Progress 18%
Ardlang
Ardlang
Type
Rather isolating
Alignment
Direct
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General information[edit | edit source]

Ardlang is a worldlang project. It has an a posteriori dictionary and an a priori grammar.

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Ardlang follows the rule "one letter = one sound" with few exceptions due to euphonia.

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open a

Alphabet[edit | edit source]

Currently there is only a Latin and a Cyrillic alphabet.

Latin

Cyrillic

Pronunciation

A a

A a

[a]

B b

Б б

[b]

C c

Ц ц

[ts]

D d

Д д

[d]

E e

E e

[e]

F f

Ф ф

[f]

G g

Г г

[g]

H h

X x

[h] or [x]

I i

И и

[i]

J j

Ж ж

[ʒ] or [dʒ]

K k

К к

[k]

L l

Л л

[l]

M m

М м

[m]

N n

Н н

[n]

O o

O o

[o]

P p

П п

[p]

Q q

Ч ч

[tʃ]

R r

P p

[r] or [ɹ]

S s

C c

[s]

T t

Т т

[t]

U u

У у

[u]

V v

В в

[v]

W w

Ў ў

[w]

X x

Ш ш

[ʃ]

Y y

Й й

[j]

Z z

З з

[z] or [dz]


H, J and R can be pronounced in two different ways. For example, an English speaker would find more natural to pronounce J as [ʤ], while a French or a Russian one would more easily pronounce it as [ʒ].

Stress[edit | edit source]

Stress is on the penultimate syllable. W and Y are semivowels, therefore the stress is never placed on them. For example, sekwi (to follow) is pronounced [sEkwi] and not [sekUi]. An exception is made for AO and EO, due to euphony. When they constitute the last two syllables, O is considered a vowel and the stress falls on A or E. Therefore, leon (lion) is pronounced [lEon]. Otherwise, O is considered a semivowel. So baoli (violence) is pronounced [bAoli] and not [baOli].

Compound words, kept together by an hyphen, have one stress for each root word. Ex: Frans-lang (French language) [frAns-lAng].

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No No
Nouns Yes No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Vocabulary[edit | edit source]

The vocabulary borrows from various language families, categorized as follows.

  • Indo-European: Italian, English, French, Spanish, German, Russian, Hindi-Urdu, Sanskrit, Farsi, Latin, Greek. Minor sources include Basque, Portuguese, Ukrainian, Irish, Albanian, Armenian and Bengali.
  • Altaic: Japanese, Korean, Turkish
  • Sino-Tibetan: Mandarin Chinese
  • Afroasiatic: Arabic. Minor sources include Hebrew.
  • Austronesian: Indonesian, Malay, Javanese
  • Niger-Congo: Swahili. Minor sources include Bantu languages.


Swadesh List[edit | edit source]


No. English Ardlang
1Ime
2you (singular)te
3heho
4wewe
5you (plural)ve
6theyle
7thiseste
8thatkele
9hereje
10therena
11whokwi
12whatkto
13wherekwer
14whenkwan
15howkak
16notne
17allves
18manypoli
19someirgen
20fewxao
21otherali
22oneun
23twodu
24threetri
25fourqar
26fivepent
27bigmeg
28longlong
29widewid
30thickdik
31heavywazni
32smallparve
33shortdwan
34narrowang
35thinbao
36womangina, fem
37man (adult male)andro, nan
38man (human being)human
39childinfant, kid
40wifegamfem
41husbandgamnan
42mothermatra
43fatherpatro
44animalanimal
45fishmaq
46birdpakxi
47cat
48dogkuk
49louselus
50snakeserpent
51wormverm
52treearbor
53forestforest
54stickstik
55fruitfrukt
56seedsem
57leafyez
58rootriza
59barkkorteks
60flowerflor
61grasscao
62ropekord
63skinderm
64meatmaz
65bloodhema
66boneosto
67fatlipo, lipid
68eggovo
69hornkorn
70tailkawd
71featherplum
72hairhar, triho
73headkaput
74earoto
75eyeayk
76nosenos
77mouthmund
78toothdent
79tonguejib
80fingernailnag
81footpod
82legnoga
83kneegenue
84handhand
85wingpter
86bellyventre
87gutsantra
88neckjing
89backdors
90breastyuban
91heartkor, kardyo
92liverhepat
93drinkpin
94eatfag
95biteyao
96sucksukti
97spitspit
98vomitvomit
99blowsufle
100breathenafas
101laughrid
102seevid
103hearawdit
104knowgnoz
105thinkpens
106smellwen
107fearfob
108sleepdorm
109livejiv
110diemort
111killmord, katla
112fightjeng
113huntkaz
114hitudar
115cutkatna
116splitsplit
117stabponard
118scratchskrat
119digkav
120swimplav
121flyfey
122walkzow
123comelay
124lielug
125sitsid
126standstand
127turnrotat, spin
128fallpad
129givedan
130holdten
131squeezeklem
132rubfrot
133washdon
134wipeterg
135pulltrakt
136pushtwi
137throwpao
138tieligat
139sewkudre
140countkont, komput
141sayxwo
142singgan
143playludo, play, igrat
144floatflot
145flowfluks
146freezemaroz
147swellinflati
148sunsol
149moonlun
150starxin
151waterhidro, akwa
151rainpluv
152rivernadi
153lakelak
154seamar
155saltsal, hal
156stonepetra
157sandsand
158dustpulve
160earthard, zemya
161cloudnub
162fognebul
163skytyan
164windfeng
165snowsneg
166icelyod
167smokeduman, fum
168fireagni
169ashseniz
170burnbren
171roaddao
172mountainxan
173redrud
174greenahdar
175yellowhwan
176whitebyel
177blackkal
178nightnokt
179daydin
180yearnyan
181warmgarm
182coldhalod
183fullplen
184newnov
185oldlao
186goodbon
187badmal
188rottenputrid
189dirtyzang
190straightort
191roundrond
192sharpakut
193dulltup
194smoothglat
195wetmokri
196drysuk
197correctkorekti
198nearkarib
199fardalek
200rightdesne
201leftlevne
202ata
203inin
204withyu
205andi
206ifag
207becausesabab
208namenam


Example text[edit | edit source]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Ves human quxen azad i egal in endiote i prav. Le hav razon i yanxim, i deb akt mutwal in spirit de fratiote.

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