is changed to paeMerite becomes meritë, a word also meaning "because". Another exception is the word ku, which is changed to kuu if the sentence has two or more clauses, such as in Kuu Ella ragyam al-qasëlur t-dolanilet, lya kanam tri vaveret. (When Ella was walking home from the store, she saw three squirrels.)

Forming Sentences with Participle Verbs[]

To form a sentence with participle verbs in either the past or present tense, the relative pronoun is used. The conjugations are done as normal. However, the relative pronouns, along with conjunctions, are often combined with personal pronouns.

Mi Lya Żo So Lye
Kuu kuim kuit kui kuuẕ kuud kue
Min mini minî minae mino minso minye
Pae paem paet paelya paeẕ paed paes
Meritë meritmi meritî merita meric meritës meritilye
Hvä hväm hväd hväl hväz hväs hvälye
Hyulu hyulum hyulut hylulya hyuluẕ hyulus hyuluse
Skjölaa skjölaam skjölaat skjöle skjölaaẕ skjölaas skjölaase
Os osim osit osin osiz osis ose
L'co l'com l'cot l'cona l'kozi l'coso l'conye
Q' q'mi q'tî q'lya q'żo q'so q'lye
Nga (if) ngam ngad ngaa ngaż ngas ngale

Some example sentences with these contractions:

q'mi mamely inal s̲pellët. - Either you or I will go into the cave.

Ei sabo merita salyam pa-tahyi. - I don't know why she left so quickly.

So ei mäletamaly mini lyo blyuu? - You guys don't remember who I am? (sarcastic tone)

Some example sentences with participle verbs:

Kuim pokerom de koolil, gyetîgom fazerad õpekeitim. - When I returned from school, I started to do my homework.

Ei sabo hväd saba, l'kozi cabouro qadedi ożot. - I don't know what you know, but we need to be open with each other.

Affirmation and Negation[]

The word for affirmation, igen, is not used to confirm a verb. A verb without any form of negation is considered to be affirmed.

Doubt or a lack of definitivy is expressed by the word blyeth. This word can be placed in one of four places: at the end of a sentence, before a verb, after a verb, or as a standalone, one-word sentence. The first three function as an adverb (Blyeth mo al dolanilur; mo blyeth al dolanilur; mo al dolanilur blyeth), while the latter functions as a general interjection.

Negation is expressed with the word ei. It can be used in the same way as blyeth.


While some languages, such as Hungarian, use cases as prepositions, Alamanalya uses a more traditional method of using invariable prepositions as separate words before the noun. They are divided into two groups: stable and moving. Some examples of stable prepositions include in (in), nyu (outside), sval (above), and ġiik (below). Examples of moving prepositions include al (to) and de (from).

A stable preposition and a moving preposition can be combined to make other prepositions, such as inal (into), or denyu (from outside). An example of this is in the sentence Mi thagom denyu foodplõryelet. (I came from outside the restaurant.)

Interjections and Other Emotions Expressed in Written Speech[]

Some interjections that denote a rhetorical question, sarcasm, or surprise, can be added into written speech. This is common mostly among people of the Eastern and standard Northeastern dialects, although it is spreading quite quickly throughout the Southern dialect.

Examples of this speech include the word pa, which is placed before adjectives and adverbs to emphasize them or change them into expressions (i.e. pa-tahyi, so quickly; Pa bonic!, "How pretty!")

Another example is the word blyuu, which has no direct translation, but rather implies a sarcastic tone or makes a question rhetorical.

Unlike in most languages, all statements in Alamanalya are believed to be fact. If the speaker wants to state an opinion, the word îk (an abbreviation of îkbeno, an obsolete word meaning "I believe") is required to be stated either at the very beginning or very end of the sentence (i.e. Îk bużecerer î joo ei, meritë gar husuqpolatastë. "I believe soda is bad because it has a bad aftertaste" is an opinion, but stating it as Bużecerer î joo ei, meritë gar husuqpolatastë. makes it seem as if it is an accepted or proven fact.)


Unlike in the Romance and Germanic languages, where a title is placed as a separate word before the sentence, Alamanalya uses suffixes for titles. Take the common surname "Qurtë" (equivalent to "Smith").

Mr. Qurtë - Qurtane

Mrs. Qurtë - Qurtani

Miss Qurtë - Qurtanitë

Dr. Qurtë (Ph.D. or non-medical degree)- Qurtëdoterë

Dr. Qurtë (M.D. or other medical degree) - Qurtëmedi

Prof. Qurtë - Qurtëprofesë

Rev. Qurtë - Qurtëxyevari

Hon. Qurtë - Qurtëxabaaẕii

Pres. Qurtë - Qurtëpresidenta

Coach Qurtë - Qurtëtravado

Sec. Qurtë - Qurtënaṅġapo



At the Restaurant - A Foodplõryelur[]


bowl - qipë

chef - garsila

coffee cup - kavas̲ikara

customer - maplyebë

fork - periglou

glass - s̲ikara

host/hostess - garsou

knife - suua

menu - mëguṅi

napkin - jui

pepper - popri

plate - plata

salt - ẕdazdavalya

spoon - botanis

table - mrue

waiter/waitress - garżilyone

wine - vine

wine glass - vines̲ikara

Clothing - Õpetaruu[]


bathrobe - nöötpatarou/agôapatarou

belt - seruri

boots - agôaxyou

button - ploly

cap - käpë

collar - pivë

hat - fedora

jacket - patarou

jeans - uucethuja

pants - thuja

pocket - ztho

sandals - s̲lyaxyou

shirt - qerytë

shorts - s̲lyathuja

shoelace - caḏexyou

sleeve - kooqa

slippers - nöötxyou

sneakers - sportxyou

socks - ġegyeris

sole (of a shoe) - zbaxyou

suit - rethpelyë

suit jacket - rethpelyëpatarou

suit pants - rethpelyëthuja

tie - nixa

underwear - mastac̲ris

vest - pedaly

zipper - zẽperë

Words not included in the picture:

cotton - żeżis

fleece - lyasiso

summer - s̲lya

winter - donge

wool - j̲eplauë

Colors - Klööro[]

Screen Shot 2014-04-02 at 19.01

black - gar

blue - azul

brown - broṅ

green - verd

grey - grui

orange - oranẕ

pink - niki

purple - viol

red - rööd

white - blang

yellow - vraam

Farm Animals - Hyales Jîksiqantere[]

Screen Shot 2014-04-02 at 22.31

cat - kato

chicken - galinyi (chick - galinyitë)

cow - piimsa

dog - avou

goat - dikice

horse - kavee

mouse - s̲ruu

pig - siga (piglet - sigatë)

sheep - lambävë

The Weather - Tempor[]

Screen Shot 2014-04-06 at 13.43

cloud - ẕivlye

day - die

moon - popis ouvant

night - ouvë

rain - piac̲a

rainbow - klöörẕivlye

snow - gyoo

star - popis

sun - popis diant

thunder - thabbi

tornado - degya

wind - tool

Love - Amor[]

645px-Love Heart SVG

love for (dative case) - ...eamo - meamo (i.e. meamot, your love for me) (sing.) - teamo (i.e. meamo-aly, his/her love for you)
...him/her - lyeamo - żeamo (pl.) - seamo
...them - gyeamo

affection for (dative case) - ...etegyë - metegyë (sing.) - tetegyë
...him/her - lyetegyë - żetegyë (pl.) - setegyë
...them - gyetegyë

hate for (dative case) - ...onembis - monembis (sing.) - tonembis
...him/her - lyonembis - żonembis (pl.) - sonembis
...them - gyonembis

attraction to men - atracioni lemist

man - lemis
attraction to women - atracioni mulet
attraction to men and women - atractioni dîġendet

dating - tvace

dating partner (boyfriend/girlfriend) - hyuroutõ tvacant
fiancé/e - hyuroutõ ẕaẕmentin
marriage proposal - serava kasamentant
engagement - ẕaẕmentis

marriage - kasamenta

wedding - kasamentõle
wife/husband - hyuroutõ kasamentant
anniversary - fëritë kasamantant
divorce - likasamenta

domestic partner - hyuroutõ ngipant

European Countries - Eiropeos[]

Albania - Albanie

Andorra - Catala

Austria - Ostör

Belarus - Blanghyussi

Belgium - Belẕ

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Boseni o'Herżegovinë

Bulgaria - Bulgaar

Croatia - Kroat/Hrvat

Czech Republic - C̲eska

Denmark - Dinamark

Estonia - Eesti

Finland - Sôomi/Fiin

France - Seiż

Georgia - Ẕorẕiqa

Germany - Alemanya

Greece - Elleti

Hungary - Ungaar/Magyaar

Iceland - Îslän

Ireland - Eir

Israel - Dkov/Lyehudkov

Italy - Donare

Kosovo - Qosovui

Latvia - Letoonia

Liechtenstein - Lixtens̲tein

Lithuania - Lẽtunie

Luxembourg - Lougzembozë

Macedonia - Makedonilya

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - Vieẕjugoslavrepublika Makedonilyant

Malta - Malte

Moldova - Moldavie

Monaco - Monaco

Montenegro - Montënnegyru

The Netherlands - Peisbas

Norway - Nohyvaiẕ

Poland - Poulżki

Portugal - Portugal

Romania - Romanna

Russia - Hyussi

San Marino - Sanmarin

Serbia - Sehbie

Slovakia - Sluôakj̲a

Slovenia - Slovena

Spain - Spany

Sweden - Svei

Switzerland - Svic

Ukraine - Lyukrainë

United Kingdom - Peisrojal

Vatican City - Poparei

Example text[]

I give Maria the pen. - Mi mahyo Mariete zumisa.

Pablo wanted to go to the park, but his mom refused to take him. He cried like a baby. - Pablo malidõ mad al hyölur, daly madera-aly gesterõm go balyahyar. Lya jumiredam eto bambinoka.

Aaron wrote some notes down in his notebook with the black pen, but they looked like a secret code. - Aaron skryibam noto in notolibrisilaly garżumisigyena, de je xedikõnim-ko eto sekretvalodanka.