Progress 0%
Aquilian
'
Type
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative, Dative
Head direction
Variable
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Masculine, Feminine, Neuter
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General information[edit | edit source]

The Aquilian language is closely related to Latin, with very similar grammar and basic vocabulary. Native speakers are well aware of the similarities and a common origin between the two is often suspected, but despite the close relations and ongoing interlinguistic contact, there are some very significant differences between Latin and Aquilian.

These differences include the passive voice, which is common in Latin but is falling out of use in Aquilian except in a few verbs where the passive is most used. Aquilian also lacks a synthetic future tense, and in general distinguishes aspect before tense unlike in Latin. However, while Aquilian verbal morphology has greatly simplified relative to Latin, the nominal morphology retains archaic features lost or marginalized in Latin, such as the locative case. But the most striking differences are in the syntax; Latin, despite using prepositions and most adjectives after nouns, is normally verb-final. This contrasts with Aquilian, where the syntax is head-initial with very few exceptions, and is best shown by the verb-initial and verb-second word orders, and the mainstream Aquilian dialects seem to be developing a topic-prominent structure similar to many East Asian languages but very unusual among Western European languages.

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

(NOTE. Sounds in round brackets are allophones)

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n (n) (ŋ)
Plosive p b t d k kʷ g gʷ
Fricative ɸ (β) (f) (v) θ (ð) s (z) x (ɣ)
Affricate
Approximant l j w
Trill r
Flap or tap (ɾ)
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid e ə o
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a

Alphabet[edit | edit source]

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes No No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Morphology[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Nouns are declined in several classes, but there are some patterns that can aid memory of the various forms:

Class I, final -a
akʷa- 'water', feminine Singular Plural
Nominative, Vocative akʷā akʷās
Accusative akʷām akʷans
Genitive akʷās akʷāzom
Locative akʷai akʷais
Dative akʷai akʷais
Ablative akʷād akʷaid

Vocabulary[edit | edit source]


No. English
1Iegō(m), me
2you (singular)tū, te
3heēs
4wewēs, nōs
5you (plural)ūs, wōs
6theyēzoi
7thiskēs, kēa, kēd
8thatiβēs, iβēa, iβēd
9here
10thereiβē
11whokʷōs
12whatkʷōd
13wherekʷōɸē
14whenkʷande
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47cat
48dog
49louse
50snake
51worm
52tree
53forest
54stick
55fruit
56seed
57leaf
58root
59bark
60flower
61grass
62rope
63skin
64meat
65blood
66bone
67fat
68egg
69horn
70tail
71feather
72hair
73head
74ear
75eye
76nose
77mouth
78tooth
79tongue
80fingernail
81foot
82leg
83knee
84hand
85wing
86belly
87guts
88neck
89back
90breast
91heart
92liver
93drink
94eat
95bite
96suck
97spit
98vomit
99blow
100breathe
101laugh
102see
103hear
104know
105think
106smell
107fear
108sleep
109live
110die
111kill
112fight
113hunt
114hit
115cut
116split
117stab
118scratch
119dig
120swim
121fly
122walk
123come
124lie
125sit
126stand
127turn
128fall
129give
130hold
131squeeze
132rub
133wash
134wipe
135pull
136push
137throw
138tie
139sew
140count
141say
142sing
143play
144float
145flow
146freeze
147swell
148sun
149moon
150star
151water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
160earth
161cloud
162fog
163sky
164wind
165snow
166ice
167smoke
168fire
169ash
170burn
171road
172mountain
173red
174green
175yellow
176white
177black
178night
179day
180year
181warm
182cold
183full
184new
185old
186good
187bad
188rotten
189dirty
190straight
191round
192sharp
193dull
194smooth
195wet
196dry
197correct
198near
199far
200right
201left
202at
203in
204with
205and
206if
207because
208name


Example text[edit | edit source]

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.