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PhonologyEdit

VowelsEdit

Monophthongs
Height ↓ Backness → Front Central Back
Length → Short Long Short Long Short Long
Close / High i u
Mid ɛ ɛː  eː ɔ ɔː  oː
Open / Low a
Diphthongs
Start ↓ End → Front vowel Back vowel
Short vowel ai̯  ɛi̯  ɔi̯ au̯  ɛu̯  ɔu̯
Long vowel aːi̯  ɛːi̯  eːi̯  ɔːi̯  oːi̯ aːu̯  ɛːu̯  eːu̯  ɔːu̯  oːu̯

ConsonantsEdit

Consonant phonemes
Manner ↓ Place → Bilabial Labioden. Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f θ s ʃ x h
Approximant l j w
Trill / Tap / Flap r
Allophony of Consonants
Phoneme Allophonic realizations
/m/ -
/n/ /nj/ is realized as [ɲ]
/ŋ/ -
/p/ [f] when preceding /t/
/b/ [v] when preceding /d/
/t/ [t͡ʃ] when preceding front vowel
/d/ [d͡ʒ] when preceding front vowel
/k/ [x] when preceding /t/
/g/ [ɣ] when preceding /d/
/f/ [v] intervocalicly or when following voiced plosive
/θ/ [ð] intervocalicly or when following voiced plosive
/s/ [z] intervocalicly or when following voiced plosive
/ʃ/ [ʒ] intervocalicly or when following voiced plosive
/x/ [ɣ] intervocalicly or when following voiced plosive
/h/ [ɦ] intervocalicly, [ç] when preceding front vowel
/l/ /lj/ is realized as [ʎ]
/j/ -
/w/ -
/r/ [ɾ] or [r] in free variation; often [ɾ] when following on a consonant and [r] intervocalicly

PhonotacticsEdit

Aptissian phonotactics strongly favor syllables with few consonants.Syllables are of the type (C)(C)(L/S)V(C). Consonant clusters in the onset are mostly limited to combinations of voiceless fricatives and /t/ or /s/ and /p k/. All plosives can be followed by /r/. All consonants can be followed by a semivowel /j w/.

Stress & ToneEdit

In Aptissian, stress is assigned according to the so called two-mora rule. The rule states that the stress falls onto the syllable which contains the second to last mora in a word. Stress is therefore dependent on syllable weight. Aptissian distinguishes light and heavy syllables, lasting one mora or two morae, respectively. A syllable is considered heavy if it contains any of these features:

  • A long vowel
  • A diphthong starting with a long vowel
  • A nasal in the coda
  • A part of a geminated consonant in the coda

Since all syllables have at least one mora, stress can only fall on either the penultimate or ultimate syllable. If the penultimate is stressed, it receives a low tone. If the ultimate is stressed, it receives a high tone.

There exists a class of words called "moraic clitics". These are monosyllabic words that can only appear attached to other words. Regardless of there syllable weight, they add a mora to the ending of a word without counting as a syllable of the word - therefore the stress will always fall on the syllable preceding the clitic and the tone will always be high.

OrthographyEdit

Alphabet
Phoneme
Α  α /a/
Β  β /b/
Γ  γ /g/
Δ  δ /d/
Ε  ε /e/
Ζ  ζ /ʃ/
Η  η /ɛ/
Θ  θ /θ/
Ι  ι /i/ + /j/
Κ  κ /k/
Λ  λ /l/
Μ  μ /m/
Ν  ν /n/
Ξ  ξ [ks]
Ο  ο /o/
Π  π /p/
Ρ  ρ /r/
Σ  σ/ς /s/
Τ  τ /t/
Υ  υ /u/ + /w/
Φ  φ /f/
Χ  χ /x/
Ψ  ψ [ps]
Ω  ω /ɔ/
  • Long vowels were traditionally marked with an apex - nowadays though, most people use the acute accent since most technologies do not support the apex sign
  • Diphthongs are written as the combination of their sounds - if, instead of a diphthong, a hiatus occurs, the Ι/Υ is marked with a trema if it is a short vowel or with an acute accent if it is a long vowel
  • If Ι/Υ could represent a /j/ or /w/, they do - the vowels have to be marked either by trema or by an acute accent
  • The phoneme /ŋ/ is written as ΓΓ/γγ
  • The phoneme /h/ is written as a spiritus asper above the following vowel (Examples: ἁ ἑ ἡ ἱ ὁ ὑ ὡ)

VerbsEdit

General informationEdit

Aptissian verbs are inflected for the following grammatical categories.

  • Person
  • Number
  • Clusivity
  • Formality
  • Tense
  • Aspect
  • Mood

Additionally, there are multiple infinite verb forms (supine, infinitives, participles).

PersonEdit

Possible persons are the 1st, 2nd and 3rd person which are used basically the same as in English. Additionally, Aptissian has a 4th person which is used in neutral speeach or when the subject is unknown.

NumberEdit

Aptissian has the singular, dual and plural number. However, the dual only has distinctive forms in the 1st person and otherwise uses the plural. The 4th person isn't conjugated for numbers at all.

ClusivityEdit

Aptissian differentiates between inclusive and exclusive 1st person in the dual and plural numbers. Additionally, the plural has a third unmarked form.

FormalityEdit

The 2nd person in the singular and plural has a distinction between an informal and a formal form.

TenseEdit

Aptissian has 6 tenses: 3 absolute tenses (past, present and future) and 3 relative tenses (relative past, relative present and relative future). The absolute tenses are used to describe when an event took place. The relative tenses are used to tell when a second event took place compared to the frst event.

AspectEdit

Aptissian differentiates between an imperfective (unfinished action) and a perfective (finished action) aspect.

MoodEdit

Aptissian uses the indicative (for real actions) and the subjunctive (for unreal actions like wishes, conditionals etc.) mood.

ConjugationEdit

Finite verb forms
Absolute Present | Indicative | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Absolute Present | Indicative | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Absolute Present | Subjunctive | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Absolute Present | Subjunctive | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Present | Indicative | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Present | Indicative | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Present | Subjunctive | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Present | Subjunctive | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Absolute Past | Indicative | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Absolute Past | Indicative | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Absolute Past | Subjunctive | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Absolute Past | Subjunctive | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Past | Indicative | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Past | Indicative | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Past | Subjunctive | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Past | Subjunctive | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Absolute Future | Indicative | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Absolute Future | Indicative | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Absolute Future | Subjunctive | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Absolute Future | Subjunctive | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Future | Indicative | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Future | Indicative | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Future | Subjunctive | Imperfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
Relative Future | Subjunctive | Perfective
Singular Dual Plural
1st person inclusive
exclusive
2nd person informal
formal
3rd person
4th person
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