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Arjanos is a simplified and regularized version of the Proto-Indo-European language. Laryngeals, Ablauting, Heteroclites, and themetic vowels were removed to ensure regularity.
Name: Arjanos

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Setting[edit | edit source]

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Letter Name IPA
a a /a/
ā ā /a:/
b be /b/
bh bhe /bʰ/
d de /d/
dh dhe /dʰ/
e e /ɛ/
ē ē /e:/
g ge /g/
gh ghe /gʰ/
c ce /gʷ/
ch che /gʷʰ/
i /i/ /i/
ī ī /i:/
j je /j/
k ke /k/
q qe /kʷ/
qh qhe /kʷʰ/
l el /l/
l. l. /l̥/
m em /m/
m. m. /m̥/
en en /n/
n. n. /n̥/
o o /ɔ/
ō ō /o:/
p pe /p/
r er /r/
r. r. /r̥/
s es /s/
t te /t/
u u /u/
ū u /u:/
w we /w/

Diphthongs:
ei, eu, ai, au, oi, ou,


Symbols to represent foreign sounds in loan words:

IPA Symbol
/f/ f
/v/ v
/z/ z
/x/ kh
/ɣ/ gh
/ʃ/ sh
/ʒ/ zh
/ŋ/ ng
/ɲ/ nj
/ʎ/ lj

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglot. Glottal
Plosives
Affricates
Fricatives
Lateral Fricatives
Lateral Affricates
Nasals
Trills
Flaps / taps
Glides Approxim.
Lateral Appr.
Co-art. approx.

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Near front Central Near back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Basic Grammar[edit | edit source]

Singular

Dual

Plural

Thematic

Athematic

Thematic

Athematic

Thematic Athematic

animate

neuter

animate

neuter

animate

neuter

animate

neuter

Animate Neuter Animate Neuter

Nominative

-os

-om

-s*

-

-oi

-(ō)

-i

-ōs -a -(e)s -a

Vocative

-e

-om

-

-

-oi

-(ō)

-i

-ōs -a -(e)s -a

Accusative

-om

-om

-m

-

-oi

-(ō)

-i

-ons -a -ns -a

Genitive

-osjo

-(o)s

-ōm

-(ō)m

-ōm -(ō)m

Dative

-oi

-(e)i

-oibhos

-bhos

-oibhos -bhos

Instrumental

-bhi

-oibhis

-bhis

-oibhis -bhis

Ablative

-ōd

-(o)s

-oibhos

-bhos

-oibhos -oibhos

Locative

-oi

-i

-oisu

-su

-oisu -oisu
  • If the stem vowel is "-a" the the nominative singular animate ending is "-"

Letters in parentheses appear only if the stem ends in a consonant or in "-i" or "-u", in which case they become "j" and "w", repsectively, when the letters in parentheses appear.

If the omited letter in parentheses is a long vowel, the stem vowel becomes long.


Adjectives:


Declines as a noun does and may be thematic or athematic. Adjectives must agree with the noun they modify in case, gender, and number. Thematic adjectives do not become athematic when modifying athematic nouns, however, when a thematic adjective modifies a feminine noun, the stem vowel is changed to -a and becomes athematic, as in Latin.


Adverbs:


Adverbs can be formed from adjectives by adding the ending -ē.


Verb tense:

Past Present Future
ē-[stem]-[ending] [stem]-[ending] [stem]-(i)si/(i)sj-[ending]


Verb Aspect and Mood:

Indicative Imperative Subjunctive Opative Imperfect Perfect Middle Passive
1st Sing -mi -jem -m. -a -mai -mar
2nd Sing -si -dhi -ēsi -jes -s -tha -soi -sor
3rd Sing -ti -ēti -jet -t -e -toi -tor
1st dual -wos -ōwe -iwe -we -we -wodhoi -wodhor
2nd dual -tes -tes -etis -itis -tis -tis -dhisoi -dhisor
3rd dual -ses -ēse -ise -se -se -sedhoi -sedhor
1st Plural -mos -ōmos -ime -me -me -modhoi -modhor
2nd Plural -te -te -ēte -ite -te -te -dhoi -dhor
3rd Plural -enti -ōnti -int -n.t -ēr -n.toi -n.tor




Infinitive:

-tūs (Declinable)


Gerund:

-endos/m



Passive Pariciple:

-tos/m



Active Pariciple:

-nt/s



Agent:

-tor/s


Pronouns:

Stem

1st

2nd

Numb

sing

dual

plur

sing

dual

plur

Nom.

ego

wējes

jūs

Acc.

n.sme

usme

Gen.

moi

nos

nos tewe wos wos

Dat.

mēghei

nōsbheis

nōsbheis tēbhei wōsbheis wōsbheis

Abl.

mēd

n.smed

n.smed

twēd

usmed usmed

Ins.

mojo

n.smi

n.smi twojo usmi usmi

Loc.

mēi

n.smei

n.smei twēi usmei usmei


Third Person Pronouns/Demonstrative Pronouns/Definate Article

Masculine

sing

plur

Nominative

Toi

Accusative

Tom

Tons

Genitive

Tosjo

Toisom

Dative

Tosmoi

Tōbhos

Instrumental

Tosmod

Tōbhos

Ablative

Toi

Tois

Locative

Tosmi

Toisu

Feminine

sing

plur

Nominative

Sa

Tai

Accusative

Tam

Tans

Genitive

Tasjas

Tasom

Dative

Tasjai

Tabhos

Ablative

Tasjas

Tabhos

Instrumental

Tasja

Tabhis

Locative

Tasjai

Tasu



Neuter

sing

plur

Nominative

Tod

Ta

Accusative

Tod

Ta

Genitive

Tosjo

Toisom

Dative

Tosmoi

Tōbhos

Instrumental

Tosmod

Tōbhos

Ablative

Toi

Tois

Locative

Tosmi

Toisu


Prepositions

· Ap-from

· Epi-Near

· Ad-To

· En-In

· Enter-Among

· An-On

· Au-Away From

· Ambi-Around

· Com-With

· Ander-Under

· Nu-Now

· Pra-Before, In front of

· Pēr-Through

· Ūpar-Above

· Up-Under

· Ne-Not

· -ne-Question

· -qe-And

· -weor

· joqe-And

· Ā!-Oh!

· Wai!-Woe!








Reflective Pronouns:
Acc. se
Gen. sewe
Dat. sebi
Inst. sesoi
Abl. sesed
Loc. sesi

Relative Pronoun:
kwi

Interogative/Indefinite Pronoun:
Nominative: kwis kwid
Accusative: kwim kwid
Genative: kwisio kwidio
Dative : kwismoi kwidmoi
Ablative: kwido kwido
Instrumental: kwiso kwido
Locative: kwoi kwoi

Pronominal Adjective:
alyo-, another

Demonstratives:
"This"
Singular
Mas. Neu. Fem.
Nom. so tod sa
Acc. tom tod tam
Gen. tosio tosio tasas
Dat. tosmoi tosmoi tasai
Loc. tosmoi tosmoi tasai
Ins. toi toi toi
Ablative. toid toid tad

Plural
Mas. Neu. Fem.
Nom. toi ta sai
Acc. tons ta tans
Gen. tesom tesom tesom
Dat. toimos toimos tamos
Loc. toisu toisu tasu
Ins. toibi toibi tabi
Ablative. toibo toibo tabo


"That"
Singular
Mas. Neu. Fem.
Nom. he hid ia
Acc. im hid im
Gen. heso heso hesas
Dat. hesmoi hesmoi hesai
Loc. hesmi hesmi hesiai
Ins. heo heo hea
Abl. hed hed he

Plural
Mas. Neu. Fem.
Nom. hei i ies
Acc. ins i ins
Gen. hesom hesom hesom
Dat. heimus heimus heimus
Loc. heibo heibo heibo
Ins. hebi hebi habi
Abl. heibo hebo habo

Esi:
Esmi
Esi
Esti
Esmos
Este
Sent




Numerals:
Hoino-, one
Duwo-, two
Trei-, three
Kwetwor-, four
Pekwe-, five
Sweks-, six
Sept(e)m-, seven
Hekto, eight
newn-, nine
Dekimt-, ten
wikimt-Twenty
trikomt-Thirty
Kwetwirikomt-Forty
Pekwekomt-Fifty
Sweksikomipt-Sixty
Septimkompt-Seventy
newnikomipt-Ninety
Hektoukomipt-Eighty
Dekimtom-, hundred
Gheslo-, thousand

Numeral Prefixes:
sim-one
dwi-two
tri-three
kwetru-four

Ordinal numbers:
pri-first
alyo-second
tirto-third
oktowo-eighth

Conjunction
kwe-and
we-or
de-(because)
nu-(therefore)

Interjections:
Wai!-woe or agony
O!-oh!

Particles:
apo-from
epi-near, at, upon, by
had-to, by, at
hen-in
henter-within
heno-on
heuo-off, away, down from
hanbi- around
kata-down
kom-with
ni-down, under
nu-now
pe-together, with
peri-around, through
per-before, forth, in front of
-r, for (enclitic)
uper-over
up-under, below
ne/n-(negator)

Dictionary[edit | edit source]


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47cat
48dog
49louse
50snake
51worm
52tree
53forest
54stick
55fruit
56seed
57leaf
58root
59bark
60flower
61grass
62rope
63skin
64meat
65blood
66bone
67fat
68egg
69horn
70tail
71feather
72hair
73head
74ear
75eye
76nose
77mouth
78tooth
79tongue
80fingernail
81foot
82leg
83knee
84hand
85wing
86belly
87guts
88neck
89back
90breast
91heart
92liver
93drink
94eat
95bite
96suck
97spit
98vomit
99blow
100breathe
101laugh
102see
103hear
104know
105think
106smell
107fear
108sleep
109live
110die
111kill
112fight
113hunt
114hit
115cut
116split
117stab
118scratch
119dig
120swim
121fly
122walk
123come
124lie
125sit
126stand
127turn
128fall
129give
130hold
131squeeze
132rub
133wash
134wipe
135pull
136push
137throw
138tie
139sew
140count
141say
142sing
143play
144float
145flow
146freeze
147swell
148sun
149moon
150star
151water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
160earth
161cloud
162fog
163sky
164wind
165snow
166ice
167smoke
168fire
169ash
170burn
171road
172mountain
173red
174green
175yellow
176white
177black
178night
179day
180year
181warm
182cold
183full
184new
185old
186good
187bad
188rotten
189dirty
190straight
191round
192sharp
193dull
194smooth
195wet
196dry
197correct
198near
199far
200right
201left
202at
203in
204with
205and
206if
207because
208name


Example text[edit | edit source]


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47cat
48dog
49louse
50snake
51worm
52tree
53forest
54stick
55fruit
56seed
57leaf
58root
59bark
60flower
61grass
62rope
63skin
64meat
65blood
66bone
67fat
68egg
69horn
70tail
71feather
72hair
73head
74ear
75eye
76nose
77mouth
78tooth
79tongue
80fingernail
81foot
82leg
83knee
84hand
85wing
86belly
87guts
88neck
89back
90breast
91heart
92liver
93drink
94eat
95bite
96suck
97spit
98vomit
99blow
100breathe
101laugh
102see
103hear
104know
105think
106smell
107fear
108sleep
109live
110die
111kill
112fight
113hunt
114hit
115cut
116split
117stab
118scratch
119dig
120swim
121fly
122walk
123come
124lie
125sit
126stand
127turn
128fall
129give
130hold
131squeeze
132rub
133wash
134wipe
135pull
136push
137throw
138tie
139sew
140count
141say
142sing
143play
144float
145flow
146freeze
147swell
148sun
149moon
150star
151water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
160earth
161cloud
162fog
163sky
164wind
165snow
166ice
167smoke
168fire
169ash
170burn
171road
172mountain
173red
174green
175yellow
176white
177black
178night
179day
180year
181warm
182cold
183full
184new
185old
186good
187bad
188rotten
189dirty
190straight
191round
192sharp
193dull
194smooth
195wet
196dry
197correct
198near
199far
200right
201left
202at
203in
204with
205and
206if
207because
208name
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