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Alternative English
Oðer Englisc
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General information[edit | edit source]

Alternative English (Oðer English) is a Germanic tongue descended from Old English in a world where the Norman conquest of 1066 failed and where there was therefore a much reduced influence of French upon the language. This manifests itself in a greater Germanic portion of the wordstock, the preservation of a second person singular and a more (though still not entirely) regular orthography, amongst others. Moreover, greater verbal inflection is found, along with a more conservative article system that is more akin to Modern German's.

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g
Fricative f v ð θ s z ʃ ʒ h
Affricate x
Approximant r j w
Lateral l

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Central Back
Long Short Long Short Long Short
Close ɪ ʊ
Mid e ɜː ə  ɔː
Open æ ʌ ɑː ɒ
ː

Alphabet (Stafrow)[edit | edit source]

Alternative English is written like its real-world counterpart in the Roman Alphabet, although there are several variations.

Letter IPA Example word
a [ɑː] after
æ [æ] cæt
b [b] big
c [k] cæt
d [d] dog
e [e]/[ə]* walce
f [f]/[v] fish
g [g] god
h [h]/[x] hiy
i [ɪ]/[ɪː]/[ai] in
l [l] liy
m [m] man
n [n] cniyf
o [ɒ] not
p [p] pig
r [r] riys
s [s]/[z] sick
t [t] tiym
u [ʌ]/[ʊ]/ duc/bun
w [w] wax
x [ks] wax
y [j] why
þ/ð [θ]/[ð] þink/bað
  • is pronounced [ə] when it is word-final and often in unstressed syllables.

​Letter combinations (Staf bindings)

Letters IPA Example
ay [eɪ] taycen
al ː] walcen
ch [tʃ] chees
sh [ʃ] she
dg [dʒ] edg
ol [əʊ] folc
ee [iː] chees

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Grammar (Stafcraft)[edit | edit source]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Nouns (Naymwords)[edit | edit source]

The first main point of importance where nouns are concerned in AE is that there is retention in some part of the old grammatical cases: nominative, accusative, dative and genitive. 

In Alternative English, the arbitrary gender system present in Old English has collapsed to a lesser degree than with real-world English. Instead, a two-case Scandinavian model exists, whereby all nouns have either common (into which the old masculine and feminine nouns are grouped) and neuter gender. 

Typical common noun paradigm - 'cæt (Tocen woenkind naymword bending)

Grammatical case Singular Plural
Nominative (se) cæt  (þe) cæts
Accusative (þon) cæt (þe) cæts
Dative (þem) cæte (þem) cætum
Genitive (þis) cæts (þer) cæta

Typical neuter noun paradigm - 'child' (Tocen neiðerkind naymword bending)

Grammatical case

Singular Plural
Nominative (þæt) child (þe) children
Accusative (þæt) child (þe) children
Dative (þem) childe (þem) childrum
Genitive (þis) childs (þer) childra

A German-like system of definite articles still exists, detailed below:

Definite article paradigm (Strong liþword bending)

Common (sg.) Neuter (sg.) Plural
Nom. se þæt þe
Acc. þon þæt þe
Dat. þem þem þem
Gen. þis þis þer

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs are conjugated with somewhat more inflection than modern English verbs. Due to the continued usage of þow, the '-est' ending is not at all archaic, whilst the plural ending of '-en' has equally been retained (as well as marking the infinitive). Notably different also is the fact that the distinction between strong and weak verbs has been kept, so that a distinct set of classes has remained for verbs which share vowel changes throughout their paradigm.

Regular verb endings in the present tense (Steady deedword endings in þon nowtiym)
Person Ending Example verb (to walcen)
1st p. sing. (I) -e

I walce

[ai wɔːk(ə)]

2nd p. sing. (þow) -st/-est

þow walcst

[θow wɔːkst]

3rd p. sing.

(he/she/hit)

-eth/-th/-t*

he walceþ

[hiː wɔːk(ə)ð]

1st p. plural

(we)

-en

we walcen

[wiː wɔːk(ə)n]

2nd p. plural (ye) -en

ye walcen

[jiː wɔːk(ə)n]

3rd p. plural

(þey)

-en

þey walcen

[θei wɔːk(ə)n]

Adjectives (Marcwords)[edit | edit source]

Adjectives decline depending upon definiteness and number, but not case or gender.

Singular (indefinite) Singular (definite) Plural (indefinite) (Plural definite

Adjective

(good)

a good cæt se goode cæt goode cats þe goode cats

Syntax[edit | edit source]

The underlying word order of AE is SVO, but there is a much stronger V2 tendency than in real world English. Any adverb or subordinate clause will cause the verb to proceed its subject as with:

Se fish swimmeþ fast in þon see. --> Fast swimmeþ se fish in þon see.

Often goen we down to þon seerim (coast) to saylen amidst þem wayfum.

Hafing yseen þon unholye mess yleft at þem table, was se man unbeliefing and wiðchoes þer bidding to hangen wið þem.  - Having seen the unholy mess left at the table, the man couldn't believe it and turned down their offer to join them.

Vocabulary[edit | edit source]


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47cat
48dog
49louse
50snake
51worm
52tree
53forest
54stick
55fruit
56seed
57leaf
58root
59bark
60flower
61grass
62rope
63skin
64meat
65blood
66bone
67fat
68egg
69horn
70tail
71feather
72hair
73head
74ear
75eye
76nose
77mouth
78tooth
79tongue
80fingernail
81foot
82leg
83knee
84hand
85wing
86belly
87guts
88neck
89back
90breast
91heart
92liver
93drink
94eat
95bite
96suck
97spit
98vomit
99blow
100breathe
101laugh
102see
103hear
104know
105think
106smell
107fear
108sleep
109live
110die
111kill
112fight
113hunt
114hit
115cut
116split
117stab
118scratch
119dig
120swim
121fly
122walk
123come
124lie
125sit
126stand
127turn
128fall
129give
130hold
131squeeze
132rub
133wash
134wipe
135pull
136push
137throw
138tie
139sew
140count
141say
142sing
143play
144float
145flow
146freeze
147swell
148sun
149moon
150star
151water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
160earth
161cloud
162fog
163sky
164wind
165snow
166ice
167smoke
168fire
169ash
170burn
171road
172mountain
173red
174green
175yellow
176white
177black
178night
179day
180year
181warm
182cold
183full
184new
185old
186good
187bad
188rotten
189dirty
190straight
191round
192sharp
193dull
194smooth
195wet
196dry
197correct
198near
199far
200right
201left
202at
203in
204with
205and
206if
207because
208name


Example text[edit | edit source]

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