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Note: not to be confused with the American Turkic Business Council.


American Turkic
Qirqiz til
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Type Agglutinative, but with fusional tendencies
Alignment Split-Ergative (nouns)

Nominative-Accusative (articles and pronouns)

Word Order VOS (default) - VSO (interrogative)
Head direction Mixed
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Topic-Prominence No
Classes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


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The flag of the Kyrgyz Khaganate, where American Turkic is an official language

The spread of American Turkic in North America

Where American Turkic is spoken natively by at least 50% of the population (in dark green)

American Turkic (natively known as Qirqiz til, IPA: [ˈq'i˞ˌq'ɪz t'ɘl], literally "Kyrgyz tongue"), is a Turkic language spoken in Western North America in an alternate history timeline. It has about 102 million native speakers (about 87 million of them live in North America), and an additional 21 million people can speak it as a second language, according to a worldwide census that took place in 2020, just in time for the coronavirus pandemic. This language is not completed and is still under construction.


History[]

The language that evolved into American Turkic descended directly from Orkhon Turkic. The Yenisei Kyrgyz developed their own dialect of Old Turkic based on the Orkhon variety, as mututal inteligability with the dialect spoken by the Uyghurs has been declining since at least the 700s, and it eventually became its own language after their speakers migrated to the Manchuria after a failed rebellion against the Uyghur Khaganate in 840 CE, defeating both the Yenisei Kyrgyz and Tang China. After a coalition between the Jurchens and Kyrgyz against the Khitans failed again in 892 CE, the Kyrgyz were forced to migrate again, but this time to the Americas, bringing some Afanasevans they brought as slaves (see the Afanasevan article) (until they broke off and formed an empire in our world's California), where they arrive at the 900s after crossing the Bering Strait, much as the Dene-Yeniseians crossed it a few thousand years before the migration event long after the land bridge which covered it sunk into the ocean. This disrupts the entire Western Hemisphere's balance of power. DNA evidence shows that the Turks who migrated frequently married Native Americans, with remains of Turkic civilians in the New World buried in the 13th century showing a large percentage of Haplogroup Q in Y DNA and Haplogroup X in X DNA.

KyrgyzCivilWarMap

A map of the New World during the Kyrgyz Civil War (in 1462)

After the reigning Khagan died without any heirs in 1392 after accidental drowning in the Crater Lake, the entire country divided into several warlord states and the language fell out of fashion. After some time, these warlord states eventually coalesced into northern and southern states. Fortunately, Kyrgyzia was reunited in the 1480s by the southern state with the assistance of Californian and Mayan troops, just in time for Christopher Columbus to arrive at the Caribbean only to get crushed because of gunpowder weapons. After the 15th century, a new swing of European loanwords were borrowed into the language via the Pacific ocean and trade with Vinland, but in the modern language, Chinese is the biggest influencer.

Classification and Dialects[]

American Turkic is definately a Turkic language, and is a descendant of Orkhon Turkic. It is the least conservative ("conservative" meaning that the language is more likely to retain the features and vocabulary from its ancestor and is more likely to use native compounds instead of borrowings) and the most innovative ("innovative" meaning that the language is more vulnerable to change and borrowings) of the entire Siberian branch, and has had huge amounts of semantic drift and influences from Amerindian languages in the region and Afansevan in the past millenium of its history, which made most linguists in this alternate timeline deny this connection until the 1900s, although it shares thousands cognates with the Turkic languages spoken thousands of miles away (see the dictionary). Due to imperialism in the 19th century, there are three major dialects of American Turkic: one in North America, one in Southern Africa, and one in Polynesia. Due to its divergent grammar, vocabulary, and phonology, American Turkic is no longer mutually intelligible to the Turkic languages spoken in Eurasia (including its closest relatives) and its ancestor language, so an Orkhon Turkic speaker somehow being transported by a time traveller to an alternate Western North America in 2024 would be able to understand people 1% of the time, although the person being transported can understand some basic words.

Language Family[]

Altaic (disputed) (5500 BCE)

  • Turkic (500 BCE)
    • Common Turkic (300 BCE)
      • Siberian Turkic (Known in this ATL as Sibero-American Turkic) (400 CE)
        • South Siberian Turkic (Known in this ATL as South Sibero-American Turkic) (600 CE)
          • Old Turkic (600 CE)
            • Orkhon Turkic (700 CE)
              • Yenisei-Orkhon Turkic (800 CE)
                • Pre-American Turkic (900 CE)
                  • Old American Turkic (1000 CE)
                    • Classical American Turkic (1400 CE)
                      • Early Modern American Turkic (1700 CE)
                        • Modern American Turkic (2000 CE)

Phonology[]

The phonology is quite unusual for a Turkic language.

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular
Normal Sibilant
Nasal m n ƞ (ɴ)
Stop/Affricate Lenis Prenasalized (ᵐp) (ⁿt) (ᶮc) (ᵑk) (ᶰq)
Aspirated (pʰ) (tʰ) (c) (kʰ) (qʰ)
Normal Lenis p t (dz) (ɖʐ) k q
Fortis p' t' ts ʈʂ k' q'
Fricative Voiceless f θ s ʂ (ç) x χ*
Voiced v ð z ʐ ɣ ʁ*
Tap/Flap (ɾ)
Approximant (β̞ ) ɹ** j (w)
Lateral l

Notes[]

*: Used for foreign loanwords only.

**: /ɹ/ is not actually an alveolar approximant. It is actually a postalveolar approximant.

Allophony[]

Lots of allophony with consonants can take place in American Turkic, including, but not limited to:

  • [k] and [x] tend to become palatal consonants following front vowels or [j]. This allophony has since become phonemic after [j] was lost after these palatal consonants (but the loss only happened in the standard North American dialect, which is the dialect used in this article).
  • [v] becomes [w] when it occurs before a stressed vowel.
  • [v] in unstressed syllables tends to be realized as [β̞], especially when it occurs in the onset of a syllable.
  • /l/ becomes [w] in the syllable coda. In some younger speakers, syllable-coda [w] can be lost entirely even when it occurs as a result of allophony with /v/, lengthening the preceding vowel.
  • /l/'s pronounciation can vary depending on its environment, from lateral fricatives [ɬ] and [ɮ], the former occurs when next to a fricative and the latter occurs between vowels, palatal [ʎ] next to [j], uvular [ʟ̠] next to velar and uvular consonants (the latter causes k and g to turn into uvular consonants [q'] and [q] respectively. The initial gl cluster in glikas (which was ultimately borrowed from English and means "click".) can be pronounced as [qʟ̠]), and [l] elswehere. [l] will be used because I don't want to expand the IPA chart right now.
  • The retroflex series can also vary in articulation, from post-alveolar (its ancestral articulation) to alveolopalatal, although retroflex consonants will be used for the same reason as [l].
  • Non-ejective, non-aspirated, or non-prenasalized [t] tends to become [ɾ] between vowels.
  • Plosives (but not ejectives) tend to become aspirated in the onset of a stressed syllable (but not when they occur after sibilants).
  • Nasals become [ɴ] before uvular plosives.
  • Stops become prenasalized when they occur after a nasal vowel (but aspirated and ejective stops are excluded from this rule). They become plain nasals before another plosive, which causes that plosive to become prenasalized, which deletes the nasal in the process. In the South African dialect, prenasalized stops become plain voiced stops. In the Polynesian dialect, prenasalized stops trigger nasal harmony, which gradually spreads to every vowel in a word.
  • k and g become [ts] and [dz] respectively at the end of words for younger speakers, so beg can become [pɜdz]. When [ts] or [dz] occur next to a front vowel (phonetically), they tend to become retroflex affricates. This can also happen with z becoming [dz] at the end of a word, but the change only occurs after front vowels. Before the allophony took place, /ts/ occured phonemically in loanwords from Russian and written with c, e.g. infarmeciya.
  • Unstressed central vowels (but not nasal vowels) can be lost when there is a following consonant, turning the consonant into a syllabic consonant. Monosyllabic words don't experience this.

Vowels[]

Note that nasal vowels can create near-homophones, such as teri and tęri, which means "skin" and "god" respectively. The two words have the same consonants and vowels, with a difference in nasalization (i.e. [t'ɛ˞i] and [t'ɛ̃ɹi]). This has gave rise to several alternate Kyrgyz Internet memes in the American Turkic language, similar to how near-homophones in Standard Chinese based off tones gave rise to the "Grass Mud Horse" meme in our timeline.

Front Central Back
Normal Nasal R-Colored Normal Nasal R-Colored Normal Nasal R-Colored
High i ĩ i˞* ʉ ʉ̃ ʉ˞* u ũ u˞*
Low-mid ɛ ɛ̃ ɛ˞* ɔ ɔ̃ ɔ˞*
Low a ã a˞*
VowelTriangleAmericanTurkic

Vowel triangle for American Turkic

Notes[]

*R-coloring is not phonemic.

Allophony Depending on Stress[]

/i/: [i (1st stress) ~ ɪ (2nd stress) ~ ɘ (no stress)]

/ɛ/: [ɛ (1st stress) ~ æ (2nd stress) ~ ɜ (no stress)]

/a/: [a (1st stress) ~ ɜ (2nd stress) ~ ə (no stress)]

/u/: [u (1st stress) ~ ʊ (2nd stress) ~ ɵ (no stress)]

/ɔ/: [ɔ (1st stress) ~ ɑ (2nd stress) ~ ɞ (no stress)]

/ʉ/: [ʉ (1st stress) ~ ɵ (2nd stress) ~ ə (no stress)]

Vowel Harmony[]

American Turkic has a vowel harmony system where front and back vowels cannot coexist within the same word. Central vowels are neutral and can coexist with each set. This system applies to every word, even loanwords, and exceptions are in the names of people and places (so Evropa when you would be expecting Evrapa), in auxillary verbs, and in irregular verbs.

Vowel Length[]

American Turkic does not have phonemic vowel length. Long vowels are allophones of the short vowels before phonemic plain voiced stops and voiced fricatives. Vowel length is phonemic in the Mexican dialects, which tends to simplify its consonant inventory by merging the ejective stops with the plain plosives and voiced fricatives with voiceless fricatives under the influence of Nahuatl, which doesn't feature phonemic voiced obstruents. The same sound change makes /β̞ / (which has merged with /w/), /w/, /c/, /ç/, /ɾ/ (which has become the trill /r/), and /dz/ (which has rhoticized to /rʲ/, which was the original Proto-Turkic pronounciation of /z/ in the Common Turkic languages, which includes American Turkic) phonemic.

Phonotactics[]

The syllable structure of American Turkic is (C)(C)(C)V(C).

American Turkic allows only voicless sibilant + plosive + liquid, voiceless sibilant + plosive, plosive + liquid, and voiceless sibilant + liquid as clusters in the syllable onset. Allowed consonant clusters in the syllable onset are bl, br, dl, dr, gl, gr, sb, sbl, sbr, sd, sdl, sdr, sg, sl, sr, sgl, sgr, şb, şbl, şbr, şd, şdl, şdr, şg, şgl, şgr, şl, and şr. In the syllable coda, however, American Turkic prohibits consonant clusters, so the maximum amount of consonants that can occur between vowels phonemically is four consonants. American Turkic also prohibits both diphthongs (But pseudo-diphthongs can be created using disyllables (example: ẍaih (which was borrowed from the German word reich), which means "dimension" in American Turkic and is pronounced [ˈʁaˌɪx]) or a vowel followed by /j/) and geminants. There is also non-phonemic syllabic resonance, and every consonant can become a syllabic consonant, unlike English, which has syllabic sonorants only.

Stress System[]

In words with at least three syllables, primary stress falls on the second one, unless the first one has a coda. Otherwise, primary stress falls on the first one. There is an exception with primary stress in loanwords from European languages borrowed from the 18th century, where it falls in the syllable where it fell in the original language. Secondary stress, however, always falls on the last syllable, even in loanwords, unless primary stress falls on the last syllable, where secondary stress falls on the first syllable instead. When there is one syllable in the word, stress is nonexistent.

Writing System[]

Turkish-based Latin Alphabet[]

American Turkic uses a variant of the Latin alphabet as its official writing system, which is based on the Turkish alphabet. It has a couple of digraphs. The ogonek <◌̨> is used to denote nasal vowels, and an acute accent <◌́> is used to denote stress where it doesn't fall on the second or first syllables, although the acute is slowly fading from use as it is not available on the American Turkic keyboard and very little people know how to input it. There is also a Cyrillic alphabet that exists, but very few people use it, because the Cyrillic version is used in the American branch of the Russian Orthodox Church only. Overall, the spelling very phonemic, but it fails to account for prenasalization and velar plosives becoming alveolar affricates (See the consonant allophony for more information). Unlike the Turkic languages in the Old World, American Turkic uses the Western i to represent /i/, which is because /ɯ/ merged with /u/ during the Great American Turkic Vowel Shift. The orthography below is enforced by the Kyrgyz government, but regional orthographies for the various American Turkic dialects are still in use by mainly elderly people, except for the Columbia Basin dialect, which was spread by the Internet as slang.

Letters
Letter A a B b Ç ç D d Ð ð E e F f G g Gy gy Ğ ğ H h Hy hy
Cyrillic А а Б б Ч ч Д д Ð ð Э э Ф ф Г г Гj гj Ғ ғ X x Ҳj ҳj
Name a

/a/

be

/pɛ/

çe

/ʈʂɛ/

de

/tɛ/

/ɛð/

e

/ɛ/

ef

/ɛf/

g'e

/kɛ/

gye

/cɛ/

ğe

/ɣɛ/

ha

/xa/

hya

/ça/

Sound /a/ /p/ /ʈʂ/ /t/ /ð/ /ɛ/ /f/ /c/ before a front vowel, /k/ elsewhere. A silent apostrophe after the letter is used to warn readers that g is pronounced /k/ and not /c/ when used on a front vowel. /c/ /ɣ/ /ç/ before a front vowel,/x/ elsewhere. A silent apostrophe after the letter is used to warn readers that h is pronounced /x/ and not /ç/ when is used on a front vowel. /ç/
Letter I i J j K k L l M m N n N̈ n̈ Ŋ ŋ O o P p Q q Qh qh
Cyrillic И и Ж ж К к Л л М м Н н Ҥ ҥ Ң ң О о П п Ҕ ҕ Q q
Name i

/i/

jud

/ʐut/

ka

/k'a/

el

/ɛl/

em

/ɛm/

en

/ɛn/

en diyares

/ɛn ˈdijaˌrɛs/

aŋma

/ˈaŋˌma/

o

/ɔ/

pe

/p'ɛ/

qu

/q'u/

qhu

/qu/

Sound /i/ /ʐ/ /k'/ /l/ /m/ /n/ [ɴ] (not phonemic) /ƞ/ /ɔ/ /p'/ /q'/ /q/
Letter R r S s Ş ş T t Þ þ U u Ü ü V v X x Ẍ ẍ Y y Z z
Cyrillic Р р С с Ш ш Т т Ѳ ѳ У у Ы ы В в Ҟ ҟ Ҳ ҳ J j З з
Name er

/ɛɹ/

es

/ɛs/

/ɛʂ/

te

/tɛ/

þoron

/ˈθɔrˌɔn/

u

/u/

ü

/ʉ/

vav

/vav/

ix

/iχ/

iẍ

/iʁ/

i greka

/i ˈkrɛˌk'a/

zeta

/ˈzɛˌt'a/

Sound /ɹ/ /s/ /ʂ/ /t'/ /θ/ /u/ /ʉ/ /v/ /χ/ /ʁ/ /j/ /z/
Diacritics
Letter ◌̨ ◌́
Cyrillic (none)
Name aganek

/aˈkanˌɛk'/

agyut

/'acˌut/

Sound /˜/ /'/

Mayan-based Traditional Script[]

There is also a traditional script in use which is descended from the Afansevan script, in turn descended from Mayan rebus characters. The Latin alphabet will be used for this article because of technical limitations (The traditional characters are not on my PC). The script is mainly in use by elderly people, but the script is also taught as an optional elective class in high school.

The American Turkic Traditional Script
Letters
AmericanTurkicTraditionalScript
Punctuation
Latin script American Turkic Traditional Script (closest typeable equivelant in the Latin script)
period

(.)

/
question mark

(?)

comma

(,)

//
exclamation mark

(!)

#
quotation marks

("")

<>
space

( )

|
paragraph begin/end

(no equivelant in Latin script)

{}

Keyboard layout[]

The American Turkic keyboard layout (for Windows)

Grammar[]

A simplified version of this section can be found here.

Personal Pronouns[]

There is no reflexive pronouns in American Turkic. To form a reflexive, you have to conjugate a pronoun for the dative case.

Personal Pronouns
Singular Plural Possessive Possessive Plural
1st person biz męį męįiz
2nd person siz sęį sęįiz
3rd person ol ǫlar ǫų ǫųuz

Nouns[]

Articles[]

Unlike most Turkic languages, American Turkic has evolved indefinate and definate articles, which can be placed before nouns and agree in case with the noun it modifies (but not the ergative case, as articles have a nominative-accusative syntax). Numbers greater than 1 can also act like articles, which can be used to determine how many of a certain noun there are in the plural form (which I'll call pseudo-articles from now on). This is optional and depends on the speaker, but younger speakers, especially speakers who are members of Gen Z or Gen Alpha, are more likely to use pseudo-articles in casual speech. Articles can only be used on nouns (not pronouns), and decline for the same case of the noun it is used on. The definate article has an allomorph where it becomes vu after a vowel/nasal vowel and u elsewhere. This, along with confusion amongst the people about word boundaries, have caused major rebracketing events to happen in the past before the adoption of a Mayan-based script, (compare English nickname. The word in Middle English was ekename, but rebracketing changed it to the modern form.) which distinguishes word boundaries. Today, rebracketing mostly happens among illiterate people living in extreme poverty who speak the language (which is only about % of the Kyrgyz population and shrinking as of 2024. The Kyrgyz Khaganate is expected to be liberated from poverty by the year 2035, mainly due to a better school system than the American school system in OTL.).

Indefinate Deflnate
When the preceding word ends in a consonant When preceding word ends with a vowel/nasal vowel
Nominative bir u vu
Accusative birü uvü vuvü
Genitive birų̈ uvų̈ vuvų̈
Dative bira uva vuva
Locative birda uda vuda
Ablative birdą udą vudą
Instrumental birla ula vula

There are multiple differences to the usage of definate articles in American Turkic from English:

  • The definate article is always used for languages other than American Turkic (e.g. u/vu Iŋlen til, literally "the English language."). Note that language names are always followed by til, like in American Turkic's native name.
  • The definate article is used when referring to comfortable objects in the speaker's opinion (e.g. Ją vu katiz mę, literally "I like the cats").
  • The definate article is used when referring to bodies of water (e.g. u/vu Aþbeg or u/vu Neçivą, literally "the Atabeg (the Columbia in OTL).")
  • The definate article is omitted when referring to the highest of people (kings/queens, government officials, gods, etc.) in formal contexts (e.g. tęri "the god", literally "god"). This practice dates back two decades after the Kyrgyz Civil War came to an end, when the American Turkic folktale was in development and the author avoided using definate articles to refer to Tęri. The folktale was spread all over Kyrgyzia via the printing press, which was introduced by the Europeans. This feature, originally unique to the southern dialects of American Turkic (which were ancestral to the South African dialects), was adopted into the standard language by the year 1550.

Case[]

American Turkic retains all the cases, but the accusative case has evolved into a definate article as shown in the table above, as it formerly applied for definateness. American Turkic has split-ergative syntax in nouns and nominative-accusative syntax in pronouns and articles. Nouns are classified as either animate or inanimate, and the split occurs in objects where animate objects take the ergative case and inanimate objects take the accusative case.

Noun Cases
Case Ending Example: ağaç "tree" Meaning
Nominative -Ø (none) ağaç tree (subject)
Accusative ağaçü tree (animate object)
Ergative -ür ağaçür* tree (inanimate object)
Genitive -ų̈ ağaçų̈ the tree's/of the tree
Dative -a ağaça to the tree
Locative -da ağaçda in/on/at the tree
Ablative -dą ağaçdą from the tree
Instrumental -la ağaçla with the tree

The case system applies to non-possesive personal pronouns as well, but without the genitive case (as it is already used for possessive pronouns). The dative case can combine with any personal pronoun to form a reflexive pronoun. Pronouns, articles, and adjectives are nominative-accusative, while nouns are split-ergative.

*Trees are classified as animate, so the ergative case on this word is ungrammatical.

Animacy[]

Nouns are classified as either animate or inanimate, and take different cases when they are used as an object. Inanimate objects take the ergative case, while animate objects take the accusative case.

Plural Marker[]

To represent a plural, American Turkic uses -iz or -uz (depending on vowel harmony), if all the vowels in the word being pluralized are neutral then the former is used. This replaced the older -lar suffix, but a few exceptions survive as fossils, such as ǫlar "they" (The nasal vowel in this pronoun evolved from a random mutation, just like the /m/ in most of the first person pronouns evolved from a random mutation in Old Turkic) and açar "fathers" (singular ) (/aθlar/ > /aθɬar/ > /atɬar/ > /atʂar/ > /at͡ʂar/).

Agglutination[]

One of the features American Turkic has retained from Old Turkic is agglutination, which means words and (sometimes) markers are smashed together to create new words. This obeys American Turkic word order too, e.g. the word for "racism" is külüzelizdikų̈. This can be broken down into kül ("to laugh") and üzelizdikų̈ ("at differences"). The latter can be split into üzelizdik ("differences"), and the genitive case ų̈. The former can be split into üzeliz ("traits") and duk (a loanword from Chinese meaning "unique"). The former can be split into üzel (a back-loan from Turkish meaning "trait") and the plural marker -iz, thus the word for "racism" literally means "to laugh at unique traits," because racism is a concept that is forbidden and frowned upon in the Kyrgyz Khaganate. Remove üzel and iz from the word and you get Küldukų̈, the word for "Sameness" in the American Turkic translation of The Giver, literally "to laugh at uniqueness."

Verbs[]

Copula Prefix and Tense System[]

American Turkic has a completely reworked tense system, and uses the prefix tur- as a copula, which is ultimately derived from Proto-Turkic *tur- and means "to stand." The following prefixes can be attached to a verb to indicate that the action will happen in a certain time period.

Tense Prefixes
Perfective Imperfective
"Simple" Copula Habitual
Present Ø- (none) tur- kuva-*
Past

sǫ-

tursǫ- kuvasǫ-*
Future ket- turkot- kuvakot-*

*kuva- was loaned from a Nuxalk word meaning "usually."

This article will use kük ("to see") as an example.

  • Mekük sęü ()*. "I see you." (1SG-PRES-see 2SG-ACC 1SG-NOM)
  • Moturkük sęü ()*. "I am seeing you." (1SG-COP-PRES-see 2SG-ACC 1SG-NOM)
  • Mokuvakük sęü ()*. "I am seeing you currently." (1SG-HAB-PRES-see 2SG-ACC 1SG-NOM)
  • Mosǫkük sęü ()*. "I saw you." (1SG-PST-see 2SG-ACC 1SG-NOM)
  • Mokuvasǫkük sęü ()*. "I used to see you." (1SG-HAB-PST-see 2SG-ACC 1SG-NOM)
  • Motursǫkük sęü ()*. "I was seeing you." (1SG-COP-PAST-see 2SG-ACC 1SG-NOM)
  • Meketkük sęü ()*. "I'll see you." (1SG-FUT-see 2SG-ACC 1SG-NOM)
  • Moturkotkük sęü ()*. "I'll be seeing you." (1SG-COP-FUT-see 2SG-ACC 1SG-NOM)
  • Mokuvakotkük sęü ()*. "I'll be going to see you." (1SG-HAB-FUT-see 2SG-ACC 1SG-NOM)

*The subject pronoun, in this case, (in the nominative case), may be elided because American Turkic is pro-drop.

Tur can also act like a verb in a sentence if another verb is unavailable, or if the sentence is expressing a gnomic truth, e.g. Otur güklikü tę. ("The sky is blue."). In that case, the subject is not dropped because it is not a pronoun.

Person[]

Similar to the tense/aspect system, the person system is completely reworked in American Turkic. Regular verbs are divided into three classes based on what ends a word, and the plural marker can be used depending on the class. These classes have evolved under Afansevan influence, and there used to be more of them in the past. Irregular verbs only have two classes, with Class 1 being absent. This is mandatory for the verb if the subject is marked in the sentence. Non-pronoun subjects are treated as third person and therefore the verb gets conjugated for the third person when there's a non-pronoun as a subject. If there is a pronoun as the subject, and does not inflect for cases other than nominative, then the pronoun can be dropped, since you can clarify everything you want in a conversation by just conjugating the verb for person, then use the object. You can also decline the verb for the pronoun's case, but this is not formal. This makes American Turkic a pro-drop language.

Regular Verbs[]
Description of Class Singular Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Class 1 Words that end with an ejective, sonorant, or fricative (absent for irregular verbs) m(e/o)- s(e/o)- el-/ol- m(e/o)- -Vz s(e/o)- -Vz el-/ol- -Vz
Class 2 Words that end with any other consonant m(e/o)- -iz/-uz s(e/o)- -iz/-uz el-/ol- -iz/-uz
Class 3 Words that end with a vowel/nasal vowel m(e/o)- -z s(e/o)- -z el-/ol- -z

*V represents the last vowel of the verb stem.

Example[]
Singular Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Class 1 Example (kük "to see") mekük "I see" sekük "You (singular) see" elkük "He/She/It sees" meküküz "We see" seküküz "You (plural) see" elküküz "They see"
Class 2 Example (buç "to kill") mobuç "I kill" sobuç "You (singular) kill" olbuç "He/She/It kills" mobuçuz "We kill" sobuçuz "You (plural) kill" olbuçuz "They kill"
Class 3 Example (tolu "to rule") motolu "I rule" sotolu "You (singular) rule" oltolu "He/She/It rules" motoluz "We rule" sotoluz "You (plural) rule" oltoluz "They rule"

In these examples, the bolded letters represent the verb stem.

Irregular Verbs[]
Irregular Verbs
Singular Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd personm 3rd person
tur ("to be") metur sdur otur metuz sduz otuz
bar ("to have") mar sbar ebra mebriz sbriz ebriz
yap ("to do") miyap şap iyap mif sgif ef
keyte ("to go") ŋeyte sgit ekite ŋitez sgitez ektez
küç ("to be able to") ŋüç sgüç eküç ŋüz sgüz eküz
iste ("to want") miste siste isde mistez sdez eysdez

Evidentiality[]

Perhaps, the most complicated aspect of American Turkic verbs are in evidentiality, in which it is quite conservative. Evidentiality is split into two forms: firsthand and indirect. Evidentiality is marked by a mandatory verb suffix.

Firsthand Indirect
Verb suffix -Ø -miş

Auxiliary verbs[]

American Turkic has several auxillary verbs. Each of them have six different inflections (36 if we count person-marking). These verbs are very irregular, as they are the most used verbs. Unfortunately, the only way to deal with the irregularity is through brute-force memorization.

Form ->



Regular suffix ->

Non-Interrogative Interrogative
Non-Negative Negative Non-Negative


-yam

Negative


-mayam

Non-Optative

Optative

-hakuv

Non-Optative

-mav

Optative

-mahakuv

Default auxillary

(yat "to lie (as in a bed)")

yat (emphasizer) yaþkuv

yantav

yanþakuv yaçam yantem
Copulative auxillary

(tur "to be")

tur jev turav jęv mol jęl
Future in the past auxillary

(iste "to demand, to request")

istev isguv izav izak işam izam
Distant past auxillary

(sǫvan "a long time ago")

sǫvan sǫvanakuv sǫvanav sǫvanahakuv sǫvenam sǫvenyam
Distant future auxillary

(ketvan "a long time into the future")

ketvan ketvaŋ ketvaŋmav keþaŋ kiŋ kemyav
Deontic auxillary

(yap "to make, to build")

yap yafkuv yąpav yęfakuv yepam yęfam
Examples (Default Auxillary Verb)[]
  • Olye vuvü suçganü u kat. ("The cat ate the mouse.") 3PS-eat DEF-ART-ACC mouse-ACC DEF-ART-NOM cat-NOM
  • Olye olyat uvü suçganü u kat. ("The cat ate the mouse.") 3PS-eat AUX DEF-ART-ACC mouse-ACC DEF-ART-NOM cat-NOM*
  • Olye vuvü suçganü olyat u kat. ("The cat ate the mouse") 3PS-eat DEF-ART-ACC mouse-ACC AUX DEF-ART-NOM cat-NOM
  • Olye vuvü suçganü u kat olyat. ("The cat ate the mouse") 3PS-eat DEF-ART-ACC mouse-ACC DEF-ART-NOM cat-NOM AUX
  • Olye olyaþkuv uvü suçganü u kat. ("If only the cat ate the mouse.") 3PS-eat AUX-OPT DEF-ART-ACC mouse-ACC DEF-ART-NOM cat-NOM
  • Olye olyantav uvü suçganü u kat. ("The cat didn't eat the mouse.") 3PS-eat AUX-NEG DEF-ART-ACC mouse-ACC DEF-ART-NOM cat-NOM
  • Olye olyanþakuv uvü suçganü u kat. ("If only the cat didn't eat the mouse.") 3PS-eat AUX-NEG-OPT DEF-ART-ACC mouse-ACC DEF-ART-NOM cat-NOM
  • Olye olyaçam u kat uvü suçganü? ("Did the cat eat the mouse?") 3PS-eat AUX-INT DEF-ART-NOM cat-NOM DEF-ART-ACC mouse-ACC
  • Olye olyantem u kat uvü suçganü? ("Didn't the cat eat the mouse?") 3PS-eat AUX-NEG-INT DEF-ART-NOM cat-NOM DEF-ART-ACC mouse-ACC

*This sentence is ungrammatical in American Turkic, because the uninflected form's only purpose is used to emphasize either the subject or object: emphasizing the verb won't make any sense.

Syntax[]

American Turkic has generally free word order, but the default word order in American Turkic is VOS, or verb-object-subject, as seen in the above sentences. The default word order can vary between VOS (the default word order, as used in the examples above) and VSO (the word order used in interrogative sentences, e.g. Mekük mę sęü? "Am I seeing you?" ). Adjectives and adverbs succeed the parts of speech they modify, and words can change meaning depending on their position in a sentence. Interrogative pronouns occur at the end of the sentence (if there is one), and the posessee proceeds the posesser. Double negatives are frequently used to emphasize a negative. To emphasize a non-negative, American Turkic uses the uninflected form of the auxillary verb (Kinda like our unnecessary "do" in English).

Examples[]

The below table will show several example sentences demonstrating the features described above.

Sentence Meaning Glossary
Moturkük sęü mę olturvuşį mędą vu ağaçla eski. I see you hide from me using the old tree. 1SG-COP-PRES-see 2SG-ACC 1SG-NOM 3SG-COP-PRES-hide 1SG-ABL ART tree-INS ancient

("I am seeing that you are hiding from me with the ancient tree")

Sokotoyna sę męü vu oynayurutda? Can you play at the park with me? 2SG-FUT-play 2SG-NOM 1SG-ACC ART park-LOC

("Will you play with me at the park?")

Olsǫbuç üç aðigüiz büðük Azamat. Azamat killed three big bears. 3SG-PST-stab three bear-ACC-PL big Azamat-NOM.

("Azamat stabbed three big bears")

Soturyap yurut męų̈ sęü ne? What are you doing in my house? 2SG-COP-PRES-do building 1SG-GEN 2SG-ACC what

("What are you doing in my building")

Lexicon[]

Numbers[]

American Turkic is a hybrid vigesimal-decimal. Historically, it was pure vigesimal, but decimal was introduced by the Europeans in the ~17th century.

  • 1: id
  • 2: ih
  • 3: üç
  • 4: teret
  • 5: beş
  • 6: altu
  • 7: yedi
  • 8: seqiz
  • 9: doquz
  • 10: dekę
  • 11: ǫd
  • 12: ǫuh
  • 13: ǫüç
  • 14: ǫtorot
  • 15: ǫboş
  • 16: ǫaltu
  • 17: ǫyodu
  • 18: ǫsoquz
  • 19: ǫdoquz
  • 20: kal
  • 30: drita
  • 40: kuvatuvorgodą
  • 50: kuvügodą
  • 60: seksagidą
  • 70: septagidą
  • 80: oktogüdą
  • 90: nǫagüdą
  • 100: ketą
  • 400: yüz
  • 1,000: mile
  • 8,000: bin
  • 160,000: van
  • 1,000,000: miliyan
  • 3,200,000: kįçil
  • 64,000,000 (obsolete, used in some poetry in the modern language): alo
  • 1,000,000,000: bilyarad
  • 1,000,000,000,000: driliyan

Dictionary[]

The dictionary can be found at American Turkic/Lexicon (but it is not done yet)


Example text/Translations[]

American Turkic folktale[]

TBA

Never Gonna Give You Up[]

TBA

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1[]

TBA

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