Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General Information[]

Alemarese (natively Alemarrix /alemaˈʀiʃ/) is one of the most spoken languages of the alien Patronans (Patroneven, sg. Patroneva) on the planet Patrona (Patrona). It is the majority language in several nations, most notably Westos (Voèsos) and Alemar (Alemar), and taught as one of the lingua francas of the world.


Alemarese is an Edalith language (see Proto-Edalith), of the Northern Edalith branch (see Proto-Chevin) and a direct descendent of Old Chevin, also known as Proto-Alemar-Barejine, along with it sister languages Barejine and Ethurese. It is more distantly related to the Mid Northern Edalith Languages, and even further from the Ngalryn, Shaibest, and White Coast languages.

Alemarese has several dialects:

  • Old Alemarese
    • Northern Alemarese
    • Western Alemarese
      • Southwestern Alemarese
    • Southern Alemarese
      • Central Alemarese
      • Royal Alemarese
        • Port Alemarese
        • Westosese Alemarese
    • Varrit Alemarese



labial interdental alveolar postalveolar palatal velar uvular glottal
nasal m (n̟) n ŋ
stop p b t tː d tʃ dʒ k g q (ʔ)
fricative ɸ β θ θː s z ʃ (ç) x
approximant ð̞ l j w
rhotic (ɾ̟) ɾ (ɾ̃) ʀ
  • /b/, /β/, /l/, /d/, and /dʒ/ do not occur word-finally in most dialects.
  • The fortis consonants /tː/ and /θː/ are relatively rare, /θː/ moreso than /tː/, and do not occur word-initially.
  • The alveolar nasal /n/ and alveolar flap /r/ assimilate to the place of articulation of following coronal consonants.
  • The alveolar nasal /n/ is pronounced as a nasalized alveolar flap [ɾ̃] in non-stressed and non-word-initial locations.
  • The uvular stop /q/ is pronounced as a glottal stop [ʔ] in the coda.
  • The velar fricative is pronounced as a palatal [ç] after /i/ or /e/.
  • The labialized velar approximant /w/ has many origins and thus alternates with /u/, /l/, and /β/.


Front Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a
  • The close vowels /i/ and /u/ lower to near-high in response to a following /ŋ/, /k/, /g/, /x/, and /q/.
  • The open vowel /a/ fronts to [æ] before alveolar consonants and backs to [ɑ] when adjacent to a uvular stop [q].
  • In Westosese dialects, the two mid vowel sets have merged. These manifest as open-mid when followed by a coda consonant and close-mid before another vowel or word-finally.
  • Vowels gain a following semi-vocalic schwa before nasals in rural Westosese dialects.
  • Any two adjacent vowels diphthongize, and the consonantal one is raised in Westosese dialects.



Stress is typically on the penultimate vowel, unless the word ends with a consonant other than <n> or <k>; however, stress is contrastive, and is thus marked in non-obvious locations by a grave accent. ex. derù "sun"


Stress takes the form of a rising pitch usually, but is high level pitch on the stressed word of an interjection or vocative phrase. The last syllable of an utterance has a falling pitch. Intonation does not change in questions. ex. ginora "trickster" [ginǒ̞ɾâ]


Alemarese is mostly a stress-timed language, though it is more syllable-timed than English.

Sound Changes from True Chevin[]

  1. epenthesis
    1. an epenthetic unstressed /e/ appears between a consonant and a sonorant word finally
    2. an epenthetic unstressed /e/ appears before initial consonant clusters if the second consonant is an obstruent
    3. nasals acquire a following homorganic voiced stop before /r/
  2. palatalization
    1. [k, g] > [tʃ, dʒ] before front vowels
    2. [t, d]+F > [tʃ, dʒ] before front vowels
    3. /q/ > /tʃ/ before /i/
    4. [ks, psj, sj] > /ʃ/
  3. loss of /u/ as the first element of a diphthong
  4. split of /β/
    1. /β/ > /w/ before back vowels
    2. unstressed front vowels are lost following /β/ before back vowels
    3. unstressed back vowels are lost following /w/ before front vowels
  5. loss of /h/ after stressed vowels or consonants
  6. voicing changes
    1. intervocalic voicing of /p/ and /t/
    2. final devoicing of /b/, /d/, and /β/
  7. consonant cluster simplification
    1. /ns, ng/ > /z, ŋ/
    2. /tr/ > /rtʃ/ intervocalically before a front vowel
    3. /ts/ > /s/
    4. /tʃ/ > /ʃ/ after consonants
    5. /q/ > /k/ before /r/
    6. /xr, rr/ > /ʀ/
    7. degemination
    8. /pt/ & /kt/ > /tt/
    9. /pθ/ & /kθ/ > /θθ/
    10. /k/ disappears before nasals
    11. /p/ disappears before /m/ and word-initial /n/
  8. monophthongization
    1. /ow, ae, aw/ > /u, ɛ, ɔ/
    2. /ɛ, ɔ/ raise to /e, o/ preceding another vowel as well as finally in monosyllabic words and in suffixed endings
    3. [j, w] are lost preceding the end of a word (except in monosyllables), /r/, or nasals
  9. consonant losses
    1. /h/ is lost
    2. loss of intervocalic /j/ between vowels of opposite backness
  10. other coda changes
    1. coda /l, q/ > [w, ʔ]
    2. /t/ & /p/ merge with /q/ before non-liquid consonants
    3. /x/ merges with /s/ before nasal consonants
    4. /x/ disappears before another consonant

Writing System[]

The Alphabet[]

Alemarese is written in the Standard Chevin Alphabet (natively Txevì Keaja).

Chevin orthographic grid v2

The Alemarese Alphabet with names in transliterated Alemarese.

Writing Direction[]

The script is written left-to-right, the same primary direction as the Latin Alphabet used for English; However, the secondary direction (that is, what to do at the end of a line) is completely alien. At the end of a line, the text is continued at the left of the next line above the current line. So all text starts at the bottom of a page, including all titles!

Digraphs and trigraphs[]

B is any back vowel, F is any front vowel.

  • au /ɔ/, ae /ɛ/
  • kC /C/ (as long as the C isn't an approximant)
  • dx /dʒ/
  • jr /ʀ/ word-initially, jC /C/
  • ng /ŋ/, ngg /ŋg/, nk /ŋk/, nj /ŋx/
  • rr /ʀ/
  • tt /tː/, tx /tʃ/
  • þþ /θː/
  • veB /βB/, voF /wF/

Native Collation[]

k, a, j, d, g, u, q, p, b, o, h, v, e, s, z, t, l, f, i, y, ð, r, n, m, þ, x

Letter names[]

Letter names are mostly simple, with the exception of <h>, <z>, and <y>, which are called hae, sez, and i jem,respectively, in Alemar and hai, ze, and ya in Westos.


  • .⟩ (⟨,⟩): abbreviations, lists, separation of clauses
  • :⟩ (⟨.⟩): begins paragraphs, ends sentences
  • ...⟩ (⟨...⟩): intentional omission
  • ~~~⟩ (⟨...⟩): unfinished thought, pause in speech
  • ~:⟩ (⟨...⟩): trailing into silence
  • ~⟩ (⟨-⟩): ranges, introducing lists, introduces quotes
  • ⟩ and ⟨⟩: appositives, quotes
  • «⟩ and ⟨»⟩: parenthesis
  • upside-down rounded ⟨7⟩ & rounded ⟨7⟩ (⟨?⟩): encloses questions
  • upside-down ⟨⟩ (⟨!⟩): ends positive emotion exclamations
  • ⟩ (⟨!⟩): ends negative emotion exclamations


Letter a b d ð e f g h i j k l m
Sound /a/ /b/ /d/ /ð/ /e/ /ɸ/ /g/ 0 /i/ /x/ /k/ /l/, /w/ /m/
Letter n o p q r s t u v x y z þ
Sound /n/ /o/ /p/ /q/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /u/, /w/ /β/, /w/ /ʃ/ /j/ /z/ /θ/
  • <l> is pronounced /w/ in the coda.
  • <v> is pronounced /w/ before back vowels.
  • <b>, <d>, and <v> are devoiced to /p/, /t/, and /ɸ/ word-finally.

Parts of Speech[]

  • Nouns: persons, places, objects, and ideas; ex. krenten "people"
  • Adjectives: descriptors of nouns; ex. nedui "big"
  • Pronouns: short stand-ins for nouns; ex. nave "we"
  • Determiners: articles, demonstratives, quantifiers, and distributives; ex. qede "this"
  • Verbs: actions; ex. aqala "it sings"
  • Prepositions: signals relationships between words; ex. edlu "under, after"
  • Particles: short words with miscellaneous functions; ex. ð "and" & "just now"
  • Interjections: stand-alone words which express spontaneous feelings or reactions; ex. alò "wow"


Declension table[]

Animate Inanimate
NOM -a/en -e/en -0/o -i -e/i
GEN -e/à -o/ù~yu
ALL -an/en -en -un/on -in/en -en
INSTR -ame/eme -eme -ume/ome -ime/eme -eme
VOC -à/en
  • The O-class genitive plural suffix surfaces regularly as -yu after /l/ or /r/.

First declension[]

The first declension houses the vast majority of animate nouns, all morphological diminutives, and all instruments. The animate nouns have a vocative case, in contrast with the inanimates. There's very little irregularity in the first declension. Noun endings -ea or -aya become -eye and -ahe when the ending begins with e.

ex. otta "tongue, language, speech"

sg pl
NOM otta otten
GEN otte ottà
ALL ottan otten
INSTR òttame òtteme
VOC ottà otten

Note that the plural nominative, allative, and vocative are the same, as are the plural genitive and singular vocative. So there are seven forms. Some declension I nouns have -es instead of -as in the singular nominative, allative, and instrumental, reducing the number of forms to four.

ex. xile "scratch, scrape"

sg pl
NOM xile xilen
GEN xelà
ALL xilen
INSTR xìleme
VOC xelà xilen

Second declension[]

The second declension is almost entirely inanimate, save for some names and some dialects nominative singular forms of the diminutives of the core family such as bab and nun in place of the more typical baba and nunya. For declension II names, the vocative is the nominative form. Declension II nouns typically have seven forms. The nominative plural is always the same as the genitive singular.

ex. kur "flame, fire"

sg pl
NOM kur kuro
GEN kuro kurù
ALL kurun kuron
INSTR kùrume kùrome

Second declension nouns typically end in a stressed syllable in the nominative singular. The addition of the endings bring about predictable alternations of certain final consonants. For a given word, there is a maximum of three stems. These alterations do not occur in loanwords. There are ten alternation classes:

  1. The first class are the regular nouns: loanwords and those ending in any consonant not mentioned in the other classes. ex. gix "trinket, keepsafe" (gixun, gixo)
  2. The next are those ending in <p>, <t>, or <d>, which have three stems: a sg.nom stem (p/t/d), an u stem (f/þ/ð), and a obl stem (b/d/d). ex. haup "pole, staff" (haufun, haubo)
  3. Next are those ending in <ð>, which are the same as those in <d> except in the sg.nom. raið "anger" (raeðun, raedo)
  4. Nouns in <þ> have two stems: a sg or u stem (þ) and an obl stem (d). ex. yeþ "leaf" (yeþun, yedo)
  5. Next are the vowel-final nouns. In the sg.nom they are accented, in the sg.all/sg.instr they are accented and receive a -n/me ending (instead of a -un/ume), the other endings are regular. ex. jaurà "hour" (jauràn, jaurao)
  6. Nouns ending in <ò> lack number distinctions in the nom, all, and instr cases. ex. veidò "minute" (veidòn, veidò)
  7. Nouns ending in <ae> decline as nouns ending in <è> except in the sg.nom/sg.all/sg.instr. petae "rain" (petaen, peteo)
  8. Next are nouns in <au> and <eu>, which replace the <u> with <v> before non-sg.nom endings. ex. qaleu "wave" (qalevun, qalevo)
  9. Next are nouns ending in a stop, followed by an unstressed <e>, then a liquid. They always drop the unstressed <e> in the non-sg.nom forms. Some nouns in <der> or <ber> then change the <d/b> to <t/p>. ex. hèder "house" (hetrun, hetro)
  10. Lastly are nouns which change pronunciation, but not spelling, of a final consonant in the sg.nom. <b> to /p/, <v> to /ɸ/, <nd> to /nt/, and <l> to /w/. ex. mind "month" (mindun, mindo)

Third declension[]

Third declension nouns are mostly inanimate, though there are a few groups of animates. They are the most regular declension. Nominative forms are used if a vocative is needed.

ex. duji "gold"

sg pl
NOM duji
GEN dujì
ALL dujin dujen
INSTR dùjime dùjeme

Note that the nominative and genitive forms do not distinguish singular v. plural. There is a subset of declension III nouns which have an -e instead of -i in the nominative, allative, and intrumental singular forms.

ex. rame "rope, noodle, cord"

sg pl
NOM rame rami
GEN remì
ALL ramen
INSTR ràmeme

Irregular nouns[]

Few nouns are irregular, and if a noun is irregular, it is very predictable. An example of a truly irregular noun is oae "cloud".

sg pl
NOM oae vayo
GEN vayo vayù
ALL oen vayon
INSTR oème vàyome


Many nouns, typically those representing an instance of a verb, simply use the same root as their verbal counterparts.

  • oda > odi "gift"
  • pleru > pler "cause"
  • kultya > kultya "fruit"
  • idrya > idrya "flower"

Collections are represented with -etta.

  • maya "know" > mahetta "science, a body of knowledge"
  • idryetta "meadow"
  • blivoetta "set of siblings"
  • remurazetta "zoo"

The process of doing a verb and the quality of an adjective are both represented by -ize/uze.

  • blivoa > blivuze "brotherhood"
  • siri > sirize "shininess"
  • kauze > kozize "brightness, brilliance"
  • ipse > ipsize "comprehensiveness, oneness, universality"

The result or state of a verb is represented by -aje.

  • magreiva > magreivaje "failure"
  • fo > faje "result"
  • em > emaje "existence"
  • moiza > kmoizaje "knowledge, intelligence"

Agents and instruments are represented by the active present participle -er(a)/or(a).

  • furo > furora "lier"
  • tampoma > tampomera "drummer"
  • xaula > xauler "knife"

Patients are represented with the passive present participle -og/eg/ug(a).

  • jrure "entertain" > jruregen "crowd"

People who live in a place are represented with -eva/even.

  • Alemareven "Alemarese people"
  • Voesoseven "Westosese people"
  • Mandxingeven "Manjingan people"

A person that enjoys something is represented with -(e)nxelega.

  • remurazenxelega "animal-lover"
  • ðumunxelega "sleep-lover"
  • auremenxelega "amateur astronomer"
  • hetrenxelega "person obsessed with family drama"

A building where an action happens or an item is found, or the names of familial houses are represented with -èder.

  • ðumu > ðumèder "inn"
  • osimbrize > osimbrizèder "academy"
  • Ridorèder "House Kicker"

A common suffix for religions is -(n)eos.

  • Saqeleos "Easternism"
  • Dexaneos "Deshaiism"

Followers or devotees are represented with a suffixed -(e)ìtega.

  • Saqeleìtega
  • Dexaìtega

Sciences are represented with -(e/i/u)mahet.

  • ottemahet "linguistics"
  • saegumahet "geology"

Scientists are represented with -(e/i/u)mahera.

  • ottemahera "linguist"
  • saegumahera "geologist"

A common suffix for disorders or diseases is -arda.

  • ijmellarda "mania"

A common suffix for languages is -rrix.

  • Alemarrix "Alemarese"

The common diminutive is -itxe. Quite a few diminutives have become fixed in meaning.

  • xile > xilitxe "small scratch/scrape"
  • pelsa > pelsitxe "little kid"
  • Rajàn > Rajanitxe

There is also a nonproductive, personal diminutive formed by reduplicating the first consonant and vowel, dropping the rest, and sometimes by vowel raising.

  • Rajàn > Rere
  • Vilxe > Vivi

The augmentative is -omf(a). Again, a few augmentatives have become fixed in meaning.

  • pelsa > pelsomfa "big kid"
  • petae > peteomf "tropical storm"

Pronouns and Determiners[]

Personal pronouns[]

1s seo3 ze seon sèome seo ze
1p nave nauf naven nàveme nave nauve
2s to toe taun taume to toe tavoì
2p tyo tyon tyome tyo tyoe tyoù joa joan jòame joe joe joen joen jòeme joà
3s.obv tia tian tìame tie tie
3p.obv tien tien tìeme teà
3s.inan li lun lume lo le
3p.inan eli elon èlome elyu ele
  1. Pronouns are the only part of speech which have a separate accusative case. These are also used after prepositions were nouns would use the nominative.
  2. Possessive pronouns are determiners, and agree with following nouns in case, gender, and number.
  3. The 1s pronoun is written and pronounced as seu in Westos.


INTER REL PROX/MED/DIST NEG few/some/many/all NDEF other
determiner betxine qede/sole/þele ige five/tlone/be/ipse saude tlime
possessive biðe iðe


betxine iðe * * * * *
animate qede/sole/þele pidejna five/tlone/be/ipse saude tlime
inanimate betxìn pidejn


betxine fo ið * * * * *


beu visù ið * * * * *


byaeq dxà ið * zimae * * *


usuem * * * * *

mor hus

beidre * ismor ge hus saude * *


gae/pirel betxìn gae/pirel ið * * * * *


jedaj * ige five/tlone/be/ipse * *
  • Alemarese has separate interrogative and relative pronouns.
  • Determiners and possessives agree in case, number, and gender with their referents.
  • Cells marked with a * are simply a combination of the left phrase plus the corresponding determiner. ex. visù qede "here"
  • Ipse "all" can be softened to ipsitxe "most".
  • Gai and pirel are both conjunctions meaning "because" or "for".


The articles describe the specificity and definiteness of their referent. The article go is the definite article. A null article is used for specific indefinite referents. And saude "any" is used for nonspecific indefinite referents. Specificity is basically the same thing as uniqueness, whereas definiteness means the referent is previously referred to or obvious from context or the frame of reference. So all definite referents are specific as well. The article go is irregular:

sg pl sg pl
NOM goa goen go
GEN goe ga go gu
ALL goan goen gon gòn
INSTR game geme gume gome
VOC ga goen


Declension table[]

The citation form is the inanimate nominative singular. There are three declension classes. Most adjectives decline just like nouns with the same endings, though the third class is unique. Adjectives can be used substantively. Adjectives undergo the same stem alternations as nouns with the same endings.

NOM -a/en -0/o -ya/yen -i -e/en -e/i
GEN -e/à -o/ù~yu -ye/yà -i/ì -i/ì
ALL -an/en -un/on -yan/yen -in/en -en
INSTR -ame/eme -ume/ome -yame/yeme -ime/eme -eme
VOC -à/en -yà/yen -è/en


hobul 'old' (Joen mo krenten hobulen. 'They are very old people.')

sg pl sg pl
NOM hobula hobulen hobul hobulo
GEN hobule hobulà hobulo hobulyu
ALL hobulan hobulen hobulun hobulon
INSTR hobùlame hobùleme hobùlume hobùlome
VOC hobulà hobulen

kremi 'holy' (Koa dine ginora hosa en kremya! 'Even the trickster god is holy!')

sg pl sg pl
NOM kremya kremyen kremi
GEN kremye kremyà kremì
ALL kremyan kremyen kremin kremen
INSTR krèmyame krèmyeme krèmime krèmeme
VOC kremyà kremyen

kade 'new' (En el go alemaro ramisfundxam horme kade! 'It's from the new Alemarese Third Republic!')

sg pl sg pl
NOM kade kaden kade kadi
GEN kadi kadì
ALL kaden
INSTR kàdeme
VOC kadè kaden


Negation is expressed with the i- prefix (is- before l, n, m, h, or a vowel). A y or k after the prefix becomes x. This is considered an inflectional, rather than derivational, affix.

  • lott > islott "calm"
  • kremi > ixremi "unholy"


Quite a few adjectives use the same root as a corresponding noun.

  • kauze "light" > kauze "bright"
  • ling "south" > "southern"
  • lott "panic" > "panicking"
  • txindi "color red" > "red"

Verbal participles also find use as adjectives.

  • jeme "join, connect, unite" > jemeþ "joint, connected, united"

That an action is able to be done on something is indicated with a suffixed -yùn.

  • foyùn "doable"
  • talentuyùn "countable"
  • ixileyùn "scratch-proof"

Demonyms and resemblances are formed with the suffix -ev.

  • babora > baborev "motherly, nurturing"
  • Voesosev "Westosese"

The nominal diminutive and augmentative suffixes can be applied to adjectives as well.

  • raeðomf "very angry"
  • kaditxe "newish"

Case usage[]


The nominative case is the dictionary form of a noun. It is primarily used for the subject and primary object of a sentence (for nouns). As a secundative language, Alemarese treats the indirect object of a ditransitive verb and the direct object of a transitive verb the same. This is called the primary object.

The nominative is also used for the objects of several prepositions: benefactives, locatives, temporals, hus "as", and id "about".


A separate accusative case is only found on personal pronouns. These are used for the primary object of a sentence. They are optionally used as the complement of the copula.

  • Seo emi seo and Seo emi ze are both acceptable for "I am me".


The genitive case has a few uses. It primarily signifies possession (go kurù freziv "the flames' heat") and composition (lotto emaje "a state of panic") when placed before a noun.

It is also used in a partitive sense, appearing on nouns before numbers. ex. krente jieð "64 people"

The genitive additionally shows the origin of something and, in the same capacity, to make basic demonyms.

  • ex. Seo mi alemaro. "I'm Alemarese."

It's also used to show groups to which one is a member.

  • ex. hetro ridore "of House Kicker"

And to make matronymics.

  • ex. rajàn rajano "John, child of John"

When used with locative prepositions, it gives them an 'away from' component.

  • ex. ij "in" > "out of", ro "on" > "off of", vend "at" > "from"


The Allative case has two uses. The first is to signify movement towards. When used with locative prepositions, it gives them a 'towards' component.

  • ex. ij "in" > "into", ro "on" > "onto", vend "at" > "to"

The second usage is as the object of a nominalized sentence.

  • joe karer gon ledxifun "his holding (of) the flag"


The instrumental case has three uses. It is used to signify an instrument that is used to complete an action, to govern a few prepositions, and as the secondary object of a sentence. The secondary object corresponds to the direct object of a ditransitive verb.

  • Seo odasi toe game kùltyame. "I gave you the fruit."


The vocative is used for direct address. Only animate nouns have a vocative. The singular vocative is the same as the plural genitive and the plural vocative is the same as the plural nominative.

  • ex. Aði krenten! 'Hello people!'
  • ex. Undxi vilxà. 'Bye, Vilshe.'


There are four conjugation classes based on four thematic vowels: a, e, u, and o.

Present tense[]

The present tense is used for ongoing current events and states.

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 -i -en -i -en -i -on -i -on
2 -ak -aru -ek -eru -uk -uru -ok -oru
3 -a -e -u -o

ex. seo odi "I give"

Recent tense[]

The recent tense is formed with the present tense + sentence final particle .

The recent tense is used for events which happened typically within the past ten minutes.

ex. seo odi là "I just gave"

Direct tense[]

The remote tense is used for past events which the speaker personally experienced.

It is formed like this: stem + theme vowel + s + E endings.

ex. seo odasi "I know I gave"

Indirect tense[]

The indirect tense is used for past events which the speaker didn't personally experience.

The indirect tense is indicated with the infix -iz- (-ez- after an a, or occasionally au or o) + the present endings. Stress is placed on the infix in the 2p and 3p, and before the infix otherwise. -a verbs endings change to -e verb endings after -iz-.

ex. seo òdizi "I suppose/hear I gave"

Future tense[]

The future tense is used for actions and states that have not happened yet. This tense has a unique set of endings related to the verb en "be".

sg pl sg pl
1 -emi -emon -oemi -oemon
2 -emok -emoru -oemok -oemoru
3 -èn -emò -oèn -oemò

ex. seo odemi "I will give"

A prospective tense can be formed with the future tense + sentence final particle . The prospective tense is used for events which will happen typically within ten minutes.

ex. seo odemi là "I just gave"

Hypothetical tense[]

The hypothetical tense is used for events considered likely and/or dependent on some condition.

It is formed like this: stem + theme vowel + j + A endings (except for U verbs which get E endings). Stress is placed on the syllable before the theme vowel except in the 2p and 3p.

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 -aji -ajen -eji -ejen -uji -ujen -oji -ojen
2 -ajak -àjaru -ejak -èjaru -ujek -ùjeru -ojak -òjaru
3 -aja -aje -eja -eje -uje -uje -oja -oje

ex. seo òdaji "I could give"

A past hypothetical can be formed with the hypothetical of fo "does" + a past participle.

ex. seo foji odas "I could've given"


active present -er -er -or -or
past -as -es -us -os
passive present -og -eg -ug/yug -ug
past -oþ -eþ -uþ/yuþ -uþ
  • U-conjugation passive participles use the second form after /l/, /r/, and /ʀ/.


Negation in statements and questions is expressed primarily by the i- prefix (is- before l, n, m, h, or a vowel). A y or k after the prefix becomes x. See below for more on negation.

  • fo "do" > ifo "not do"
  • serre "hunt" > iserre "not hunt"
  • legu "say" > islegu "not say"
  • oda "give" > isoda "not give"
  • talentu "count" > italentu "not count"

Regular verbs[]

moiza "to know" (Moizi toe! "I know you!")

present direct indirect future hypothetical
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 moizi moizen moizasi moizasen mòizizi mòizizen moizemi moizemon mòizaji mòizajen
2 moizak moizaru moizasek moizaseru mòizizek moizìzeru moizemok moizemoru mòizajak moizàjaru
3 moiza moizè moizase moizasè mòizize moizize moizèn moizemò mòizaja moizaje

serre "to hunt" (Serrer enxele ze. "I like to hunt.")

present direct indirect future hypothetical
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 serri serren serresi serresen sèrrizi sèrrizen serremi serremon sèrreji sèrrejen
2 serrek serreru serresek serreseru sèrrizek serrìzeru serremok serremoru sèrrejak serrèjaru
3 serre serrè serrese serresè sèrrize serrize serrèn serremò sèrreja serreje

ginu "to trick, fool" (Alò, ginusek ze. "Wow, you really fooled me.")

present direct indirect future hypothetical
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 gini ginon ginusi ginusen gìnizi gìnizon ginemi ginemon gìnuji gìnujon
2 ginuk ginuru ginusek ginuseru gìnizuk ginìzuru ginemok ginemoru gìnujek ginùjeru
3 ginu ginù ginuse ginusè gìnizu ginizu ginèn ginemò gìnuje ginuje

furo "to lie" (Furosek ip ze gae betxìn? "Why did you lie to me?")

present direct indirect future hypothetical
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 furi furon furosi furosen fùrizi fùrizon furoemi furoemon fùroji fùrojen
2 furok furoru furosek furoseru fùrizok furìzoru furoemok furoemoru fùrojak furòjaru
3 furo furò furose furosè fùrizo furizo furoèn furoemò fùroja furoje

Irregular verbs[]

en, mor, mos, mug, muþ "be"

present direct indirect future hypothetical
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 emi emon mosi mosen èttosi èttoson moemi moemon èmoji èmojen
2 emok moru mosek moseru èttosuk ettòsuru moemok moemoru èmojak mòjaru
3 en mose mosè èttosu ettosu moèn moemò èmoja moje

er, rer, reþ "must, have to" (Iseren ge fo qede. "We don't have to do this." vs. Eren ifo ge qede "We mustn't do this.")

sg pl
1 redxi ren
2 rek reru
3 er rei

fo, fer, fos, fog, foþ "do"

present direct indirect future hypothetical
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 fodxi fen fosi fosen èfizi èfizen foemi foemon èfoji èfojen
2 fok foru fosek foseru èfizek fìzeru foemok foemoru èfojak fòjaru
3 fo foi fose fosè èfize fize foèn foemò èfoja foje

tyu "be born"

present direct indirect future hypothetical
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 tyudxi tyon tyusi tyusen ètxizi ètxizon tyemi tyemon ètyuji ètyujon
2 tyuk tyuru tyusek tyuseru ètxizuk txìzuru tyemok tyemoru ètyujek tyùjeru
3 tyu tyui tyuse tyusè ètxizu txizu tyen tyemò ètyuje tyuje

undxe "come, go" has a different stem in the direct past and in the past participles idx-

present direct
sg pl sg pl
1 undxi undxen idxesi idxesen
2 undxek undxeru idxesek idxeseru
3 undxe undxè idxese idxesè

Predictably irregular verbs[]

Some other seeming irregularities are actually regular patterns:

  • Verbs with a stem ending in k or ty sometimes change to end in tx before front vowels, except for A verb's active present participles, 1p present, and 3p present. ex. biku "it's dancing" > bitxi "I'm dancing"
  • Verbs with a stem ending in g or dy sometimes change to end in dx in the same conditions as the previous verbs. ex. menga "it's turning" > mendxi "I'm turning"
  • Verbs with a stem ending in a vowel followed by tr change to end in rx in the same conditions as the previous verbs.
  • Verbs with a stem ending in q change to end in tx in the 1s present and in the indirect tense if the indirect infix is -iz-.
  • U verbs and some O verbs with a stem ending in f, þ, or ð change the to end in p, t, or d, respectively, before any non-<u> vowel except in the 1s. ex. pilðu "it's firing (a shot)" > pildon "we're firing (a shot)"


Verbs are commonly zero-derived from nouns with the meaning "to use _" or "to engage in or produce _".

  • aqala "song" > aqala "sing"
  • oþànker "nose" > oþankro "smell, sniff"

The prefix vel- indicates repetition.

  • velfo "redo"
  • velfrezivo "reheat"
  • veltalentu "recount"

The prefix dro- indicates an undoing.

  • droite "unpause, resume"

The suffix -elja makes captative verbs.

  • idrya > idryelja "pick flowers"
  • tareba > tarebelja "catch/hunt birds"

There is a causative suffix -ele, but it is nonproductive and only appears on native adjectives. It surfaces as -ere after an /l/.

  • kremi "holy" > kremele "sanctify, bless"
  • ritx "dark" > ritxele "darken"
  • kahel "soft" > kahelere "soften"



Subject phrase-Verb phrase

Noun phrases[]

Article/Possessive/Genitive-Noun-Adjectives-Other Determiners-Relative clause

Only one determiner or genitive can occur in a noun phrase.


A comparative phrase is formed by the following formula: Adjective rolu Noun-gen.

  • Joa mose kibe rolu goe krente tlime. "He was happier than the other man."

The comparison class can be left out in informal speech.

  • Joa mose kibe rolu. "He was happier."

A negative comparative "less than" phrase is formed with edlu in place of rolu.

An equative "as _ as" is formed with hus instead of rolu.

  • Joa en jem hus joa mose. "He is as short as he ever was."

Superlatives are formed with a following rolu ipse (lit. "over all"), or any comparison class qualified with ipse.

  • go aurem moizog hobul rolu ipse "the oldest known star"
  • kibe rolu ga krentà ipsà "happiest of the people"

Inverse superlatives are formed with a following edlu ipse (lit. "under all").

  • go kòsembe hobul edlu ipse "the least old cousin"

Quantities of items can also be compared in a similar way.

  • luen rolu krentà "more flies than people"

Verb phrases[]

Verb-Particle-Primary Object-Secondary Object-Prepositional Phrases

Pronoun dropping[]

Subject pronouns are very commonly dropped if the verb ending or context makes the subject unambiguous. In the 3rd person, the absence of a pronoun is the equivalent of an inanimate pronoun, so other 3rd person pronouns are not dropped.

Auxiliary verbs[]

Auxiliary verbs occur before the main verb and take all markings, with the main verb appearing in the 3s form. The auxiliary and main verbs can be negated separately.

  • àlusu "finish/stop/cease"
  • bosna "accidentally"
  • droite "unpause/resume"
  • er "must/have to/need to"
  • ilavre "tend/be wont/liable/likely to,"
  • ite "pause/interrupt"
  • jisle "help to/assist with"
  • lupeju "begin to/start to"
  • magreiva "fail to"
  • maya "attempt/try"
  • moiza "know how to"
  • oreme "ask/beg/plead/request"
  • pleru "cause/make"
  • solio "hope/want to"
  • tao "force"
  • txaxure "successfully"
  • velmaya "retry"
  • vendu "stay/remain/keep/still"
  • yunu "can/be able/be allowed"
  • zatxe "pretend to/fake"
  • zave "should"


The causative construction is highly productive. Causer pleru Verb Subject (Object-instr)

  • Ze pels paebe kultya là. "My child ate fruit." > Seo pleri paebe ze pels (kùltyame) là. "I fed my child (fruit)."

Pleru can be replaced with tao to imply the action was forced against the subject's will.

  • > Seo tai paebe ze pels là. "I force-fed my child."

Nominalizing Sentences[]

S V O > S-gen V-part O-all

  • Joa kara go ledxif. "He is holding the flag." > Joe karer gon ledxifun faurxèlize tia. "His holding the flag frightened them."


Clauses can be subordinated with an initial particle þe.


Quotations are rather simple in Alemarese. The exact words of the person being quoted are surrounded by the Chevi quotation marks and , with either a preceding or following conjugated legu "say" and þe. For example,

  • Joa legu là þe ‹ seo i fera zimae sole ›. or ‹ Seo i fera zimae sole › joa legu là þe. "He said he didn't do that."

Relative clauses[]

Simple relative clauses where the referent is the subject of the relativized verb can appear as participles, the same as a nominalized sentence as described above. Otherwise the verb will be fully conjugated with a relative pronoun.


Complex subjects can be backed to the end of a sentence if a pronoun is left in their place.

  • Goa remuraza txindya neduya raeðe idxese nof. > Joa idxese nof goa remuraza txindya neduya raeðe. "The angry large red animal approached us."


S V O > O fo V-pass.part (ij S-gen)

  • Ze pels paebe kultya là. "My child ate fruit." > Kultya fose paebeþ (ij ze pelso) là. "Fruit was eaten (by my child)."


Reciprocals can be made by using the preposition ga followed by a plural accusative pronoun. This can even be used after another preposition, though without proper case marking. This is considered substandard in some areas.

  • Altosen ga nof. "We noticed each other."


Negation is normally expressed with a prefix, but that's not all for verbs. The prefixed verb is usually paired with one of a handful of post-verbal particles.

  • ge: unmarked; ex. Ifudxi ge sole. "I don't do that."
  • plo: emphatic, used mostly with commands; ex. Ifok plo sole! "Don't do that!"
  • zimae: never; ex. Seo ifera zimae sole. "I haven't ever done that."

These particles are placed directly after the main verb, be it auxiliary or not, and nothing can go between them and the verb. ex. Idxuhèremi zimae ze ip tyo! "I will never surrender to you!"

If an argument is negated, the postverbal particle will be absent, but the main verb will remain negated.


In order to form a yes/no-question, the particle enþe is added to the beginning of the sentence, without any change in word order or intonation.

  • Moizi toe. "I know you." vs Enþe moizi toe? "Do I know you?"

A particular noun can be questioned by bringing it before the question particle and leaving a pronoun in its place.

  • Goa kumeryora enþe joa ìdxize ij qedax? "Is it the president that came today?"

Questions without yes-no answers appear as regular statements with the appropriate interrogative pronoun where the answer to the question would be in the statement.

  • Qede en betxine? "Who is this?" vs. Qede en goa kumeryora. "This is the president."


Commands use the present forms of verbs and typically drop the subject. If the subject is maintained, it must be a vocative. Commands can be softened by using the hypothetical, or by turning them into questions. Commands can be strengthened by using the future.


Consequences for real events are formed with the construction: Consequence + gae/pirel + Event. Gae and pirel are essentially identical in meaning.


Conditional statements are formed with the construction: Consequence uve Condition, where both parts are in the hypothetical.

  • Moizaji uve ifojak ge idxes vend gò biko. "I would know if you didn't go to the dance."


All true indivisible prepositions are as follows:

Alemarese Case(s) English
hus nom as, like
usuem gen in the manner of
vend nom next to, at
gen away from
all to, towards
ij nom in, at/during/while
gen out from
all into
ro(l) nom on
gen off from, off of
all onto
id nom about
ip nom for (the benefit of), intended for, per
all to, towards
el gen made of, from
set instr (along) with
zen instr without
ga nom amid/amongst, (in) between
ðio nom passing through, for (a time)
instr using
suqe nom encircling, passing around, for (a cyclical time)
negat nom versus, (leaning) against
rolu gen above/over, on top of, before, more than
edlu gen below/under, after, less than


Focus particles[]

Evidential particles[]

Clausal particles[]

Emphatic particles[]

Discourse particles[]


ð (and), iy...iy... (either or), tae...tae... (and/or), no (but/yet), gae/pirel (because/for), uve (if)



Though Patronans have ten fingers in total, the most common base for numerals (talento) is 8 (octal) which was spread by Alemarese and Barejine-speakers across most of Patrona. Typically, finger-counting starts with the thumbs out, the first finger being the index, etc.

Numbers are nouns declined according to form. The item they tell the quantity of is rendered in the genitive before them. ex. krente dxen "nine people"

# name #+8 #+16 #*8 #*64 (#+8)*64 #*512
0 pidejn on teziq pidejn pidejn onieð pidejn
1 jen dxen jenteziq on jieð dxenieð onieð
2 diz eqa dizteziq teziq tezieð ekieð tezikieð
3 hor horòn horteziq horsiq horieð horonieð horsikieð
4 mir miròn mirteziq mirsiq mirieð mironieð mirsikieð
5 dorza dorsòn dorzateziq dorsiq dorxeð dorsonieð dorsikieð
6 pexa pexòn pexateziq pexiq pexeð pexonieð pexikieð
7 ðea ðeòn ðeateziq ðeziq ðeyeð ðeonieð ðezikieð
8 on teziq horsiq jieð onieð tezikieð jeðim
  • Ordinals are formed with <-me>. First and second are formed suppletively (veit and drezip). They are adjectives.
  • Fractions are formed with <-aj>. Half is suppletive and quarter is irregular (foli and mirej). They are nouns.
  • In both ordinals and fractions, only the end of the number receives the ending.
  • Nouns specified for number are not usually marked grammatically for number. An explicit plural marking can imply a spread-out plural. ex. krentà eqen "ten people from all over"
  • Higher numbers are single words and in the opposite order of English. An interfixed -uð- can be used to separate a single digit from larger numbers for disambiguation. ex. jentezikied 21008 vs jenuðtezikied 20018


Patronans can't see blue, so they have no need of words to distinguish it, greatly shrinking their color (fulko) vocabulary.

  • txindi: red
  • txindi ritx: dark red, purple
  • god: light red, pink, orange
  • god ritx: brown
  • plauve: white
  • xab: light green, yellow-green
  • xab ritx: dark yellow-green
  • varze: green, cyan
  • varze ritx: dark green, teal
  • eriti: black, blue
  • hoitxi: gray, yellow


  • hèder: house/clan
  • hetro pripea: patriarch/matriarch of the house/clan
  • paloval: family
  • babora/baba: mother
  • nunora/nuna: father
  • iserren: parents
  • blivoa: sibling
  • jiþue: spouse
  • jiþue ____: ____-in-law
  • pels: son/daughter (don't confuse w/ pelza "child, young person")
  • meðvoa: nibling/niece/nephew
  • birre: mother's sibling's spouse
  • hube: mother's sibling
  • ernya: father's sibling
  • nekra: father's sibling's spouse
  • kòsembe: house relative, maternal cousin
  • ernye pels: paternal cousin
  • babiserren/pripeyen: maternal grandparents
  • pripea: maternal grandmother
  • pripè: maternal grandfather
  • nuniserren: paternal grandparents
  • nunbabora/nunbaba: paternal grandmother
  • nunnunora/nunnuna: paternal grandfather

Body parts[]

  • Body: jekryuje
  • Skin: kale
  • Hair: drasne
  • Head: viryune
  • Face: meusume
  • Mouth: polðue
  • Lips: fuxen
  • Tongue: otta
  • Tooth plates: isi
  • Head ridges: qeo
  • Nose: oþànker
  • Outer ears: txerren
  • Inner ears: yeixeren
  • Eyes: riðuri
  • Neck: qamosi
  • Shoulders: deldxeþ
  • Lower back: qoisli
  • Tail: sunti
  • Chest: mana
  • Belly: hadla
  • Arms: ulzen
  • Elbows: ulzà jemedo
  • Hands: faðren
  • Hands' backs: seido (sg. seiþ)
  • Digits: eþazen
  • Nails: lifo
  • Legs: zaken
  • Knees: zakà jemedo
  • Feet: jamben
  • Toes: jambà eþazen 


Basic temporal vocabulary[]

Instead of saying an event to place "at" some time, Alemarese speakers use the preposition ij "in".

  • Time: dxà
  • Day: ax
  • Sunrise: tembre àlus (lit. "night's end")
  • Daytime: þeudxì
  • Sunset: þeudxio àlus (lit. "daytime's end")
  • Nighttime: tembra
  • Yesterday: rolax
  • Today: qedax
  • Tomorrow: edlax
  • Year: rang
  • Season: vosi
  • Month: mind (from Minde, larger of the two moons)
  • Week: alustors
  • Hour: jaurà
  • Minute: veidò (from veit, first)
  • Second: kið


Alemarese speakers use a twelve month lunisolar calendar based on the larger moon Minde, where every month (mind) begins in a full moon and lasts twenty days, or four Patronan weeks. A leap month Texuþ is inserted before the last month Àluso in years divisible by 6, but not in years divisible by 24. Months are mostly named after positions in the year and certain gods.

The current year is 2208.

# Name Pronunciation Origin
1 Lupejo /lupéxo/ go lupej "the beginning"
2 Dxakuro /dʒakúɾo/ go dxà kuror "the burning time"
3 Arexmi /aɾéʃmi/ arexo mind "Aresh’s month"
4 Dxaðumo /dʒaðúmo/ go dxà ðumor "the resting time"
5 Yauqnarmi /jɔʔnáɾmi/ yauqnare mind "Yau'nara's month"
6 Yaqnaomi /jaʔnáwmi/ yaqnavo mind "Ya'naf's month"
7 Dxaxonte /dʒaʃónte/ go dxà xonter "the freezing time"
8 Mindome /mindóme/ go mind onme "the eighth month"
9 Mindxeme /mindʒéme/ go mind dxenme "the nineth month"
10 Dxarrigo /dʒaʀígo/ go dxà jrigor "the waking time"
11 Huryermi /uɾjéɾmi/ huryere mind "Uriera's month"
1x Texuþ /teʃúθ/ go texuze uþ "the long wait"
12 Àluso /áluso/ go àlus "the ending"

Days of the Week[]

The Patronan week is only five days long. The Alemarese word for this period is alustors from àluso dorso "five ends", referring to sunrises which are the end and beginning of each Patronan day. The days are named after the larger moon, the sun, and three of the planets. Each Patronan day is a little over 31 hours long.

  1. Mindax: named after Minde, the larger of Patrona's two moons
  2. Deruax: named after Patrona's sun, Derù
  3. Kavekax: named after the largest planet in Patrona's system, Kavèk, or the god of intellect, Kaveka
  4. Veverax: named after the closest planet to Derù, Vever, which is an archaic word meaning "wind"
  5. Lameax: named after the desert planet Lamea, which is an archaic word meaning "love"


Seasons (vosi) do not begin on solstices/equinoxes, those are their middles instead. The first day of the year is very close to the Summer solstice. Because of Patrona's slightly elliptical orbit, in the northern hemisphere, autumn is the longest season and spring is the shortest. This is reversed in the southern hemisphere.

  • esè (eseo): summer
  • dimbri: fall/autumn
  • veyeþ (veyedo): winter
  • àdler (aldro): spring

Naming days[]

Days are named by the following formula: so Day Ordinal (not for first week) el Month (in the genitive) ij rango Year number. This can be abbreviated as D el M (r Y). In these abbreviations, the month Texuþ is simply t.

  • 21 el 4 r 0424 or so deruax mirme el dxaðumo ij rango mirsiqdizmirsikieð (M/D/Y system 4/10/2208)
  • 1 el 1 or so mindax el lupejo (1/1)
  • 51 el t r 2324 or so lameax horme el texuþo ij rango dizhorsiqdizmirsikieð (12/13/2202)

Solar System[]

Body Pronunciation Type Color
Derù /deɾú/ K0-type star orange
Vever /βeβéɾ/ tidally-locked molten rock red
Aqes /aqés/ iron ball gray
Lamea /laméa/ ringed inhabited terrestrial yellow
Patrona /patɾóna/ inhabited terrestial blue
asteroid belt
Kavèk /kaβék/ ringed gas giant greenish
Xutè /ʃuté/ gas giant beige
Yonara /jonáɾa/ ice giant dark blue
asteroid belt


dejsamar samar txosamar
West deje vuxe txos East
dejling ling txosling

Important Phrases[]

English Alemarese
hello/hi/welcome Aði (toe/tyo)
hello/hi/welcome (reply) Broji (toe/tyo)
goodbye/bye Undxi (to/tyo)
goodbye/bye/come again (reply) Aði (toe/tyo)
How are you? To mok beidre?
please Oremi
thank you Broji
sorry Nesi
well/wow alò
yes en
no plo
maybe eniplo
What's your name? Toe þung en betxìn?
My name's... Ze þung en...
Where are you from? To mok vend bevo?
I'm from... Seo mi vend...
Do you speak Alemarese? To leguk ðio alemarrìxume?
I don't know. Imoizi ge.
I love you (like family). Blivoak ze.
I love you (romantically). Lamyak ze.


  • kauhau: crow
  • kukururù: cock-a-doodle-doo
  • jraf: bark
  • avuv: howl
  • jisss: hiss
  • bris: shatter
  • jrep: rip
  • epjiq: splash
  • xul: swoosh
  • pirb: drip
  • bum: boom
  • txiqxeq: chatter
  • epsiq: spit
  • vix: swish
  • juk: slurp
  • txuq: hiccup

Swadesh list[]

No. English Alemarese
2you (singular)to, toe
3hejoa, tia
5you (plural)tyo
6theyjoen, tien
8thatsole, þele
9herevend qede
10therevend sole, vend þele
16notge, plo
37man (adult male)krenta
38man (human being)
39childpelsa, pels
42motherbabora, baba
43fathernunora, nunu
73eartxerra, yeixera
82kneezake þuð
96spitfo espiq
148moonMinde, Jilia, suqundxer
172redtxindi, god
173greenvarze, xab
206becausegae, ipler

Example Text[]

Jyumen ipsen tyui kara veaðra, elkinize, qadrize, ð abelo. Joen foi odog apelauze ð ogame ð zavè tirre kòsemben ga joa.

(Abelette ip jyumà dox veit)

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)