Arad Ilid
Type Oligosynthetic
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress 83%
Nouns 90%
Verbs 90%
Adjectives 90%
Syntax 75%
Words 202 of 1500
Creator Fijands


There are four vowels (a, e, i, and o) and ten consonants (b, d, f, g, l, m, n, r, s, and x). When pronouncing letters or words, there are simple rules:

I. Vowels are pronounced long in the first syllable of a two-syllable word (/aː/, as in Geordie “snow”, /eː/ as in Scottish “fate”, /iː/ as in “fleece”, /oː/ as in Scottish “goat”). In the second syllable of a two-syllable word, all vowels are pronounced short (/a/ as in Geordie “talk”, /e/ as in “dress”, /ı/ as in “kit”, /ɔ/ as in American “cloth”). Before x, all vowels are also pronounced short in the first syllable. In monosyllabic words, all vowels are generally pronounced short.

II. All consonants are pronounced true to their sound and remain unchanged phonetically (in contrast to German or English). Here is a chart anyway:

Letter Pronunciation
b /b/
d /d/
f /f/
g /g/
l /l/
m /m/
n /n/
r /r/, /ʀ/, /ʁ/
s /s/
x /gs/, /ks/

Here is a list of all possible syllables:

ab eb ib ob
ad ed id od
af ef if of
ag eg ig og
al el il ol
am em im om
an en in on
ar er ir or
as es is os
ax ex ix ox

There is, however, one exception, namely the word Gud which means ‘God’.


1. Nouns[]

All nouns are neutral, meaning the pronoun ad (it) is used for them. The plural is formed by adding -ox. The genitive is formed by prefixing ib (of), and the dative by prefixing or (to).

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
Eded afim ib eded ibid The bird’s tree The tree of the bird
As osif eded or il I give this to you I give this to you

An indefinite article is usually not used; if it is still needed, one can use ar (one). Eded (this) is used as the definite article. Both can be omitted unless it affects the clarity of the sentence.

2. Adjectives and Adverbs[]

The adjective stands directly before the noun it refers to. It can also be used nominally.

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
Eded oxafox abim or adog The big go home The big go to house

The absolute superlative is formed by doubling the adjective. The comparative is formed by adding abir (much) before the adjective, and the relative superlative is formed by adding abirabir before the adjective. Comparison is done using alaf (than).

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
As id oxaf. I am big I be big
Il id abir oxaf alaf as. You are bigger than me You be much big as I
An id oxafoxaf. He is very big He be bigbig
Il id abirabir oxaf. You are the biggest You be muchmuch big

Adverbs do not have their own form and are placed directly after the reference word.

3. Pronouns[]

The plural form of personal pronouns is formed by adding -ox.

Arad Ilid English
As I
Il You
An He
Ax She
Ad It
Asox We
Ilox You (plural)
Anox/Axox/Adox They

Possessive pronouns do not have their own form but are created by directly placing the personal pronouns before the reference word.

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
As adog My house I house
Il oxag Your money You money

4. Word Order[]

The word order is strictly Subject-Verb-Object. The sentence is negated by placing the negation word of (not) directly before the verb. The interrogative sentence is formed by placing is at the end of the sentence.

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
As isin oxaf adog. I have a big house I have big house
Il isin oxaf adog is? Do you have a big house? You have big house [question particle]?

The relative clause in the main sentence is introduced by eded (this) and starts with eded.

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
As eder afim eded, eded id oxaf. I see the tree, which is big. I see tree this, this be big.

So eded is positioned after the noun in this exceptional case. If the relative clause is formed with agil (where), etc., eded is also required in the main sentence.

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
As id ix ifir eded, agil il id. I am in the place where you are


I be in place this, where you be.

The conditional sentence is formed as follows: Imor (through/if) [condition], eded (then/this) [result].

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
Imor as ineg, eded as amis. When I hear, I know Through/If I hear, this/then I know.

5. Verbs[]

Verbs have only one personal form. The future is formed by adding -es, and the past by adding -os.

Arad Ilid English
As idog I help
As idogos I helped
As idoges I will help

If a verb carries an infinitive, it is placed directly after the verb. The passive is formed by immediately placing id (to be) before the verb.

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
As isin I hold I hold
As id isin I am held I be hold

The conditional form, which is a kind of subjunctive, is formed by doubling the verb. Gerunds do not have their own form; the verb is simply used as a noun when needed. For the past participle, the verb is used as an adjective. For the present participle, ab (in) is simply placed before the verb. The imperative sentence is formed by using er instead of a subject; thus, it precedes the verb.

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
As isinisin I would have I havehave
Ebob id exib Reading is good Read be good
As eder exex elas I see a killed human I see kill human
As eder ab ofol ebab I see an eating animal I see in eat animal
Er abim or adog! Go home! [imperative particle] go to house!

6. Indirect Speech[]

Indirect speech is formed simply by [subject] [verb of speaking], enem (that) [statement].

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
An ilidos, enem adog id exib. He said that the house was beautiful. He said, that house is beautiful.

7. Numbers[]

Larger numbers are written or spoken by multiplying the existing base numbers and adding, for example: 187: ag (ten) inan (times) ag ex (and) ag inan in (eight) ex ig (seven). Ordinal numbers are expressed as follows:

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
Eded afim egob eg The third tree The tree number three

8. Time and Location References[]

Time and location references are either placed directly at the beginning or at the end of the sentence, but not after the question particle. They are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.

Arad Ilid English English (literal)
If eded adaf, as idos ix as adog. Yesterday I was at my house. Before this day, I was at I house.


As you can see, a vocabulary of only 202 words is available. In order to still be able to express things that are not contained in the basic vocabulary, you have to describe them, e.g.: efix ibid → black bird (raven), abir oxag enox oril → yellow metal [costing] much money (gold). To express the opposite of a word, simply put of (not) in front of it.

after anel
again oxan
air anas
all/everyone ofon
always emel
and ex
animal ebab
at/on ix
away iner
fight erax
be id
because edos
before if
begin erab
believe omem
bird ibid
bitter abas
black efix
blue odes
body iler
book asos
break/destroy ibob
bring/lead emif
brother emof
bullet abod
but/though ibaf
buy esog
can/be able (to) osad
centre/middle imig
chair arog
circle omal
to clean egor
clothing egib
colour anen
come omim
condition/state erob
container esel
country anol
cuboid odos
day adaf
dead ofar
do/make/let (something happen) oxim
earth ofim
eat ofol
eight in
end (noun) omam
even abin
fast arid
father irod
feel adem
find orad
fire alas
fish isir
five im
floor axif
flower omag
food agig
foot/leg olas
for onim
four od
from/of ib
fruit amib
fur/cloth amos
give osif
glue alol
God Gud
good/nice exib
grain adas
green agam
ground ixis
group enar
hand/arm ider
have/keep isin
he an
head orox
hear ineg
heaven/sky erin
help idog
high/up emag
hole ilax
holy ofif
hour ageg
house adog
hunt imim
I as
important iseg
in ab
insect onox
inside/within elix
it ad
kill exex
kind (noun) exod
king ofom
know amis
large oxaf
light osib
line alor
live/life ibax
love obob
mammal arig
man/Mister isax
many/much abir
material ileg
metal oril
money oxag
month oxir
moon iger
mother egab
mountain araf
mouth aber
move (oneself)/touch/walk abim
music emil
must/duty/task ixon
name imeb
near/almost igal
new arad
night elox
nine af
no/not/nothing/none of
normal elex
number egob
one ar
open ibes
or elob
paper omog
path/road anof
perfect/ideal ibib
person elas
picture/paint ifan
place/part ifir
plant anab
play/game obeb
process adax
read ebob
red obas
reptile onag
roof alan
salty/salt imed
see eder
seven ig
shape emab
she ax
sin/guilt oxed
sister asif
sit emeb
six on
skin arof
sleep ifof
so ir
soft idem
sound afaf
sour anam
square ebor
stand abis
stick iril
stone igor
strong ogem
such/as/how/than alaf
sun ofag
sweet idas
table oxid
take enad
talk/say/language ilid
taste (verb, intransitive) omon
ten ag
that/whether enem
thing obed
this/then eded
three eg
through/when/if imor
tie/ribbon/string ilex
time eseg
times inan
to/too or
tool ixan
tree afim
true/really olob
two el
umami oner
use emid
wait inim
wall ogen
want eref
warm esid
watch out ibos
water/liquid omex
week ogib
what asex
when asof
where agil
white ixab
who axas
why anom
with al
woman eban
wonder imox
work osos
write odog
year onog
yellow enox
Yes ef
you il