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Alemarese
Alemarrix
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
right
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Alemarese (natively Alemarrix /alemaˈʀiʃ/) is one of the most spoken languages of the alien Patronans (Patroneren, sg. Patronera) on the planet Patrona (Patroneva). It is the majority language in several nations, most notably Westos (Voestos) and Alemar (Alemar), and taught as a lingua franca the world over.

Classification Edit

Alemarese is an Edalith language, of the Chevin branch and the Peninsular subbranch.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

labial interdental alveolar postalveolar palatal velar uvular glottal
nasal m (n) ŋ
stop p b d tʃ dʒ k g q (ʔ)
fricative ɸ β θ s z ʃ (ç) x
approximant ð̞ l̟ j w
rhotic (ɾ̟) (ɾ̟̃) ɾ ʀ
  • /b/, /β/, /l/, /d/, /dʒ/, and /ʀ/ do not occur word-finally in most dialects.
  • The interdental nasal /n/ and partially the alveolar flap /r/ assimilate to the place of articulation of the following consonant.
  • The interdental nasal /n/ is pronounced as a nasalized interdental flap [ɾ̟̃] in non-stressed and non-word-initial locations.
  • The uvular stop /q/ is pronounced as a glottal stop [ʔ] in the coda.
  • Whether or not /z/ is a separate consonant and its degree of separation from /s/ both differ from dialect to dialect.
  • The velar fricative is pronounced as a palatal [ç] after /i/ or /e/.
  • The labialized velar approximant /w/ has many origins and thus alternates with several other phonemes. It is the pronunciation of /l/ in the coda, and of /u/ in many diphthongs.

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i u
Mid
Open a
  • The close vowels /i/ and /u/ lower in response to a following /ŋ/, /k/, /g/, and /q/.
  • The mid vowels /e/ and /o/ lower when followed by a coda consonant and raise before another vowel or word-finally.
  • In some dialects, [e] and [ɛ] (and [o] and [ɔ]) contrast word-finally.
  • Conservative dialects have contrasting close-mid and open-mid vowels in all positions.
  • The front open vowel /a/ raises to [æ] before alveolar consonants in some dialects and backs to [ɑ] when adjacent to a uvular stop [q].
  • Vowels gain a following semivocalic schwa before nasals in some dialects.
  • Any two adjacent vowels diphthongize, and the consonantal one may be raised in some dialects.

StressEdit

Stress is typically on the penultimate vowel, unless the word ends with a consonant other than <n> or <k>; however, stress is contrastive, and is thus marked in non-obvious locations by a grave accent. Stress takes the form of a rising pitch in neutral contexts, but is high level pitch in interjections/vocatives, and peaking pitch on the stressed word of a question. ex. ginora "trickster" [gin̟ǒ̞ɾa]

Writing SystemEdit

The AlphabetEdit

Alemarese is written in the Standard Chevin Alphabet (natively Txevì Keaja).

Chevin orthographic grid

The Alemarese Alphabet with names in transliterated Alemarese.

Writing Direction Edit

The script is written left-to-right, the same primary direction as the Latin Alphabet used for English; However, the secondary direction (that is, what to do at the end of a line) is completely alien. At the end of a line, the text is continued at the left of the next line above the current line. So all text starts at the bottom of a page, including all titles!

Digraphs Edit

B is any back vowel, F is any front vowel.

  • au /o/, ai /e/
  • cm /m/ word-initially
  • dx /dʒ/
  • jr /ʀ/ word-initially, jC /C/
  • ng /ŋ/, ngg /ŋg/
  • rr /ʀ/
  • sp /ʃp/, st /ʃt/
  • tt /tː/, tx /tʃ/
  • veB /βB/, voF /wF/

Native Collation Edit

k, a, j, d, g, u, q, p, b, o, h, v, e, s, z, t, l, f, i, y, ð, r, n, m, þ, x

Punctuation Edit

  • .⟩ (⟨,⟩): abbreviations, lists, separation of clauses
  • :⟩ (⟨.⟩): begins paragraphs, ends sentences
  • ...⟩ (⟨...⟩): intentional omission
  • ~~~⟩ (⟨...⟩): unfinished thought, pause in speech
  • ~:⟩ (⟨...⟩): trailing into silence
  • ~⟩ (⟨-⟩): ranges, introducing lists, introduces quotes
  • ⟩ and ⟨⟩: appositives, quotes
  • «⟩ and ⟨»⟩: parenthesis
  • upside-down rounded ⟨7⟩ & rounded ⟨7⟩ (⟨?⟩): encloses questions
  • upside-down ⟨⟩ (⟨!⟩): ends positive emotion exclamations
  • ⟩ (⟨!⟩): ends negative emotion exclamations

TransliterationEdit

Letter a b d ð e f g h i j k l m
Sound /a/ /b/ /d/ /ð/ /e/ /ɸ/ /g/ 0 /i/ /x/ /k/ /l/, /w/ /m/
Letter n o p q r s t u v x y z þ
Sound /n/ /o/ /p/ /q/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /u/, /w/ /β/, /w/ /ʃ/ /j/ /z/ /θ/
  • <l> is pronounced /w/ in the coda.
  • <v> is pronounced /w/ before back vowels.
  • <b>, <d>, and <v> are devoiced to /p/, /t/, and /ɸ/ word-finally.

Parts of SpeechEdit

  • Nouns: persons, places, objects, and ideas; ex. krenten "people"
  • Adjectives: descriptors of nouns; ex. nedui "big"
  • Pronouns: short stand-ins for nouns; ex. nave "we"
  • Determiners: articles, demonstratives, quantifiers, and distributives; ex. qede "this"
  • Verbs: actions; ex. aqala "it sings"
  • Prepositions: signals relationships between words; ex. edlu "under, after"
  • Adverbials: descriptions of actions, adjectives, and utterances; ex. islottiemf "calmly"
  • Conjunctions: connects words, phrases, or clauses; ex. ð "and"
  • Particles: short words with miscellaneous functions; ex. "just now"
  • Interjections: stand-alone words which express spontaneous feelings or reactions; ex. alò "wow"

NounsEdit

Declension tableEdit

Animate Inanimate
A E O I E
NOM -a/en -e/en -0/o -i -e
GEN -e/à -o/ù
ALL -an/en -en -un/on -in/en -en
INSTR -ame/eme -eme -ume/ome -ime/eme -eme
VOC -à/en

First declensionEdit

The first declension houses the vast majority of animate nouns, all morphological diminutives, and all instruments. The animate nouns have a vocative case, in contrast with the inanimates. There's very little irregularity in the first declension. Noun endings -ea or -aya become -eye and -ae when the ending begins with e.

ex. otta "tongue, language, speech"

sg pl
NOM otta otten
GEN otte ottà
ALL ottan otten
INSTR òttame òtteme
VOC ottà otten

Note that the plural nominative, allative, and vocative are the same, as are plural genitive and singular vocative. So there is seven forms. Some declension I nouns have -es instead of -as in the singular nominative, allative, and instrumental, reducing the number of forms to four.

ex. xile "scratch, scrape"

sg pl
NOM xile xilen
GEN xelà
ALL xilen
INSTR xìleme
VOC xelà xilen

Second declensionEdit

The second declension is almost entirely inanimate, save for some names and some dialects nominative singular forms of the diminutives of the core family such as bab and nun in place of the more typical baba and nunya. For declension II names, the vocative is the nominative form. Declension II nouns typically have seven forms. The nominative plural is always the same as the genitive singular.

ex. kur "flame, fire"

sg pl
NOM kur kuro
GEN kuro kurù
ALL kurun kuron
INSTR kùrume kùrome

Second declension nouns typically end in a stressed syllable in the nominative singular. The addition of the endings bring about predictable alternations of certain final consonants. For a given word, there is a maximum of three stems. These alterations do not occur in loanwords. There are ten alternation classes:

  1. The first class are the regular nouns: loanwords and those ending in any consonant not mentioned in the other classes. ex. gix "trinket, keepsafe" (gixun, gixo)
  2. The next are those ending in <p> and <t>, which have three stems: a sg.nom stem (p/t), an u stem (f/þ), and a obl stem (b/d). ex. haup "pole, staff" (haufun, haubo)
  3. Next are those ending in <ð>, which are the same as those in <d> except in the sg.nom. raið "anger" (raiðun, raido)
  4. Nouns in <þ> have two stems: a sg or u stem (þ) and an obl stem (d). ex. yeþ "leaf" (yeþun, yedo)
  5. Next are the vowel-final nouns. In the sg.nom they are accented, in the sg.all/sg.instr they are accented and receive a -n/me ending (instead of a -un/ume), the other endings are regular. ex. jaurà "hour" (jauràn, jaurao)
  6. Nouns ending in <ò> lack number distinctions in the nom, all, and instr cases. ex. veidò "minute" (veidòn, veidò)
  7. Nouns ending in <ai> decline as nouns ending in <è> except in the sg.nom. petai "rain" (petèn, peteo)
  8. Next are nouns in <au> and <eu>, which replace the <u> with <v> before non-sg.nom endings. ex. qaleu "wave" (qalevun, qalevo)
  9. Next are nouns ending in a stop, followed by an unstressed <er>. They always drop the unstressed <e> in the non-sg.nom forms. Some nouns in <der> or <ber> then change the <d/b> to <t/p>. ex. hèder "house" (hetrun, hetro)
  10. Lastly are nouns which change pronunciation, but not spelling, of a final consonant in the sg.nom. <b> to /p/, <v> to /ɸ/, <d> to /t/, <l> to /w/, and <rr> to /ʀ/. ex. mind "month" (mindun, mindo)

Third declensionEdit

Third declension nouns are mostly inanimate, though there are a few groups of animates. They are the most regular declension. Nominative forms are used if a vocative is needed.

ex. duji "gold"

sg pl
NOM duji
GEN dujì
ALL dujin dujen
INSTR dùjime dùjeme

Note that the nominative and genitive forms do not distinguish singular v. plural. There is a subset of declension III nouns which have an -e instead of -i in the nominative forms and don't distinguish singular vs plural ever.

ex. rame "rope, noodle, cord"

sg pl
NOM rame
GEN remì
ALL ramen
INSTR ràmeme

Irregular nounsEdit

Few nouns are irregular, and if a noun is irregular, it is very predictable. An example of a truly irregular noun is oai "cloud".

sg pl
NOM oai vayo
GEN vayo vayù
ALL oen vayon
INSTR oème vàyome

Derivations Edit

Many nouns simply use the same root as their verbal counterparts.

  • oda > odi "gift"
  • pleru > pler "cause"
  • kultya > kultya "fruit"
  • idrya > idrya "flower"

The process of doing a verb and the quality of an adjective are both represented by -ize/uze.

  • blivoa > blivuze "brotherhood"
  • moiza > kmoizauze "knowledge"
  • siri > sirize "shininess"
  • kauze > kozize "brightness, brilliance"
  • ispe > ispize "all things" (archaic)

The result of a verb is represented by -aje.

  • magreiva > magreivaje "failure"
  • fo > faje "result"
  • em > emaje "existence"

Agents and instruments are represented by the active present participle -er(a)/or(a).

  • furo > furora "lier"
  • tampoma > tampomera "drummer"
  • xaula > xauler "knife"

People who live in a place are represented with -eva/even.

  • Alemareven "Alemarese people"
  • Voestoseven "Westosese people"
  • Mandxingeven "Manjingan people"

A person that enjoys something is represented with -(e)nxalauga.

  • remurazenxalauga "animal-lover"
  • ðumunxalauga "sleep-lover"
  • auremenxalauga "amateur astronomer"
  • hetrenxalauga "person obsessed with family drama"

A building where an action happens or an item is found, or the names of familial houses are represented with -èder.

  • ðumu > ðumèder "inn"
  • osimbrize > osimbrizèder "academy"
  • Ridorèder "House Kicker"

A common suffix for religions is -(n)eos.

  • Saqeleos "Easternism"
  • Dexaneos "Deshaiism"

Followers or devotees are represented with a suffixed -(e)ìtega.

  • Saqeleìtega
  • Dexaìtega

A common suffix for disorders or diseases is -arda.

  • ijmellarda "mania"

A common suffix for languages is -rrix.

  • Alemarrix "Alemarese"

The common diminutive is -ka. Quite a few diminutives have become fixed in meaning.

  • xile > xilka "small scratch/scrape"
  • pelsa > pelska "little kid"
  • Rajàn > Rajanka

The augmentative is -eiþ(a). Again, a few augmentatives have become fixed in meaning.

  • pelsa > pelseiþa "big kid"
  • petai > petayeiþ "tropical storm"

PronounsEdit

Nominative pronounsEdit

sg pl
1 seu1 nave
2 to myun
2.cer
3.an joa joen
3.inan 0
3.obv tia tien
  1. The 1s pronoun is written and pronounced as seo in Alemar proper and most of its recently freed colonies.

Accusative pronounsEdit

Pronouns are the only part of speech which have a separate accusative case. These are also used after prepositions, instead of nominative pronouns.

sg pl
1 ze nof
2 toe txuò
2.cer
3.an joa joe
3.inan li eli
3.obv tia tien

Allative pronounsEdit

sg pl
1 seun naven
2 ton myunon
2.cer mìn
3.an joan joen
3.inan lun elon
3.obv tian tien

Genitive pronounsEdit

sg pl
1 seu nave
2 toe myuno
2.cer mìo
3.an joe joà
3.inan lo elo
3.obv tie tià

Instrumental pronouns Edit

sg pl
1 seume naveme
2 tome myunome
2.cer mìme
3.an joame joeme
3.inan lume elome
3.obv tiame tieme

Possessive pronounsEdit

sg pl
1 ze nof
2 toe txuò
2.cer
3.an joe
3.inan lo elo
3.obv tie

Vocative pronounsEdit

There are only two vocative pronouns: 2s toyà and 2p txuò.

Interrogative pronounsEdit

who/which betxine /beˈtʃine/
what/which betxìn /beˈtʃin/
when byaiq /ˈbjeq/
where beu /ˈbew/
from where bevo /ˈbewo/
why gai betxìn /gebeˈtʃin/
how bidera /biˈdeɾa/
how much/many jedaj /xeˈdax/

AdjectivesEdit

The citation form is the inanimate nominative singular. Adjectives decline just like nouns with the same endings. There are three declension classes of adjectives: i/ya, 0/a, and e.

ex. kremi 'holy' (Soa dine ginora hosa em kremya! 'Even the trickster god is holy!')

sg pl
INAN NOM kremi kremi
GEN kremì kremì
ALL kremin kremen
INSTR krèmime krèmeme
AN NOM kremya kremyen
GEN kremye kremyà
ALL kremyan kremyen
INSTR krèmyame krèmyeme

ex. baborev 'motherly, nuturing' (Joen emò krenten hef baboreven. 'They are very nuturing people.')

sg pl
INAN NOM baborev baborevo
GEN baborevo baborevù
ALL baborevun baborevon
INSTR baborèvume baborèvome
AN NOM baboreva baboreven
GEN baboreve baborevà
ALL baborevan baboreven
INSTR baborèvame baborèveme

ex. kade 'new' (Em el so alemaro ramisfundxam horme kade! 'It's from the new Alemarese Third Republic!')

sg pl
INAN NOM kade kade
GEN kadì kadì
ALL kaden kaden
INSTR kàdeme kàdeme
AN NOM kade kaden
GEN kade kadà
ALL kaden kaden
INSTR kàdeme kàdeme

ComparisonEdit

Comparatives are formed with a suffixed -iz (-ez for the third adjective declension), which transforms the adjective into the second declension. Common adjectives can have irregular forms. A comparative phrase is formed by the following formula: comparative adjective hus genitive noun, ex. Joa fera zenmagreivajez hus soa krenta kibe. "He was more successful than the happy man."

  • kremi > kremiz "holier"
  • baborev > baboreviz "more nurturing"
  • kade > kadez "newer"

Superlatives are formed with a following vend ispizì (lit. from [the viewpoint of] all things).

  • ex. so aurem moizaug hobuliz vend ispizì "the oldest known star"

IntensityEdit

An intensive adjective is shown with the adverb particle hef placed before the adjective in question. Likewise, adjectives can be weakened with seh.

  • ex. Seu mi saidxemf hef raiða. "I am seriously very angry."
  • so hèder seh kade "the newish house"

Derivations Edit

Quite a few adjectives use the same root as a corresponding noun.

  • kauze "light" > kauze "bright"
  • ling "south, southern"
  • lott "panic, panicking"
  • txindi "red"

Adjectives can be negated with a prefixed is-.

  • lott > islott "calm"
  • kremi > iskremi "unholy"

Something lacking a noun or quality is shown via a prefixed zen-.

  • dine "god(s)" > zendine "godless"

That an action is able to be done on something is indicated with a suffixed -yùn.

  • foyùn "doable"
  • talentuyùn "countable"
  • isxileyùn "scratch-proof"

Demonyms and resemblances are formed with the suffix -ev.

  • babora > baborev "motherly, nurturing"
  • Voestosev "Westosese"

Adverbs Edit

Adverbs come in four varieties: adverbial phrases which appear before the sentence, adjectives which have the -iemf suffix which appear after the verb, adjectives with suppletive adverb forms, and short particles which go before what they modify.

DeterminersEdit

ArticleEdit

sg pl
INAN NOM so
GEN so su
ALL son sòn
INSTR sume some
AN NOM soa soen
GEN soe sa
ALL soan soen
INSTR same seme

DemonstrativesEdit

position
qede proximal
sole medial
þele distal

QuantifiersEdit

Quantifiers include: ispe "all", ispive "most", be "many/a lot", tlone "some", and five "few"

DistributivesEdit

Distributive determiners include: saude "any" and elkine "each".

Case usageEdit

NominativeEdit

The nominative case (abbreviated nom) is the dictionary form of a noun. It is primarily used for the subject and primary object of a sentence. As a secundative language, Alemarese treats the indirect object of a ditransitive verb and the direct object of a transitive verb the same. This is called the primary object.

The nominative is also used for the objects of a few prepositions: benefactives, locatives, temporals, hus 'as', and id 'about'.

GenitiveEdit

The genitive case (abbreviated gen) has a few uses. It primarily signifies possession (so kurù freziv 'the flames' heat') and composition (lotto emaje 'a state of panic') when placed before a noun.

It is also used in a partitive sense, appearing on nouns before the noun-numbers: pidejn 'zero', dxen 'nine', horòn 'eleven', and up. ex. jen krenta vs krentà hied ('one person' vs '64 people')

The genitive additionally shows the origin of something and, in the same capacity, to make basic demonyms.

  • ex. Seo mi alemaro. 'I'm Alemarese.'

It's also used to show groups to which one is a member.

  • ex. hetro ridore 'of House Kicker'

And to make matronymics.

  • ex. rajàn rajàno 'John, child of John'

When used with locative prepositions, it gives them an 'away from' component.

  • ex. ij in --> out of, ro on --> off of, vend at --> from

AllativeEdit

The Allative case (abbreviated all) has two uses. It is used for the secondary object of a sentence and to signify movement towards. The secondary object corresponds to the direct object of a ditransitive verb.

When used with locative prepositions, it gives them a 'towards' component.

  • ex. ij in --> into, ro on --> onto, vend at --> to

InstrumentalEdit

The instrumental case (abbreviated instr) has three uses. It is used to signify an instrument that is used to complete an action, governing the preposition set '(along) with', and to create basic adverbs.

VocativeEdit

The vocative is used for direct address. Only animate nouns have a vocative. The singular vocative is the same as the plural genitive and the plural vocative is the same as the plural nominative.

  • ex. Aðe krenten! 'Hello people!'
  • ex. Farm vilxà. 'Bye, Vilshe.'

VerbsEdit

There are four conjugation classes based on four thematic vowels: a, e, u, and o.

Present tenseEdit

-a verbs

sg pl
1 -i -en
2 -ak -aru
3 -a

-e verbs

sg pl
1 -i -en
2 -ek -eru
3 -e

-u verbs

sg pl
1 -i -on
2 -uk -uru
3 -u -ui

-o verbs

sg pl
1 -i -on
2 -ok -oru
3 -o

The present tense is used for ongoing current events, states, and unambiguous references to the future.

ex. seu odi "I give"

Recent tenseEdit

The recent tense is formed with the present tense + sentence final particle .

The recent tense is used for events which happened typically within the past ten minutes.

ex. seu odi là "I just gave"

Remote tenseEdit

active participle + the following suffixes (stressed on the participle ending except in the 3p).

-a and -e verbs

sg pl
1 -a -en
2 -ak -aru
3 -a

-u and -o verbs

sg pl
1 -u -on
2 -uk -uru
3 -u -ui

The remote tense is used for past events which the speaker personally experienced.

ex. seu odera "I know I gave"

Indirect tenseEdit

Infix -is- (-es- after an a, or occasionally au or o) + present endings. Stress placed on the infix in the 2p and 3p, and before the infix otherwise. -a verbs endings change to -e verb endings.

The indirect tense is used for past events which the speaker didn't personally experience.

ex. seu òdisi "I suppose/hear I gave"

Eventive tenseEdit

Thematic vowel + the following suffixes

-a, -e, and -o verbs

sg pl
1 -je -jen
2 -jak -jaru
3 -ja -jè

-u verbs

sg pl
1 -ji -jen
2 -jek -jeru
3 -je -jè

The eventive tense is used for events considered likely and dependent on some condition.

ex. seu odaje "I'd probably give"

Future tenseEdit

The future tense is indicated by the copula "em", which is placed before a bare verb (historically an infinitive).

  • ex. Mi oda li "I will give it"

A prospective tense can be formed with the future tense + sentence final particle . The prospective tense is used for events which will happen typically within ten minutes.

ex. Mi oda là "I just gave"

ParticiplesEdit

active passive
present -er/or -aug/eg/ug
past -as/es/us/os -auþ/eþ/uþ

Example:

Alemarese English Example
present active sterrer hunting, that/who hunts, that/who is hunting Hisli so krenta sterrera. "I see the man who is hunting."
present passive sterreg that/who is (being) hunted Hisli so krenta sterrega. "I see the man who is being hunted."
past active sterres that/who hunted, that/who was hunting Hisli so krenta sterresa. "I see the man who was hunting."
past passive sterreþ hunted, that/who was (being) hunted Hisli so krenta sterreþa. "I see the man who was being hunted."

Regular verbs Edit

moiza "to know" (Moizi toe! "I know you!")

present direct indirect eventive
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 moizi moizen moizera moizeren mòizisi mòizisen moizaje moizajen
2 moizak moizaru moizerak moizeraru mòizisek moizìseru moizajak moizajaru
3 moiza moizè moizera moizerè mòizise moizise moizaja moizajè

kara "to have in one's possession" (Seu kari so uzìn. "I have the cup.")

present direct indirect eventive
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 kari karen karera kareren kàresi kàresen karaje karajen
2 karak kararu karerak kareraru kàresek karèseru karajak karajaru
3 kara karè karera karerè kàrese karese karaja karajè

sterre "to hunt" (Sterrer enxala ze. "I like to hunt.")

present direct indirect eventive
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 sterri sterren sterrera sterreren stèrrisi stèrrisen sterreje sterrejen
2 sterrek sterreru sterrerak sterreraru stèrrisek sterrìseru sterrejak sterrejaru
3 sterre sterrè sterrera sterrerè stèrrise sterrise sterreja sterrejè

raqne "to stand" (Raqnek rajane. "Stand up, Rajàn.")

present direct indirect eventive
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 raqni raqnen raqnera raqneren ràqnesi ràqnesen raqneje raqnejen
2 raqnek raqneru raqnerak raqneraru ràqnesek raqnèseru raqnejak raqnejaru
3 raqne raqnè raqnera raqnerè ràqnese raqnese raqneja raqnejè

pilðu "to shoot, fire, take a shot" (Pilðuk so xaulora! "Shoot at the knife!")

sg pl
1 pilði pilðon
2 pilðuk pilðuru
3 pilðu pilðui

ginu "to trick, fool" (Alò, hef ginoruk ze. "Wow, you really fooled me.")

sg pl
1 gini ginon
2 ginuk ginuru
3 ginu ginui

furo "to lie" (No gai betxìn furoruk ip seu? "But why did you lie to me?")

sg pl
1 furi furon
2 furok furoru
3 furo furò

alto "to notice" (Alti li là. "I just noticed it.")

sg pl
1 alti alton
2 altok altoru
3 alto altò

Irregular verbs Edit

er, erer, ereþ "must, have to" (Is eren ge fo qede. "We don't have to do this." vs. Eren i fo ge sole "We mustn't do this.")

sg pl
1 redxi eren
2 erek eru
3 er erui

em, emor, muþ "be"

present direct indirect eventive
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 mi emon fera feren ettosi ettoson emoje emojen
2 mok moru ferak feraru ettosuk ettòsuru emojak emojaru
3 em emò fera ferè ettosu ettòsui emoja emojè

fo, fer, foþ "do"

sg pl
1 fudxi fen
2 fok foru
3 fo foi

tyu, tivor, tyuþ "be born"

sg pl
1 tyui tyuon
2 tyuk tyuru
3 tyu tyui

undxe, undxer, idxeþ "come, go"

present direct indirect eventive
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 undxi undxen idxera idxeren ìdxisi ìdxisen undxeje undxejen
2 undxek undxeru idxerak idxeraru ìdxisek idxìseru undxejak undxejaru
3 undxe undxè idxera idxerè ìdxise idxise undxeja undxejè

Predictably irregular verbs Edit

Some other irregular patterns appear, for example:

  • verbs ending in tyu/ku/tyo/ko or dyu/gu/dyo/go become (t)xi and dxi in the 1s.pres, and indirect past tense.

ex. legu "to talk, speak, say"

sg pl
1 ledxi legon
2 leguk leguru
3 legu legui
  • verbs ending in ka/ga change the <k/g> to <(t)x/dx> is the 1s.pres, 1p.pres, 3p.pres, and indirect past tense.

ex. menga "turn"

sg pl
1 mendxi mendxen
2 mengak mengaru
3 menga mendxè

Derivations Edit

The prefix vel- indicates repetition.

  • velfo "redo"
  • velfrezivo "reheat"
  • veltalentu "recount"

The suffix -(u)lja makes captative verbs.

  • idrya > idryelja "pick flowers"
  • tareba > tarebelja "catch/hunt birds"

SyntaxEdit

Noun phraseEdit

Article/Quantifier-Genitive-Noun-Adjectives-Demonstrative/Distributive

Verb phraseEdit

Verb-Adverb-Primary Object-Secondary Object

NegationEdit

Negation in statements and questions is expressed primarily by a preverbal particle i (is before p, t, k, l, y, n, m, h, or a vowel). Normally pronounced /i(s)/, it's /iʃ/ before p or t.

  • fo "do" > i fo "not do"
  • sterre "hunt" > i sterre "not hunt"
  • legu "say" > is legu "not say"
  • oda "give" > is oda "not give"
  • talentu "count" > is talentu "not count"

But that's not all. The preverbal particle is always paired with a postverbal particle.

  • ge: unmarked; ex. I fudxi ge sole. "I don't do that."
  • plo: emphatic, used mostly with commands; ex. I fok plo sole! "Don't do that!"
  • zimai: never; ex. Seu i fera zimai sole. "I haven't ever done that."

These circumverbal particles are placed directly around the main verb, be it auxiliary or not, and nothing can go between them and the verb. ex. Seu is mi zimai dxuhere ze ip txuò! "I will never surrender to you!"

QuotationsEdit

Quotations are rather simple in Alemarese. The exact words of the person being quoted are surrounded by the Chevi quotation marks and , with either a preceding or following conjugated legu "say". For example,

  • Joa legu ‹ seu i fera zimai sole › là. "He said he didn't do that."

QuestionsEdit

In order to form a yes/no-question, the particle emþe is added to the beginning of the sentence, without any change in word order.

  • Moizi toe. "I know you." vs Emþe moizi toe? "Do I know you?"

Questions without yes-no answers appear as regular statements with the appropriate interrogative pronoun where the answer to the question would be in the statement.

  • Qede em betxine? "Who is this?" vs. Qede em soa Kumeryora. "This is the president."

PrepositionsEdit

There is a very limited set of true prepositions in Alemarese. More specific prepositional meanings can be carried out through prepositional phrases with location nouns.

All true indivisible prepositions are as follows:

Alemarese Case(s) English
hus nom, gen as, than
vend nom, all, gen next to, at, to, from
ij nom, all, gen in, at (time), into, out from
ro(l) nom, all, gen on, onto, off from, off of
id nom about
ip nom, all for (the benefit of), intended for, towards, to
el gen made of, from
set instr (along) with
ga nom amid/amongst, (in) between
ðio instr, nom using, by way of, passing through, for (a time)
suqe nom encircling, passing around, for (a cyclical time)
negat nom versus, (leaning) against
rolu gen above, on top of, before
edlu gen below, under, after

Sound ChangesEdit

Proto-Alemar-Barejine to AlemareseEdit

  1. k/tʃ/_F
  2. g/dʒ/_F
  3. β/w/_B
  4. w//[#C]_V
  5. ow/u/_
  6. F/ʃ/t_F
  7. F/ʒ/d_V
  8. h//_
  9. ae/e/_
  10. aw/o/_
  11. t/d/V_V
  12. p/b/V_V
  13. b/p/_#
  14. d/t/_#
  15. t/ʔ/_C
  16. β/ɸ/_#
  17. l/w/_#
  18. tr/rʃ/V_F
  19. qr/kr/_
  20. q/tʃ/_i
  21. q/ʔ/_[C#]
  22. x/r/V[-a]_B
  23. [xr]r/ʀ/_
  24. x//_C
  25. ns/z/_
  26. j//B_F
  27. j//F_B
  28. ps/\\/_
  29. s/ʃ/_S
  30. s[kj]/ʃ/_
  31. t//C_ʃ
  32. [je]//β_
  33. o//w_F/ˈ_
  34. [jw]//_r
  35. [jw]//_n[C#]
  36. i//o_#
  37. k//#_C/_[rlt]
  38. /e/#_CC[-rl]/_st
  39. m/mb/V_rV
  40. n/nd/V_rV
  41. ng/ŋ/_
  42. ://_
  43. k/t/_t

VocabularyEdit

ConjunctionsEdit

ð (and), iy...iy... (either or), tai (and/or), no (but/yet), gai/ipler (because/for), uve (if)

NumbersEdit

Though Patronans have ten fingers in total, the most common base for numerals (talento) is 8 (octal) which was spread by Alemarese and Barejine-speakers across most of Patrona. Typically, finger-counting starts with the thumbs out, the first finger being the index, etc.

# name #+8 #+16 #*8 #*64 (#+8)*64 #*512
0 pidejn on teziq pidejn pidejn onied pidejn
1 jen dxen jenteziq on jied dxenied onied
2 diz eqa dizteziq teziq dizied ekied tezikied
3 hor horòn horteziq horsiq horied horonied horsikied
4 mir miròn mirteziq mirsiq mirried mironied mirsikied
5 dorsa dorsòn dorsateziq dorsiq dorxed dorsonied dorsikied
6 sexa sexòn sexateziq sixiq sixed sexonied sixikied
7 ðea ðeòn ðeateziq ðeziq ðeyed ðeonied ðezikied
8 on teziq horsiq jied onied tezikied
  • Ordinals are formed with <-me>. First and second are formed suppletively (veit and drezip). They are adjectives.
  • Fractions are formed with <-aj>. Half is suppletive and quarter is irregular (foli and meraj). They are nouns.
  • In both ordinals and fractions, only the last word of the number receives the ending.
  • Numbers pidejn (0), dxen (9), horòn (11), and above are nouns declined according to form. The item they tell the quantity of is rendered in the genitive before them. ex. krentà dxen "nine people"
  • Jen (1), diz (2), hor (3), mir (4), and on (8) are undeclined particles that appear before the noun. ex. on krenten "eight people"
  • Dorsa (5), sexa (6), ðea (7), and eqa (10) are regular first declension adjectives, except that the noun and adjective are typically in the singular, with the plural implying an incredibly spread-out number of things. ex. krenta eqa "ten people". When treated as nouns, they are put in the animate (this is also their citation form).
  • Higher numbers are written as single words and in the opposite order of English. An interfixed -uð- can be used to separate a single digit from larger numbers for disambiguation. ex. jentezikied 21008 vs jenuðtezikied 20018

ColorsEdit

Patronans can't see blue, so they have no need of words to distinguish it, greatly shrinking their color (fulko) vocabulary.

  • txindi: red
  • txindi ritx: dark red, purple
  • god: light red, pink, orange
  • god ritx: brown
  • plauve: white, yellow
  • xab: light green, yellow-green
  • xab ritx: dark yellow-green
  • varze: green, cyan
  • varze ritx: dark green, teal
  • eriti: black, blue
  • hoitxi: gray, dark yellow

FamilyEdit

  • hèder: house/clan
  • hetro pripea: patriarch/matriarch of the house/clan
  • paloval: family
  • babora/baba: mother
  • nunora/nuna: father
  • isterren: parents
  • blivoa: sibling
  • jiþue: spouse
  • jiþue ____: ____-in-law
  • pels: son/daughter (don't confuse w/ pelsa "child, young person")
  • meðvoa: nibling/niece/nephew
  • birre: mother's sibling's spouse
  • hube: mother's sibling
  • ernya: father's sibling
  • nekra: father's sibling's spouse
  • kòsembe: house relative, maternal cousin
  • ernye pels: paternal cousin
  • babisterren/pripeyen: maternal grandparents
  • pripea: maternal grandmother
  • pripè: maternal grandfather
  • nunisterren: paternal grandparents
  • nunbabora/nunbaba: paternal grandmother
  • nunnunora/nunnuna: paternal grandfather

Body partsEdit

  • Body: jakruje
  • Skin: kale
  • Hair: drasne
  • Head: viryune
  • Face: meustume
  • Mouth: polðue
  • Lips: fuxen
  • Tongue: otta
  • Tooth plates: isti
  • Head ridges: qeo
  • Nose: oþànker
  • Outer ears: txerren
  • Inner ears: yeixeren
  • Eyes: riðuri
  • Neck: qamosi
  • Shoulders: delgeþ
  • Lower back: qoisli
  • Tail: sunti
  • Chest: mana
  • Belly: hadla
  • Arms: ulzen
  • Elbows: ulzà jemedo
  • Hands: faðren
  • Hands' backs: steiþo
  • Digits: eþazen
  • Nails: lifo
  • Legs: zaken
  • Knees: zakà jemedo
  • Feet: jamben
  • Toes: jambà eþazen 

Time Edit

Basic temporal vocabulary Edit

  • Time: dxà
  • Day: ax
  • Sunrise: tembre àlus (lit. Night's end)
  • Daytime: þeudxì
  • Sunset: þeudxio àlus (lit. Daytime's end)
  • Nighttime: tembra
  • Year: rang
  • Season: vosti
  • Month: mind (from Minde, larger of the two moons)
  • Week: alustors
  • Hour: jaurà
  • Minute: veidò (from veit, first)
  • Second: kið

Calendar Edit

Alemarese speakers use a twelve month lunisolar calendar based on the larger moon Minde, where every month (mind) begins in a full moon and lasts twenty days, or four Patronan weeks. A leap month Texuþ is inserted before the last month Àluso in years divisible by 6, but not in years divisible by 24. Months are mostly named after positions in the year and certain gods.

The current year is 2208.

# Name Pronunciation Origin
1 Lupejo /lupéxo/ so lupej "the beginning"
2 Dxakuro /dʒakúɾo/ so dxà kuror "the burning time"
3 Arexmi /aɾéʃmi/ arexo mind "Aresh’s month"
4 Dxaðumo /dʒaðúmo/ so dxà ðumor "the resting time"
5 Yoqnarmi /joʔnáɾmi/ yauqnare mind "Yau'nara's month"
6 Yaqnaomi /jaʔnáwmi/ yaqnavo mind "Ya'naf's month"
7 Dxaxonte /dʒaʃónte/ so dxà xonter "the freezing time"
8 Mindome /mindóme/ so mind onme "the eighth month"
9 Mindxeme /mindʒéme/ so mind dxenme "the nineth month"
10 Dxarrigo /dʒaʀígo/ so dxà jrigor "the waking time"
11 Huryermi /uɾjéɾmi/ huryere mind "Uriera's month"
1x Texuþ /teʃúθ/ so texuze uþ "the long wait"
12 Àluso /áluso/ so àlus "the ending"

Days of the Week Edit

The Patronan week is only five days long. The Alemarese word for this period is alustors from àlus-dors "five ends", referring to sunrises which are the end and beginning of each Patronan day. The days are named after the larger moon, the sun, and three of the planets. Each Patronan day is a little over 31 hours long.

  1. Mindax: named after Minde, the larger of Patrona's two moons
  2. Deruax: named after Patrona's sun, Derù
  3. Kavekax: named after the largest planet in Patrona's system, Kavèk, or the god of intellect, Kaveka
  4. Veverax: named after the closest planet to Derù, Vever, which is an archaic word meaning "wind"
  5. Lameax: named after the desert planet Lamea, which is an archaic word meaning "love"

Seasons Edit

Seasons (vosti) do not begin on solstices/equinoxes, those are their middles instead. The first day of the year is very close to the Summer solstice. Because of Patrona's slightly elliptical orbit, in the northern hemisphere, Autumn is the longest season, and spring is the shortest. This is reversed in the southern hemisphere.

  • estè (esteo): summer
  • dimbri: fall/autumn
  • veyeþ (veyeðo): winter
  • àdler (aldro): spring

Naming days Edit

Days are named by the following formula: so Day Ordinal (not for first week) el Month (in the genitive) ij rango Year number. These can be abbreviated as D el M (r Y). In these abbreviations, the month Texuþ is simply t.

  • 12 el 4 r 0424 or so deruax mirme el dxaðumo ij rango mirsiqdizmirsikied (M/D/Y system 4/10/2208)
  • 1 el 1 or so mindax el lupejo (1/1)
  • 15 el t r 2324 or so lameax horme el texuþo ij rango dizhorsiqdizmirsikied (12/13/2202)

Solar System Edit

Body Pronunciation Type Color
Derù /deɾú/ K0-type star orange
Vever /βeβéɾ/ tidally-locked molten rock red
Aqes /aqés/ iron ball gray
Lamea /laméa/ ringed inhabited terrestrial yellow
Patrona /patɾóna/ inhabited terrestial blue
asteroid belt
Kavèk /kaβék/ ringed gas giant greenish
Xutè /ʃuté/ gas giant beige
Yonara /jonáɾa/ ice giant dark blue
asteroid belt

Directions Edit

West East
North dejsamar samar txosamar
deje vuxe* txos
South dejling ling txosling
  • vuxe "central, middle"

Important PhrasesEdit

English Alemarese
hello/hi/welcome Adi (mì)
hello/hi/welcome (reply) Broji (mì)
goodbye/bye Undxi (mìo)
goodbye/bye/come again (reply) Adi (mì)
How are you? Mok bidera?
please Oremi
thank you Broji
sorry Nesi
well/wow alò
yes þa
no plo
maybe þaplo
What's your name? Toe þung em betxìn?
My name's... Ze þung em...
Where are you from? Mok vend bevo?
I'm from... Seu mi vend...
Do you speak Alemarese? Leguk set alemarrìxume?
I don't know. Seu i moizi ge.
I love you (like family). Blivoak ze.
I love you (romantically). Lamyak ze.

OnomatopoeiaEdit

  • kauhau: crow
  • kukururù: cock-a-doodle-doo
  • jraf: bark
  • avuv: howl
  • jisss: hiss
  • bris: shatter
  • jrep: rip
  • epjiq: splash
  • xul: swoosh
  • pirb: drip
  • bum: boom
  • txiqxeq: chatter
  • espiq: spit
  • vix: swish
  • txuq: hiccup

SwadeshEdit


No. English Alemarese
1Iseu
2you (singular)to, mì
3hejoa, tia
4wenave
5you (plural)myun, mì
6theyjoen, tien
7thisqede
8thatsole, þele
9herevend qede
10therevend sole, vend þele
11whobetxine
12whatbetxìn
13wherebeu
14whenbyaiq
15howbidera
16noti(s), ge, plo
17allispe
18manybe
19sometlone
20fewfive
21other
22onejen
23twodiz
24threehor
25fourmir
26fivedorsa
27bignedui
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33shortjem
34narrow
35thin
36womankrenta
37man (adult male)krenta
38man (human being)
39childpelsa, pels
40wifejiþue
41husbandjiþue
42motherbabora, baba
43fathernunora, nunu
44animalremuraza
45fishN/A
46birdN/A
47dogN/A
48louseN/A
49snakeN/A
50wormN/A
51treeveþudxa
52forest
53stick
54fruitkultya
55seed
56leafyeþ
57rootkrabya
58bark
59floweridrya
60grassland
61roperame
62skinkale
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tailsunti
70feather
71hairdrasne
72headviryune
73eartxerra, yeixera
74eyeriðuri
75noseoþànker
76mouthpolðue
77toothisti
78tongueotta
79fingernaillif
80footjamba
81legzaka
82kneezake þuð
83handfaðra
84wing
85bellyhadla
86guts
87neckqamosi
88backdelgeþ
89breastmanka
90heart
91liver
92drinkpaibe
93eatpaibe
94bite
95suckjuku
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathefiðe
100laugh
101seehisle
102hearyeixa
103knowmoiza
104think
105smell
106fearfaurxe
107sleepðumu
108livetximoda
109die
110kill
111fight
112huntsterre
113hit
114cutxaula
115split
116stab
117scratchxile
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122comeundxe
123liefuro
124sit
125standraqne
126turn
127fall
128giveoda
129holdkara
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sewnoima
139counttalentu
140saylegu
141singaqala
142playnoihe
143float
144flow
145freezexonte
146swell
147sunDerù
148moonMinde, Jilia, suqundxer
149staraurem
150watermode
151rainpetai, pete
152riverdogri
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stonesaig
157sand
158dust
159earthqu
160cloudoai
161fog
162sky
163windzaj
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167firekur
168ash
169burnkuro
170road
171mountainparom
172redtxindi, god
173greenvarze, xab
174yellowplauve
175whiteplauve
176blackeriti
177nighttembra
178dayax
179yearrang
180warm
181cold
182fullvuozi
183newkade
184oldhobul
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dullhunkauj
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correcttobrol
197near
198far
199right
200left
201atvend
202inij
203withset
204andð
205ifuve
206becausegai, ipler
207nameþung
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