Conlang
Advertisement
Annatonian
Type
Alignment
Head direction Front
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations Yes
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]

Classification and Dialects[]

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Annatonian sounds are comprised of a set of nineteen, consonant sounds; the consonants of Annatonian (IPA) are ŋ, n, m, ɟ, c, p, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, t, d, f, v, k, x, r, l, ʔ. In Annatonian gemination is possible for all consonants, excluding the glottal stop, and may be referred to as: “long consonants".

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p, (b) t, d c, ɟ k ʔ
Fricative f, v s, z ʃ, ʒ x (h)
Affricate
Approximant
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l (ʎ)
Lateral flap

note: This table has all possible sounds including dialects in parentheses.

Vowels[]

The Vowels of Annatonian are: a, i, o, u. Each of the vowels can have a length distinction. Beyond the previously mentioned monothongs, Annatonian also forms some diphthongs in certain cases. All the possible diphthongs are: oi, ai, ou. Interestingly, since these diphthongs appeared due to the fusion of other monothongs, they often force vocalic consonants to stand alone as syllables, but more will be expanded on this in phonotactics.

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high (ɪ) (ʊ)
High-mid o
Mid (ə)
Low-mid
Near-low (ɐ)
Low a

note: This table has all possible sounds including dialects in parentheses.

Phonotactics[]

Compared to the simplicity of the phonemes, the phonotactics of Annatonian can quickly become confusing if taken from the wrong perspective. Many speakers would argue that the writing system is phonetic, but due to sound changes historical spelling is the reality. Regardless, it is important to stay focused on the actual sounds coming from speakers of the language. There are a number of unique features in Annatonian that give it a distinct characteristic.

Structure[]

The syllable structure of Annatonian is most simply put: CV[C] | VC. If the onset for a given syllable is present, the coda is optional, conversely with the omision of the onset in a particular syllable the coda becomes mandatory. Due to this structure Annatonian has no consonant clusters but may have an adjacent coda and onset. The glottal stop presents an exception it must always be present in the onset, and never in the coda; therefore, the glottal stop will never be adjacent to a preceding coda. In other words the glottal stop is always present between vowels.

In the case of l, the only vocalic consonant following a diphthong, the structure can also take on: Vc. This comes from sound changes that occurred involving the formation of diphthongs. An example of this is in the word: koil = /'ko̯i l/.

Stress[]

Annatonian follows a set of particularity regular conventions in terms of stress and syllable structure. The stress in any given Annatonian word falls on the first syllable. This rule has only one exception; when a glottal stop separates two vowels, the second vowel’s syllable will have the primary stress. As an example, the word for paper: /ruʔ ‘uɟ la/ has stress on the second syllable. Loan-words from other languages morph to match Annatonian initial syllabic stress.

Summary[]

  1. The syllable structure is CV[C] | VC.
  2. Glottal stops are always between vowels.
  3. Stress is always on the first syllable unless a glottal stop is in the beginning of the word.
  4. Diphthongs can force only /l/ to become vocalic.

Writing System[]

Before diving into the orthography as it is today, it is valuable to note the history of this unique set of symbols, and its past roots. Originally, as far as history can trace, modern Annatonian characters stem from a more ancient logography, and before that an even more ancient pictography. This pictography utilized very basic symbolism to express ideas; although many argue that Annatonian glyphs were very primitive and served a limited purpose and failed in reckoning the abstract. Their meanings were less detailed and their use was far more limited. In addition, the glyphs were often painted on pieces of wood using charcoal; therefore, rendering many of these prehistoric glyphs unidentifiable.

During a rather surprisingly brief period of time though, scribes began to use these pictograms on more permanent mediums such as stone and early versions of paper. During this shift, these very scribes began to simplify and expand the meanings of the symbols. Soon a fully-fledged logography formed. Over the years the first logography evolved seven times, although some argue only six, into the relatively recent logography Annatonian was written in before the Reforms. The Reforms, were a modern development hoping to standardize the logography, but instead ended up establishing the current abugida. A set of seventeen corresponding characters based on similar sounds. In good time the abugida in some scholastic circles was expanded to help reduce redundancies, diacritics, and other markings on the writing. In the current day the University of Language in Pushipa does not set a clear guideline for how spelling must be, rather it offers all possible forms as valid and makes suggestions for how to most efficiently and clearly write. Below is an image showing the consonant characters and their IPA equivalents.

The abugida has unique characters for 18 unique consonant sounds. The glottal stop is marked by an upside down caret between syllables with adjacent vowels. Each consonant can be modified most simply with two markers of information: vowel type, and vowel placement. A dot diacritic can be placed, to the left, right, above, and below each representing the vowel sounds i, u, a, and o respectively. Then an apostrophe can precede or follow each character-dot combination to show that the vowel comes before or after respectively. This is used for the VC or CV structure which is most pervasive in the language. A syllable might look like: ż' representing: /za/, (z is just a placeholder here so it can be typed, below will be real examples). Within a word in order to decrease the number of marks, each dot and apostrophe maintains its information through out until it is changes later within the word. To provide two examples which are a bit ridiculous but demonstrate the point: ż'zz meaning: /zazaza/ or 'ŕrr' meaning: /ararra/ (again, r is not the actual symbol). In the second example since all three syllables have only one vowel it is only marked once, and the apostrophe changes only at the end when the vowel moves.

Most words can be written with these basics, but often there are other situations which require special solutions. Long vowels are written by placing a double apostrophe between two syllables with the same vowel marking: ż''z meaning: /za:z/. To show a syllable with CVC structure, the between the two consonants a tilde is used above to show that the vowel is short; there are no apostrophes used, and the second consonant doesn't need a dot. The tilde strategy is not the only way to go though. Some writers prefer to use fused diagraphs to represent both the first and last consonant, a dot is placed above to show the vowel in the middle, no apostrophes are needed. This method decreases the clutter, but requires greater proficiency to read or write. Some of these diagraphs are very popular and almost always used while others are rarely even known by readers.

Letter ng n m dj tj p b s z sj zj t h aa/c y
Sound ŋ n m ɟ c p b s z ʃ ʒ t h a: i:
Letter d f v k kh r l ' lj a i o u oo/q uu/w
Sound d f v k x r l ʔ ʎ a i o u o: u:

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

The Annatonian Language’s vocabulary is comprised of a set of nouns that consist of the overwhelming majority of Annatonian words. There are some special verbs which will be referenced later on. All parts of speech beside the noun, pronoun, and prepositions are achieved by using a set of suffixes that denote its part of speech. Nouns can be modified by number, case, and a few other morphologic bits.

Number[]

Annatonian nouns can take on four levels of plurality. There can be a pair, a triple, more than four, and an astronomical number, used more to describe things that are generally unfeasible to understand. There may be two oranges, three flowers, many balloons, and too many to count stars in the universe. The endings for each degree of plurality are: sj, n, t, and v respectively. The additional ending is added on in the form of a single syllable, using the same vowel as the one preceding it. As an example, the word for king, “kung” might change to “kungusj” if there were two kings. In a word that ends in a vowel, the suffix is applied directly to the root word as in three flowers or in Annatonian “imzyn”. The last vowel is lengthened. One may also note that in some dialects this may make a central vowel unstressed and approximated.

Case[]

Annatonian uses suffixes to denote the cases of nouns in a system of eleven different cases. The cases used in Annatonian are the equative, comparative, vocative, genative, allative, ablative, nominative, accusative, possessive, possessed, instrumental and abessive. The endings of each of these cases are: -la, -rula, -um, -von, -ruvon, -ko, -ruko, -tja, -rutja, -va, and -ruva respectively. There is also the genative case: dili, which works slightly differently from the other cases. Each case’s ending connects directly to the end of a noun. The nominative case also behaves with extremely minute differences. Any markers of number go after the case ending and follow their rules for connection.

equative comparative vocative allative ablative nominative
-la rula- -um -von -ruvon -ko
[equ] [com] [voc] [all] [abl] [nom]
accusative possessive possessed instrumental abessive genitive
-ruko -tja -rutja -va -ruva dili
[acc] [pos] [pod] [ins] [abe] [gen]

Each case ending can be grouped into pairs, beside the vocative and genative. Each act as a counter part for the other. Instrumental and abessive mean with and without; possessive and possessed mean owning or owned; nominative and accusative mean subject and object; allative and ablative mean to and away from; equative and comparitive mean like and similar to. Beside these Natural Pairs as they are known in Annatonian, the vocative and genative case stand out in character. They do not have a Natural Pair and serve a particular purpose.

The vocative is similar to the dative case (which is absent from Annatonian), but it is used to denote that the object is being spoken too. In the vocative the words are the “object” and the person serves as an indirect object. Take the example: (She) goes (moves) away from the house, (she) says to her father [voc], “hello there!”. Father in the sentence is in the vocative case. In Annatonian this sentence is as follows: Karungta daasruvon rusuta tiko dili annum, “Ziang!”. The vocative is most commonly used to address someone in dialogue as in: “Kirisotoofum karungod daasruvon.”: Christopher, move away from the house.

In the sentence: She goes (moves) away from the house, (she) says to the cat [voc, pod] owned by Djudi, the [pod] will be used in addition to the vocative because the cat is owned. When stacking case endings as above, first comes genitive (if applicable), then in any order the rest of the case endings—again if applicable—and finally the vocative (if applicable). The example below shows how the possessed and vocative cases connect.

She goes away from the house and she says to the cat [voc, pod] owned by Djudi… Karungta daasruvon an rusuta Djudi zjokarutjaum…


Unlike the all the cases of Annatonian the Genitive case is not a suffix added to a word. It acts more like a conjunction than a traditional case marker. The genitive case goes between two things that have some sort of relationship. Which word comes first in a Genitive phrase does not matter grammatically, but may place extra stress on that word semantically. The person whose perspective the relationship is viewed from, is in the nominative case. Most often the genitive can be used to show familial relations. Unlike the cases for possession, the genitive never shows ownership. Examples of the genitive case are:

mother’s uncle ruannu dili tjasjako
girlfriend’s father annu dili dungtjusko
father’s girlfriend annuko dili dugtjus
her mother tiko dili tjasja


The Annatonian phrases best translation might be that: person one is being with some sort of relationship directed toward person two. In the last example which contains a possessive pronoun literally translates to: she who has a relation to her mother. In the case of the genitive, no possessive pronouns are used, just the subject pronouns.

The possessive and possessed cases are used solely to denote possession of an item, idea, thing or country/ land. A person might own a pet, or pencil but they might also own a thought  or plan. An object may also possess something such as the pen’s ink and one country may have dominion over another. The possessive case adds the ending -tja to the person or thing that is executing the possession as in the example: annutja daas; (father’s house). The word possessing comes first and remains connected to the possessed item (always regardelss of [pos or pod]), similar to how an adjective might modify a noun. If it one wants to express that something is owned, or has no sovereignty, then the possessed case is used. To some extent these two cases show sovereignty as well; such as the example: Annaton Mudjrutju; this exresses that the land of Mudj is possessed by Annaton. Essentially the cases are the same in meaning, and their identities solely change the perspective of the relationship. The case used stresses one reality or the other introducing nuance to such relations.

The nominative and accusative cases denote a subject and object of a sentence. If something is done to someone or something, it has the accusative ending applied. This rule extends to names and other proper nouns. The nominative case, unlike the accusative does not always have to be marked in a sentence. It can be used to provide clarification or add stress to a part of the sentence. Often it is omitted. The only other time when the nominativeis used, is in cooperation with the genitive case; it is applied to the word whose perspective the relation is viewed from.

A rather uique trait of Annatonian is its equative and comparative cases which create shade and depth in some instances. The ending -la denotes that an idea or thing is equivalent to another. The ending -rula means that they are comparable but not precisely equal. They might translate to: “this is exactly like that” versus “This is like that” respectively. One examples draws a connection while the other depicts a similarity. The ending is attatched to one of the words though the order does not matter. The words should stay adjacent to one another and most nearly resembles a prepositional phrase in English. The phrase is now a unit.

English [equ or com] second [equ or com] first
The plan is exactly like that one. (ding) kub kubla (ding) kubla kub
The plan is like that one. (ding) kub kubrula (ding) kubrula kub


The two sentences (I have a mask just like that other mask) in this next example simply change the position of the comparative phrase: ‘Dava khitjo khitjorula.’ or ‘Khito khitjorula dava.’

Furthermore the comparison or equification can be metaphorical, not only limited to the literal. One could say that a certain dish was just like a taste of home. In this case the equative can be used. In this context though, there should be some context on what metaphorical aspect is under the spotlight. An example is: The car is fast just like that cheetah. In Annatonian: ‘Ottosjola sjita atta nusjan’. This sentence is relating one of the car’s qualities to one of the cheetah’s.

The Abessive and Instrumental cases are two of the simplest and most practical cases of Annatonian. They denote the lack of having something or someone or the existence with something or someone respectively. Examples are: with the cat—zjokava and without the cat—zjokaruva. Like previously mentioned cases can stack in any order needed to express stress. The phrase: with my cat [pod, ins], translates to: “il zjokaruvarutja”.

The last of the Annatonian cases are the most versatile and commonly used, the: allative and ablative case. These two cases are used to describe motion toward and away from respectively. Used by themselves they simply mean away and toward. In the sentence: “I go to the house [all]” the allative is used to show motion toward the object—"Il karungal daasvon”. This function is refered to as Direct Movement in Annatonian. It solely describes the direction of movrment in terms of away and toward. The Allative and Ablative also can be paired with prepositions to denote spatial aspects of movement. The prepositions that affect the case are as follows:

in out of above below beside
ko ki pa dal til


           The prepositions act like adjectives to the noun being modified and stick to it regardless of its position in the sentence. Some examples are: The woman goes into the house—Tjus karungta ko daasvon; The dog runs beside (and away from) the car—Fukh tuidta til ottoruvon.

Suffixes[]

There are also morphological suffixes which can be applied to nouns that alter their meaning. These morphemes are listed below and cause different meanings. In parentheses is what ever vowel preceded it in the leading syllable. They can also be used to create certain verbs (example 6) but are still applied directly to the noun root.

symbol type suffix noun changed translation
OCC occupation d(V) ko kodo teacher
PRO existential v(V) aman amanva existence, being, state
DIM diminutive im annu annuim daddy, papa
EXC excessive l(V)l(V) djokh djoklolo euphoria
DER derivative n(V) kokh kokhno construction
REG regresive (V)l firu firuluar to land

Verbs[]

Verbs carry the actions within a sentence or an idea. In Annatonian, verbs, just as all other parts of speech stem from the noun form. The verb form of a word can be synthesized by using the infinitive ending: -ar. Note though, that there are a handful of so-called “pure verbs” who do not have a noun form, but rather serve only as verbs. The infinitive of verbs shows its most general state in which it is not in regard to any subject but rather describing the general concept related to its meaning. Beside the infinitive, verbs can take on many forms and have many features which are tense, mood, and fusion moods.

Tenses in Annatonian always fall into four discrete categories each describing a different temporality for the action being described. The four tenses are: present, past, past perfect, and future. The present tense, as is suggested by its name, describes an action currently taking place relative to the writer or speaker. Unlike English, there is no present progressive; therefore, any progressive actions can be equally relayed using the present tense. For example, in Annatonian, “I play” and, “I am playing” are equivalent and distinguished solely through context clues. The past tense describes an action performed and completed entirely in the past or a description for something that existed in the past. It may be used in the context of story telling or generally recounting the occurrences of a time prior to the present. The past perfect similarly describes actions having occurred in the past but also goes on to indicate that an action occurred before a specific time. The future tense describes any action that has not yet happened nor is currently happening.

The second feature of Annatonian verbs is its mood system, which can be divided into four types: indicative, subjunctive, imperative (command), and hypothetical. The indicative describes a real action that has, is, or will occur. As a realis mood, it simply denotes a passing action to be actual. Contrarily the Subjunctive mood describes an action steeped in uncertainty. A verb in the subjunctive mood is unsure and with doubt. Often times this mood can be translated into English as: “I might go.” The imperative mood (for consistency and translation reasons, throughout the text it will also be called the command mood) expresses a demand onto another person, persons, or even oneself. In the case of demanding an action from another, the command mood exactly as in English: “Go to the park!”, “Get out!”. But additionally, in Annatonian a speaker can use the command mood on themselves as well. This can be used literally, for self-encouragement, other constructions (which will be further elaborated), or poetic uses such as monologues. Finally, there is also the hypothetical mood. While the subjunctive mood deals with things that are unlikely to occur or have reason to be doubted, the hypothetical expresses actions that are very much possible and could happen, but may not and will not happen. In English it may be like: “I could have helped him”. To further clarify the difference between the hypothetical and subjunctive, one can say that the subjunctive is for instances of unlikeliness, but a reserved possibility, while the hypothetical is for the highly likely, but not actually coming true.

When a verb ends in the same vowel as its required ending, the vowel lengthens, for example: imziar (to bloom), imzyp (I could have bloomed [hyp]). Below is a chart of all endings in each mood and tense for regular verbs:

1st singular
present past past perfect future
indicative -al -sjo -ak -zo
subjunctive -av -iv -sju -zu
command -ad -ad* -ad* -da
hypothetical -ap -ip -pu -dungzo
2nd singular
indicative -ol -sja -ok -az
subjunctive -ov -uv -sji -zi
command -od -od* -od* -do’o
hypothetical -op -up -pi -dungza
3rd singular
indicative -ta -asj -ko -az
subjunctive -va’a -vi’i -sji’i -zi’i
command -do -do* -do* -dood
hypothetical -po -pu -ippi -dungaz
1st person plural inclusive
indicative -lati -sjoti -ka -zoti
subjunctive -avti -ivti -sjuti -zuta
command -daad -daad* -daad* -daad
hypothetical -paad -pyd -pud -dungzoti
1st person plural exclusive
indicative -vo -sji -rook -zi
subjunctive -roov -ruuv -isji -za
command -rod -rod* -rod* -ro
hypothetical -rop -rup -ri -dungzi
2nd plural
indicative -la -sjati -kat -zati
subjunctive -va -ti -sjiti -zotu
command -da -da* -da* -datu
hypothetical -pa -pi -khut -dungzati
3rd plural
indicative -tati -asjti -koti -azti
subjunctive -vati -viti -isjti -utza
command -doti -doti* -doti* -doti
hypothetical -poti -puti -khutu -dungazti

*These endings do not necessarily make semantical sense, but are useful in certain constructions.

Beyond the tenses and moods, verbs also change when they are negated. To negate a verb, it is assigned the prefix: ru-. Now the verb is in the negative. An example may be: ansjo (I arrived), ruansjo (I did not arrive).

Syntax[]

Lexicon[]

Example text[]

Fuksjo daasvon pykhan ki’irurfu ko saakhvon. Vydjsjo, kapka’asjan ottoon li muirin karungasjti. Fodan ti vata. Malail karungsjo li mautjsjo. Rytsjo, li ki’irurfusjo kykvon. Djoftadsjo.

I was walking my dog home last night in my hometown. I saw many cars and people walking around. It was odd. I kept going home and arrived. I ate food and looked at my bracelet. I went to sleep

Advertisement