Conlang
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Anyēa
雁语
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Classification and Dialects[]

Anyēa (pronounciation: /aˈɲeːa/; known in the Si language as Yanyu) is the language of the Ēnyu people inhabitating the Shenwan mountain region. It has official status in both Tielilinji and Ganhou cantons in the Union of Si, and also in Tamin province of the Republic of Cheki.

It is an agglunative language with a relatively rich consonant inventory, and many fascinating features yet to be discovered.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p pʰ b t tʰ d k kʰ g q qʰ
Fricative ʦ ʦʰ ʣ tʂ tʂʰ dʐ ʨ ʨʰ ʥ
Affricate ɸ s z ʂ ʐ ɕ x ɣ h ɦ
Approximant j
Lateral fric. ɬ
Lateral app. l

Vowels[]

Front Back
High i iː y yː u uː
Mid e eː o oː
Low a aː

Phonotactics[]

The basic syllable structure of Anyēa is (C)(C)V(V)(C). Of course, not all verb combinations might show up, but there are too many possible combinations to list.

A general rule is that only nasal consonants appear at the end of a syllable. /ɲ/ is always followed by a vowel, and /ŋ/ always follows a vowel. But there are exceptions, some from Toishan loanwords, but native words like d́ūk ('mold; greyish green') appear.

Writing System[]

Sound m n ɲ ŋ p b t d k
Letter m n ny ng b p d t g k
Sound g q ʦ ʦʰ ʣ tʂʰ ʨ ʨʰ ʥ
Letter ǵ q dz ts zh ch źh j ȷ́
Sound ɸ s z ʂ ʐ ɕ x ɣ h ɦ j l
Letter f s z sh śh c x h y l
Sound ɬ i y u i
Letter lh i ī ü ǖ u ū i ī ē ō ā

There is also a native way of writing the Anyēa language, but the creator of this language is yet to find a way to put the characters neatly into computer.

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

Nouns in Anyēa do inflect, but it is sometimes difficult to tell if a word is inflected, or simply modified by a suffix with some meaning. For example, Lila-zho can be explained as both 'the aloe' or 'this aloe', making the suffix -zho undecided between a definite marker and a demonstrative pronoun. Furthermore, the habit of writing in syllables instead of distinct words (like 'li-la-zho' instead of 'lila zho') in traditional Anyēa script blurs the boundary between an affix and an additional word even more.

Generally speaking, there are as many as 14 cases in Anyēa, which are categorized as noun-like, adjective-like, verb-like and isolated. The following table shows the cases and what they stand for (as there aren't so many cases in most languages on the Earth):

Case Affix Indicates Category
Nominative - Subject of a finite verb noun-like
Accusative -plhā Direct object of a transitive verb noun-like
Dative -nyu Indirect object of a verb noun-like
Possessive -me Owning another noun adjective-like
Locative -bē Indicating the location of another noun adjective-like
Instrumental -jī Used by another nound adjective-like
Comparative -b́edo Comparing to another noun adjective-like
Comitative -fezho Accompanying another noun adjective-like
Lative -īng Being the destination of another noun verb-like
Ablative -kūa Being the starting point of another noun verb-like
Identical -sie Being identical as another noun verb-like
Behaviorial -düē Behaving like another noun verb-like
Counter-behaviorial -fi Accepting an action like another noun verb-like
Vocative -nyā Called out with emotion isolated

*Please note that the Behaviorial and Counter-behaviorial cases are invented by myself; they are not real-life language cases. Contact me if a better name for them is suggested.*

Other useful suffices that take up the roles of articles, demonstrative pronouns and numbers are:

Suffix Indicates Category
-zho The noun is definite or near Definiteness-distance
-qing The noun is indefinite or far away Definiteness-distance
-mī The noun doesn't exist or is too far to reach Definiteness-distance
-b́ea There is only little or none of the noun Numeral
-li There are some (2~10) of the nouns Numeral
-śhoi There are many (>10) of the nouns Numeral

The Anyēa language doesn't have pronouns as subjects or objects, as they are fully absorbed into verb suffices.

Verbs[]

Verbs in Anyēa conjugate for the following categories:

  1. Person
  2. Tense
  3. Mood
  4. Aspect
  5. Voice

As there are no pronouns in the Anyēa language, verbs take on the function of indicating the doer and done-to of itself when they're not indicated otherwise.

A verb takes on personal information like arguments:

Person Suffix Number Suffix Possessiveness Suffix Part of Speech Suffix
First -nt- Singular -a- Independent -- Subject --
Second -ǵ- Few -i- Possessing -me- Direct Object -plhā-
Third -b́- Many -oi- Indirect Object -nyu

For example, the English sentence 'He (gender not important) robbed us (less than 10 people) of our bag' translates into:

Aȷ́ia-ki-b́a-nti-plhā sosonyu.

Rob-past tense-third person-singular-first person-few-direct object bag-indirect object.

(The dashes between suffices are optional; I just placed them to distinguish the suffices)

The Anyēa tenses are:

Tense Suffix Indicates
Present - The verb is happening now, or happens regardless of time
Past -ki The verb happened in the past
Future -lüs The verb will happen in the future
Remote -śhla The verb happens in remote past or future, and the exact time is unimportant

When an action happens in the future of a moment in the past, but still in the past, both the past and future tenses will be used.

Like, 'Rain was hard that day and would be harder' translates into:

Lūma-ki sie jü-qing, d́o lūma-ki-lüs-ich.

Strong-past tense rain day-that, and strong-past tense-future tense-comparative.

(Note that the adjective 'lūma' acts as the predicate. In Anyēa, they act this way without any inflection)

Syntax[]

Anyēa is a Predicate-Subject-Object language, with both verbs and adjectives functioning as predicates.

Anyēa is head-initial, meaning adjectives and adverbs come after the words th.ey modify.

Lexicon[]

Example text[]

See Anyēa/Phrasebook.

Additional information can be found at Anyēa/Textbook.

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