|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
The Andalusian language (língua andaluz, لئنگو اندلوز) is an Ibero-Romance language spoken in Al-Andalus, having been strongly influenced by Arabic durringthe centuries of arabic-muslim control of the peninsula.
The language, throughout the Andalusian explorations, was taken to the New World, where today it is the language spoken by most of the American continent, in addition to influencing several languages around the world. It was also the first lingua franca in the world, being used as a prestigious language in both Europe and the Arab world.
History[edit | edit source]
In this scenario, the Iberian peninsula remained under Moorish control and Reconquista did not occur. After a long mastery of the Arabic language and the Andalusian Arabic, there was a revival of the Andalus language in the 15th century, a more Arabized version of the Mozarabic language, a Ibero-Romance language, which came to replace Arabic as the official and prestigious language. Today Andalusian is the official language of the Republic of Al-Andalus (Jomhur-e Al-Ândalus, جمهورِ الآندلوس) and of more than 30 countries in the Americas, Africa and Asia. In addition to being influenced by Arabic, Andalusian was also directly influenced by Persian during the Andalusian Renaissance, when the revival of Classical Persian was seen as an example to be followed. The Arabic-Andalusian alphabet is also directly based on the Persian script, as well as the Ezafe concept. French, Italian, Turkish, English and African and Amerindian languages also came with great influences in Andalusian vocabulary.
Phonology[edit | edit source]
Andalusian phonology evolved directly from Mozarabic, with some Arab influence and other romance dialects spoken in northern Iberia, which would have given origin to Portuguese and Spanish. As Mozarabic inherited a more archaic phonology than other Romance languages, Andalus preserved many of these characteristics. Others, however, were influenced by Arabic and local dialects, and Andalusian phonology today, in comparison with the Romance languages of reality, is very close to the Brazilian Portuguese phonology, which is more conservative than European Portuguese.
Consonants[edit | edit source]
|Plosive||p b||t d||ʧ ʤ||k g|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||χ ʁ||h|
|Flap or tap||ɾ|
The Andalusian consonant inventory is very similar to that of modern Ibero-Romance languages, but with some exceptions, like the absence of rhotic trill /r/, and the presence of /ʤ/, /χ/ and /ʁ/ from Arabic. Some freatures of the Andalusian in relation to Mozarabic and other Ibero-Romance languages and Arabic are:
- From Latin to Mozarabic, /kt/ became /ht/ (Noctem > Nohte), but from Mozarabic to Andalusian, the transformation of the Latin /kt/ into /jt/, founded in Portuguese, ocurred, so /ht/ became /jt/ in Andalusian (Nohte > Noyte).
- The Arabic phoneme /ɣ/, represented by gh / غ, became /ʁ/ in Andalusian (Arabic /ɣaɾb/ > Andalusian /ʁaɾb/, both spelled غرب, gharb in Arabic e gharbe in Andalusian). The transformation of /ɣ/ into /ʁ/, also influenced the transformation of the rhotic trill /r/ and /ɾ/ in the beginning of a word into /ʁ/. So, both the digraphs gh / غ, rr / رّ, and r /ر in word beginning are pronounced as /ʁ/.
- The Arabic phoneme /χ/ was kept in Andalusian for the letter Kh / خ, but, in many dialects the /ʁ/ is merged into /χ/.
- As influence of Arabic, /kʷ/ and /ɡʷ/ became /kw/ and /gw/.
- The Arabic letter ق is stil transcripted in the Latin alphabet as a sole q, but the original Arabic phoneme /q/ was merged in /k/. Exemple is the word عشق (Arabic ishq /ʕiʃq/ > Andalusian 'eshq /eʃ.k/.
- In Andalusian, the Arabic letter ع (in Latin alphabet '), lost the Arabic phoneme /ʕ/, and became a glottal stop /ʔ/ in the middle of a word, or a not pronouced letter in the beginning of a word.
- The Mozarabic /β/ finished is transition to /v/ (Vita /βi.ta/ > Vita /vi.ta/).
|Latin (lingua latina)||Mozarabic (latino)||Spanish
|Our Father which art in heaven,
Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.
|Pater nostro, que is na-s saná, santificato seda el tuo nome. Vena el tuo sultanato a nos. Fáxase al tua volontade, ansi en al dunya meçle in celo. El nostro pan de cata yume dá nos voy, e perdona-nos as nostras ofensas, meçle nos perdonamos aos que nos ofenden. Va no nos lexes cader in tentachón e libera-nos de-l mal.
|Pater noster, qui es in caelis:
sanctificetur Nomen Tuum; adveniat Regnum Tuum; fiat voluntas Tua, sicut in caelo, et in terra. Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie; et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris; et ne nos inducas in tentationem; sed libera nos a Malo. Amen.
|Patre nuestro que yes en el chelo, santificato síad el tuyo nomne. Venya a nos el tuyo reyno. Fáchadse al tuya voluntád ansi en al dunya com en el chelo. El nuestro pan de cata día danoslo wey e perdona-nos las nuestras offensas com nos perdonamos a los qui nos offenden. E non nos layxes cader in tentachón e líberanos d'el mal.
|Padre nuestro que estás en el cielo,
santificado sea tu nombre. Venga a nosotros tu Reino. Hágase tu voluntad, así en la tierra como en el cielo. El pan nuestro de cada día, dánoslo hoy y perdona nuestras ofensas, como también nosotros perdonamos a los que nos ofenden. Y no nos dejes caer en la tentación, y líbranos de mal. Amén.
|Pai nosso, que estais nos Céus,
santificado seja o vosso nome; venha a nós o vosso reino; seja feita a vossa vontade assim na terra como no céu. O pão nosso de cada dia nos dai hoje; perdoai-nos as nossas ofensas, assim como nós perdoamos a quem nos tem ofendido; e não nos deixeis cair em tentação; mas livrai-nos do mal. Amém.