The Klingon only have one language. Regardless, I have decided that this is also a language.

Phonology / Orthography[edit | edit source]

Letters Used So Far: g i k kh l n o ng r rh rr s sh u t x y

. shows that two letters do not form a digraph, such as n.gon - holy thing vs ngon - plate.

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

As many people do, I am playing the phonotactics by ear.

When a voiceless sound is in between two voiced sounds, it becomes voiced.

So far, most consonant clusters work against the sonority hierachy i.e. the farther away one goes from the vowel, the more sonorous the consonant sounds tend to be.

At some point, consonants far away from the vowel become syllabic.

Necessary Word[edit | edit source]

Without a necessary word, a sentence does not register as complete. Depending on the context, this can be:

  • the argument of an intransitive verb
  • the agent of a transitive verb
  • the patient of a transitive verb
  • a verb created by declining a noun
  • a predicate adjective
  • an adverbial

Necessary words take the ending -p. They are also the words which TAM affixes attach to.

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Nouns decline for number, with the two numbers being Singular/Paucal and Plural.

The singular/paucal is the unmarked form. There are multiple ways of forming the plural, including, but not limited to:

  • geminating the final consonant: lgir -> lgirr (greetings)
  • a sound appearing between the vowel and final consonant: n.gon -> n.goghn (holy things)
  • replacing the last consonant with another letter: ngon -> ngop (plates)
  • doing nothing: ngyat -> ngyat (languages)

Singular/Paucal is used to refer to an amount which is either one, small, or less than enough.

Plural can be used to signify more than enough, in either a positive or negative way.

To specifically refer to one thing, the speaker must use numbers.

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

There is a clusivity distinction in the first and second person.

we exclusive = me and other people, but not you we inclusive = me and you (and other people)

you exclusive = you (people) whom I am addressing as a group you inclusive = you (people) whom I am addressing as a group and other people who I am not addressing

In some pronouns, the "singular" and exclusive are conflated, as an extension of the fact that it is not possible to grammatically mark something as definitely singular.

xod - I
xukh - you singular/exclusive and I

Cases[edit | edit source]

Cases go at the end of a word. The vowel within the word moves one space over, and either

  • does not change (strong vowel)
  • undergoes vowel harmony, becoming the vowel within the case (weak vowel)
  • disappears completely (dead vowel)

All cases can switch between head-marking and dependent-marking forms. When at the end of a strong or weak vowel word, they lose their vowel.

Case Modifies Noun Modifies Verb
Head-marking Dependent-marking
benefactive -lob -khom -lob
causative -lob -kug -lov
locative -nux -nit -nit
pegative -zikh -rish -dulh
perlative -gul -gob -gix
similative-identical -mov -mov N/A

Vowels which do not move one space over are called "immovable vowels".

Compound nouns work by taking a noun and then putting another noun behind it which is in a certain case.

  • zgror - long document
  • *zgr.r{}-ngyot - long document + languages
  • zgr.rngyt{o}-ni - long document + languages_inessive.dependent
  • zgr.rngytoni - Long document which languages are within

Depending on the suffix, the compound noun is either treated as a single word or as multiple words.

  • Case suffixes go on the first word.
  • Necessary suffixes go on the last word.

TAM affixes take the vowel which follows them in the word. The V signifies where the vowel goes.

Complete Incomplete completable Incomplete incompletable
Recent past gV- tVg- zgV- Present b--d

vkhuv

Huge Translation[edit | edit source]

Klum: Lgr.rip. - Blue: Greetings.
Echethesi: Rrap. - Echethesi: Yes.
Klum: zhnod gizgr.rgixngytonitp. - Blue: (I) just found (this) via (the) long document which contains language(s). (find REC.-long.document-PER-languages-IN-NEC.)
Echethesi: Rrap. - Echethesi: Yes.
Echethesi: Hminx gixgbixdolbp zbud. - Echethesi: The link which I created was added in the recent past on a day that was not today. Klum: Bvgolb xdomvvkhuvp, <--incomplete - Blue: Because of the uninitiated one being me, I am sorry.

Words[edit | edit source]

bvog; plural = blvorg; weak vowel

  • someone who is uninitiated

gis; plural = gosh, dead vowel

  • happy thing

hum; plural = hmib; krhot; plural = krhos; strong vowel, plural conjunct form kr.rho

  • ship

klum; plural = kmolh;

  • green to UVA/soft UV

lgir; plural = lgir.r, weak vowel

  • greeting

n.gon; plural = n.gokhn,

  • holy thing

ngon; plural = ngop, dead vowel

  • plate, flat surface on which people place food
  • dinner table, flat surface where eating happens

ngyot; plural = ngyot, strong vowel

  • language

rrin; verb, necessary = patient

  • to improve

ror; plural = rokh, weak vowel

  • croak
  • response to any words being used to get one's attention (Hey, Hi, Greetings)
  • (plural) word used to get attention

shpil; plural = shpoll, shpill; strong vowel

  • sneaky thing

vkhuv; plural = vlukh; dead vowel

  • one who is sorrowful

xod; strong vowel

  • I

xoz; plural = xol; dead vowel

  • shared aspect of something
  • when in a compound with a first person pronoun, it means "this"
  • when in a compound with a second person pronoun, it means "that"
  • when in a compound with a third person pronoun, it means "thonder"

xgib; plural = xgol, xgbod; strong vowel

  • connection
  • (computer) link

zbud; verb, necessary = patient

  • append, add

zgror; plural = zgr.rok, dead vowel

  • long document

zhnod; verb, necessary = adverbial (how)

  • to find
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