Overview Antiqua Latina is simply the Latin language made to look more ancient by adding features from the other Italic languages, Venetic and some loosely based generalizations of the grammars of ancient Indo-European languages. It is highly regular, and relatively simple than the ancient Indo-European languages. Therefore, it is not in any way a reconstruction of the Old Latin language.


Basic Grammar[]



Nouns are all fully declined into five cases and two numbers. The cases are Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative, while the numbers are singular and plural. Nouns also have two genders, masculine and feminine. Nouns are categorised based on the way they are inflected, these groups are named by their stem endings.

For the paradigm, the pattern of endings is the same as the adjective declension listed below.

Any suffices of adjective or noun declension with an isolated -u (i.e. isn't a diphthong) is interchangeable with the vowel -o.

Example: 'puerus' can also be spelt and read 'pueros', but puerou will always be spelt and read as it is

(Note: for any sequence of declension, they are listed as above by number one(Nominative), two(Genitive) and so on. All listed cases are paired by gender as follows: singular, plural. The same applies to adjectives, pronouns, numerals alike.)


Adjectives are declined based on the case, number, and gender. The adjectives agree the noun they are attributed to. The adjectives are grouped into three declension groups, First, Second and Third.

The first and second declensions are actually a single paradigm of declination that is split into two by the distinction of gender, the first for feminine form and the second for masculine form. The third declension is a paradigm that isn't differentiated between genders, so for masculine and feminine form they are just the same.

  • First

The first declension pattern is exclusively used to agree with the feminine gender of the noun. Example: beautiful (f.)

  1. Nom.=pulchra, pulchrae
  2. Gen.=pulchrai(pulchrasia), pulchrasum
  3. Dat.=pulchrae, pulchrabos
  4. Acc.=pulchram, pulchrans
  5. Abl.=pulchrad, pulchrabus

Superlative:-issimus(m.)-issima(f.) Comparative:-or (m.&f.)

  • Second

The second declension pattern is exclusively used to agree with the feminine gender of the noun. Example: beautiful (m.)

  1. Nom.=pulchrus, pulchri
  2. Gen.=pulchroi(pulchrosio), pulchrosum
  3. Dat.=pulchrou, pulchrobos
  4. Acc.=pulchrom, pulchrons
  5. Abl.=pulchrod, pulchroubos

  • Third

Example: cold (m. & f.)

  1. Nom.=frigid, frigides
  2. Gen.=frigideis, frifidum
  3. Dat,=frigidei, frigidebos
  4. Acc.=frigidem, frigidems
  5. Abl.=frigided, frigideibos

Superlative:-issimus(m.)-issima(f.) Comparative:-or (m.&f.)

Forming Adverbs[]

  • First and Second declension adjectives

Positive: -e Comparative: -ius Superlative: -ime

  • Third declension adjectives

Positive: -iter Comparative: -ius Superlative: -ime


Verbs are devided into two large groups, thematic and athematic. The thematic is further devided into four groups based on their thematic vowel(a, e, i). The athematic verbs are very few and have the possibility of being slightly irregular.

There are five non-finite forms for every verb, which are 3 infinitives and 2 participles. The participles are declinable as nouns or adjectives. On the other hand, the infinitives stay just as it is.

The finite forms are conjugated according to 2 numbers, 3 persons, 2 moods, 2 voices, and 3 tenses. The passive voice if applied to an intransitive verb has a reflexive meaning.

The Infinitives[]

There are two forms of present infinitives, they are interchangeable to each other. The first is by the suffix -re attached to the stem(if athematic) or theme vowel(if thematic), the second is by attaching the suffix -um. The past uses -isse regardless to which group the verb belongs.

The participles[]

The participles are two, the present active and past passive. The present active ending is -ents declined as a third declension adjective or noun, while the passive is -tus(masc. sing.) or -ta(fem. sing.) a first or second declension adjective or noun.

The Finite[]

For any form pattern the sequence is (person, number): 1st singular, 1st plural, 2nd singular, 2nd plural, 3rd singular, 3rd plural.


The present indicative form for the thematic is (stem)-o, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -(u*)nt. The passive is formed by adding -ur for the 1st singular , 3rd singular and 3rd plural, by inserting the infix -ri- before the -s for 2nd person, and replacing -s with -r in the 1st plural. The thematic vowel -a is dropped from the 1st singular. The athematic adds -u- between the stem and the suffix if the first vowel of the suffix is nasal. *Added for the -i theme vowel.

  • Example:

Thematic (amare) active;passive: amo, amas, amat, amamus, amatis, amant; amur, amaris, amatur, amamur, amatiris, amantur Athematic (ferre) active;passive: fero, fers, fert, ferumus, fertis, ferunt; ferur, ferris, fertur, ferumur, fertiris, feruntur

The present subjunctive form for the thematic(e and i) it is by adding a after the theme vowel, as for thematic(a) it is by adding e after the stem. The athematic are irregular, they are either -a-, -e-, or -i- infices, but because of their small number, it is easy to memorise them. The active 1st person singular suffix is changed to -m.

  • Example:

Thematic: amem, ames, amet, amemus, ametis, ament; ameur, ameris, ametur, amemur, ametiris, amentur Athematic: feram, feras, ferat, feramus, feratis, ferant; feror*, feraris, feratur, feramur, feratiris, ferantur


There are 6 ways/methods to form the past, they are:

  1. By reduplication of the first syllable of the verbal stem, drops the theme vowel
  2. By adding the infix -v-, retains the theme vowel
  3. By adding the infix -s-, drops the theme vowel
  4. By a combination of no. 1 and 2, retains the theme vowel
  5. By adding the infix -s-, retains the theme vowel
  6. By adding the infix -u-, drops the vowel

The thematic verb forms the past in these ways:

  • The theme 'a' verb can apply all the methods listed above
  • The theme 'e' verb can apply no. 1, 2, 3 and 6
  • The theme 'i' verb can apply no. 2, 3 and 6

For reduplication, the first syllable must change its vowel as following:

  • a turns into e Example{[stem][theme]=[past stem]}: fac-(e)=fefec-
  • e into u/e, but reduplicated e Example: leg-(e)=leleg-
  • ae into i, but reduplicated e Example: caed-(e)=cecid-

The remaining vowels do not change. Also, compound verbs cannot take the reduplication method no matter what theme vowel they posses.

The athematic verbs are irregular.

Combination Tenses[]

They are complex tenses, named so by contrast to the above tenses which are all simple tenses.

  1. Past Perfect


The future is formed by adding these suffices: -bo, -bis, -bit, -bimos, -bitis, -bunt

They're added after the theme vowel for thematic verbs. For athematic verbs they might be irregular.

Irregular Verbs[]

The irregular verbs or the athematic verbs are as follows:

  1. To be
  • Stem: es-, fu-(past stem)
  • participle: nonexistant or: essendus/-a (present active)
Present : esum, es, est, esumus, estis, esunt
Past: fui, fuis, fuit, fuimus, fuitis, fuerunt
Future: ero, eras, erat, eramus, eratis, erant



Example text[]

Poeta magsimus saeclosom
It sese domom meom
Fert suom librom eodcom
Mehi legibit unom versom
Facemus gaudiom