Artificial Umbrian
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Nouns Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Verbs Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Adjectives Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Syntax Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]

Artificial Umbrian is a form of [Umbrian] that has been enriched to reach full functionality. Because the language is sparingly attested, unattested lexicon and grammar has been coined to fill in the gaps, by drawing from Latin and knowledge of Italic languages and Indo-European, and by extension of attested patterns.



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f s ʃ ʒ h
Affricate ts
Approximant j w
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap
  1. /h/ is often very weakly pronounced or wholly lost; when a non-initial /h/ is dropped, the preceding vowel is lengthened.
  2. /r/ before /s/ is also pronounced weakly and may fall away.
  3. Before stops and fricatives, the nasals /m, n/ may fall away and only leave compensatory nasalization on the preceding vowel; the same happens at the end of a word.
  4. Final clusters /rt, st/ have a tendency to drop the /t/.
  5. Another possible pronunciation of /ʒ/ is [ř], especially before consonants.
Notes on consonants[]
  1. In Umbrian, /j/ is retained between a consonant and a vowel; this contrasts with Latin, where it becomes a vowel /i/.
  2. /w/ before a consonant, unlike in Latin, is generally preserved; an exception is after /r/ or labials and after initial /d/, where it is dropped.
  3. /r/ is generally retained from Proto-Italic, including before clusters with sibilants and liquids; on the other hand, it is prone to elision at the end of a word, especially in passive morphemes.
  4. /l/ is lost in the cluster /*lt/; furthermore, it becomes /w/ at the start of a word. Also, it occasionally changes to /ʒ/. Furthemore, it attracts regressive assimilation in the cluster /*nl/, which becomes /ll/.
  5. Especially weak is the cluster /*ns/, which become /f/ at the end of a word and /nts/ elsewhere. Notice that the cluster /*ntt/ and /*ndt/ don't simplify to /ns/, and directly become /f/ in Umbrian. A similar change is seen in the clusters /*rts/ and /*rtt/, which become /rf/, and final /*gf/ becoming /f/. On the other hand, the clusters /sn, sm, sl, sd/ are preserved intact, unlike in Latin. The cluster /*sr/ however doesn't, and becomes /fr/.
  6. Like Latin, Umbrian undergoes rhotacism, so intervocalic /s/ becomes /r/, including before enclitics. In colloquial speech, this change can also happen at the end of a word. It is however general in the final cluster /rs/, which simplifies to /r/.
  7. The clusters /*pt, *ft, *kt/ all simplify to /ht/. As said above, the /h/ is often very faint and may disappear leaving compensatory lengthening. Similarly, Umbrian preserves no cluster /*ps/, which always becomes /ss/.
  8. The sound /f/ is more frequent than in Latin, and appears everywhere earlier languages had a aspirated labial or dental, which in Latin becomes /b, d/ medially instead.
  9. Clusters of labials and nasals assimilate, so /*pm, *bm, *pn, *bn, *mb/ become /mm, mm, mn, mn, mm/. A similar change is seen in the clusters /*nd, *nl, *ndl/, which become /nn, ll, ll/, and in the clusters /*ts, *ds/ (obviously unless arising from syncope), both becoming /ss/. And again, we see an assimilation of the clusters /tk, dk, tp, dp, tf, df/ to /kk, kk, pp, pp, ff, ff/. The cluster /ks/ also assimilates to /ss/, even if it arises from syncope.
  10. Final /*t/>/*d/, which usually shows up as /t/ in Latin, is always dropped; when a final /t/ shows up in Umbrian it usually implies an earlier form where it wasn't final. Intervocalic /*d/ also becomes /ʒ/, and initial /*dj/ loses the /d/.
  11. The initial cluster /tl/ is preserved, but becomes /kl/ medially, except after /s/.
  12. When a suffix beginning in /t/ is appended to a root ending in a dental, these form a cluster /ss/, and similarly, a suffix in /tr/ generates a cluster /str/.
  13. Before the front vowels /i(:), e(:)/, /*k/ regularly palatalizes to /ʃ/; this change remains even if the vowels are lost to syncope. /k/ may however be restored by analogy. The /ʃ/ is subsequently lost before /j/. The same palatalization happens to /g/, which becomes /j/.
  14. /k/ always falls away between two consonants, except in the cluster /*nkt/, which becomes /ht/.
  15. The initial /*gn/ cluster is simplified to /n/. Also, intervocalic /*gj/ becomes a double /jj/.
  16. The Proto-Italic sound /*kʷ/ isn't preserved, and simply becomes /p/. Likewise, /*ɡʷ/ becomes /b/, and /*ɡʷh/ becomes /f/. All these sounds, however, are changed to /*k/ before a consonant, including in syncope-induced clusters, and don't undergo the labialization, but usually weaken to /h/ or assimilate.
  17. Non-final /*nk, *nt, *pr/ weaken to /ng, nd, br/. Instead, the clusters /*mf, *nh/ fortition to /mb, ng/ (notice that intervocalic Proto-Indo-European aspirates behave like in Latin).


Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i: ʉ u:
Near-high ɪ ʊ
High-mid e: o:
Low-mid ɛ ɛ: ɔ ɔ:
Low a a:
  1. /ɛ/ is usually pronounced [e] before /r/ or another vowel; this allophony is also frequent before a sibilant. The same allophony of /ɔ/ to [o] happens before /r/.
  2. It is acceptable to employ an even closer allophone of /e:/ approaching [ɪ:]. LIkewise, this applies to /o:/ being pronounced [ʊ:].
  3. Unless deriving from vocalization of a glide /j, w/, /ɪ, ʊ/ may usually have an allophone [e, o] before final /m/.
  4. /i(:)/ before another vowel always gains an epenthetic /j/; the same happens for /u(:)/, which is followed by /w/.
  5. Like in Latin, vowels are always short before /nt/ or /nd/.
  6. However, notice that unlike in Latin, hiatus is usually preserved, even when the first element is /a(:)/ or /o(:)/.
  7. The stress always falls on the first syllable.

Evolution of vowels[]

  1. /a/ regularly derives from Proto-Italic /*a/, including in cases where in Latin it is reduced, except for when /*a/ is adjacent to a labial, where the sound /ʉ/ arises.
  2. /a:/ usually derives from non-final Proto-Italic /*a:/.
  3. /ɛ/ usually derives from Proto-Italic /*e/, including in cases where in Latin it is reduced. However, /*e/ can give rise to the sound /ʉ/ next to a labial, too. It can also derive from Proto-Italic final /*i/.
  4. /ɛ:/ can derive from Proto-Italic /*ai, *ei/ except before /j/, where they yield /a/ and /ɛ/.
  5. /e:/ usually derives from Proto-Italic /*e:/ or final /*oi/.
  6. /ɪ/ usually derives from Proto-Italic /*i/, or also from /*e/ before a /*nk/ or /*ng/ cluster. Another source is the symplification of initial /*ju/.
  7. /i:/ mostly derives from Proto-Italic /*i:/, as well as from initial /*ju:/ and from fronting of /*u:/ in monosyllables and final syllables.
  8. /ɔ/ usually derives from Proto-Italic /*o/; it also rarely arises from Proto-Italic /*we/, or just as well /*e/ when it stood between two /*kʷ/.
  9. /ɔ:/ mostly derives from Proto-Italic /*a:/ when it is final or preceded by /*ts/, either original (including when it reduces to /s/) or arising from syncope.
  10. /o:/ mostly derives from Proto-Italic /*o:, au, ou/ or non-final /*oi/.
  11. /ʊ/ regularly derives from Proto-Italic /*u/.
  12. /u:/ regularly derives from Proto-Italic /*u:/.
Vowel lengthening[]

Just like in Latin, vowels before the clusters /*ns/ and /*nkt/ always become long. Recall that /*nkt/ usually weakens to Umbrian /ht/, and the /h/ may be altogether lost. In Umbrian, however, this is also frequent before the cluster /*rs/, including when the /*s/ has historically been deleted.

Conditions for syncope[]

Loss of (non-initial) unstressed vowels is frequent in Umbrian, and is especially witnessed in these circumstances:

  • The /e/ of third conjugation imperatives, except after /n/;
  • The /e/ of many grammatical forms, except for perfect participles;
  • The /e/ of the affixes -kelo-, -elo-, -tero-, -ero-, -men-;
  • /i/ when it is in contact with /s/, and in the prefix /ambi-/;
  • Short /i, e, o/ before final /s/;
  • /e/ before final /t, d/, except in the present and perfect indicative.

It's important to remark that when the syncoped vowel is preceded by the liquids /j, w/, these usually take on the role of the syllable's vowel, becoming /i, u/. Also, if a final /ls/ cluster is left behind, the /s/ is elided.

When syncope leaves behind a cluster /ns/, this is not affected by the Umbrian regular change to /f/. Instead the change happens when a cluster /rs/ arises, which becomes /rf/. Similarly, a cluster /ps/ arising from syncope is also assimilated to /ss/; the same happens to final /fs/.

A notable development is that of /kt/ clusters arising from syncope, which become /jt/.

In general, a voiced consonant that comes into contact with a voiceless one because of syncope assimilates and becomes voiceless as well.

Writing System[]

The language is normally written in the native Umbrian (Old Italic) alphabet, comprising 19 letters: 𐌀 a, 𐌁 b, 𐌛 rs, 𐌄 e, 𐌅 w, 𐌆 z, 𐌇 h, 𐌉 i, 𐌊 k, 𐌋 l, 𐌌 m, 𐌍 n, 𐌐 p, 𐌓 r, 𐌔 s, 𐌕 t, 𐌖 u, 𐌚 f, 𐌜 ç. It is generally written right-to-left. Because such a writing system is hardly supported on most softwares, this article generally resorts to romanization marked by the angular parentheses <>.

  1. Notice that <t> is used to write both /t/ and /d/, and <k> writes both /k/ and /g/.
  2. The exact pronunciation of the letter 𐌛, even though it is romanized as rs, is actually unknown. For this conlang, the pronunciation /ʒ/ has been chosen. Similarly, the chosen pronunciation for <ç> is /ʃ/.
  3. In the native script, long consonants are not marked, and generally written as a single consonant; doubling of consonant letters is defined to be non-standard.
  4. In standard orthography, vowel length is usually also not written, unless the long vowel arises from compensatory lengthening triggered by loss of /h/ (which is not mandatorily dropped anyways). The practice of doubling the letter representing a long vowel, and adding <h> between the two vowels (thus writing /a:/ as <aa> or <aha>), though possible, is deprecated.
  5. Remember that in Umbrian, no diphthong /ei/ natively exist. The only time <ei> is used to represent /ej/ is when such /j/ arises from weakining of a velar before a consonant. The use of <ei> for a sound /i(:)/ or /e(:)/ is deprecated.
  6. Although the sounds /i/ and /e:/ are often confused in orthography, being written as <e> and <i> respectively, such confusion is deprecated in standard orthography, and /i/ especially must always be written as <i>, while /e:/ is always written as <e>.
  7. The sound /ɔ:/, though arising from a change in quality of /a:/, is prescriptively written as <u>; the usage of <a> is deprecated.
  8. Although attestations exist of confusion between <p> and <b>, standard orthography always distinguishes the two, writing /p/ as <p> and /b/ as <b>.
  9. <h> must be consistently used to represent the sound /h/; its use is also mandated when the /h/ sound can be lost and trigger compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel. On the other hand, as already state, its usage as a general vowel length marker is deprecated, as is its usage as a hiatus marker.
  10. When a glide /j/ or /w/ intervenes between two vowels, it is obligatorily written as <i> or <w>. Omission of the glide is already rare or confined to Latin-script forms of attested Umbrian, and is thus considered incorrect.

Despite the rules outlined above, it must be recalled that the orthography of attested Umbrian is highly inconsistent. As such, several forms that the standardized orthography deprecates can still be considered realistic and "Umbrian", and are not viewed stricto sensu as incorrect in Artificial Umbrian.



The noun declension system is very similar to Latin, with the same five declensions and the six cases, plus a locative singular. The mechanisms are detailed below.

First declension[]

The first declension mainly comprises feminine nouns in -a. The declension paradigm is illustrated with the noun /to:ta-/ "city".

First declension
Singular Plural
Nominative to:tɔ: to:ta:s
Genitive to:ta:s to:ta:ro:m
Dative to:tɛ: to:tɛ:s
Accusative to:ta:m to:ta:f
Vocative to:ta to:ta:s
Ablative to:ta: to:tɛ:s
Locative to:tɛ:

It is important to note that the locative is frequently employed with the enclitic postposition /-en/, which may yield a form in /-ɛ:n/: to:tɛ:n.

This declension also includes a few masculine nouns, sometimes borrowed from Greek, which show a nominative singular ending /-a:s/.

Second declension[]

The second declension mostly comprises masculine and neuter nouns, like in Latin; however, the endings fundamentally change. They are illustrated here with the two example nouns popel "people", masculine, and persklom "rite", neuter. The few feminine nouns in the declension inflect exactly like the masculine.

In colloquial speech, there is a tendency to drop the neuter gender, and then inflecting neuter nouns as masculine.

Second masculine declension
Singular Plural
Nominative pɔpɛl pɔplu:s
Genitive pɔplɛ:s pɔplo:m
Dative pɔple: pɔple:s
Accusative pɔplɔm pɔplu:f
Vocative pɔplɛ pɔplu:s
Ablative pɔplu: pɔple:s
Locative pɔplɛ:(n)

The nominative singular is often irregular (much like in the Latin third declension), because the original ending /*-os/ undergoes syncope and can trigger assimilations of consonant clusters. For more details, see the section on syncope and phonological changes for consonants.

Second neuter declension
Singular Plural
Nominative pɛrsklɔm pɛrsklɔ:
Genitive pɛrsklɛ:s pɛrsklo:m
Dative pɛrskle: pɛrskle:s
Accusative pɛrsklɔm pɛrsklɔ:
Vocative pɛrsklɔm pɛrsklɔ:
Ablative pɛrsklu: pɛrskle:s
Locative pɛrsklɛ:
Palatal declension[]

In the second declension, there exists a small group of nouns with a stem in /j/, whose declension is slightly different from that of the regular second declension. This is here shown with the declension of the proper noun Fisis "Fidius".

Second palatal declension
Singular Plural
Nominative fɪsɪs fɪsju:s
Genitive fɪsjɛ:s fɪsjo:m
Dative fɪsi: fɪsi:s
Accusative fɪsɪm fɪsju:f
Vocative fɪsjɛ fɪsju:s
Ablative fɪsju: fɪsi:s
Locative fɪsjɛ:(n)

Third declension[]

The third declension is the most numerous and also most articulated, as it comprises both consonantal stems and stems in /i/.

The consonantal declension is hereby shown with the noun frater "brother". Recall that the nominative and accusative are highly irregular; for more details, see the section below.

Third consonantal declension
Singular Plural
Nominative fra:tɛr fra:tɛrf
Genitive fra:trɛ:s fra:tro:m
Dative fra:trɛ: fra:trʊs
Accusative fra:trɔm fra:tɛrf
Vocative fra:tɛr fra:tɛrf
Ablative fra:trɛ fra:trʊs
Locative fra:trɛ(:)(n)

The vowel of the locative ending is originally short, but is often long in colloquial speech.

Following is now the declension of the vocalic noun ocer.

Third vocalic declension
Singular Plural
Nominative ɔkɛr ɔkre:s
Genitive ɔkrɛ:s ɔkrjo:m
Dative ɔkrɛ: ɔkrɪs
Accusative ɔkrɪm ɔkri:f
Vocative ɔkɛr ɔkre:s
Ablative ɔkri: ɔkrɪs
Locative ɔkrɛ:(n)

Obviously, just like in the second declension, neuter nouns have a slightly different inflection, which is shown here with the two nouns sacre and nomen.

Neuter third consonantal declension
Singular Plural
Nominative no:mɛn no:mnɔ:
Genitive no:mnɛ:s no:mno:m
Dative no:mnɛ: no:mnɪs
Accusative no:mɛn no:mnɔ:
Vocative no:mɛn no:mnɔ:
Ablative no:mnɛ no:mnɪs
Locative no:mnɛ(:)(n)
Neuter third vocalic declension
Singular Plural
Nominative sakrɛ sakrjɔ:
Genitive sakrɛ:s sakrjo:m
Dative sakrɛ: sakrɪs
Accusative sakrɛ sakrjɔ:
Vocative sakrɛ sakrjɔ:
Ablative sakri: sakrɪs
Locative sakrɛ:(n)
Stem changes[]

Like in Latin, the ending /-s/, which appears in Umbrian in the nominative singular, and, for consonant stems, in the nominative and accusative plural as well (for non-neuter nouns) often assimilates with the stem and gives rise to peculiar forms. The rules applying in Artificial Umbrian are illustrated below.

  1. Whether a neuter vocalic noun preserves a final /-e/ is specific to each word. When the /e/ is dropped, a resulting consonant cluster often gains an epenthetic vowel, as in the example declension above.
  2. Consonant stems in /r/ have a nominative singular in /-r/, and a nominative and accusative plural in /-f/. The ending is preceded by an epenthetic /e/ if the stem's /r/ is preceded by another consonant.
  3. Consonant stems in /m, n, g/ lose the consonant in the nominative singular and have an ending /-f/; in the nominative plural, the endings will be /-ns, -ns, -ks/, and in the accusative plural /-nf, -nf, -f/; however, if the /m, n, g/ are preceded by /l/, they simply fall away and add no ending; if they are preceded by /r/, the ending is always /-rf/; stems in /ng/ have a nominative in /-ns/. Similarly, stems in /rt/ have a nominative singular, and nominative and accusative plural, in /-rf/.
  4. Consonant stems in /p, b, t, d, k/ lose the consonant and have a nominative singular ending /-s(s)/. Nouns in /p, b, k/ will have the same deletion and ending in the nominative plural, while stems in /t, d/ have a nominative plural in /-ts/. All these stems lose the consonant in the accusative plural and have an ending /-f/. Also, all these stems, if the consonant is preceded by /l/, simply have the consonant fall away and no ending.
  5. Consonant stems in /l, s/ have no ending in the nominative singular, nominative plural and accusative singular. An eventual consonant before the /l/ is broken apart from it with an epenthetic /e/.
  6. Consonant stems in /f/ normally lose the /f/ in the nominative singular and plural and just have an ending /-s/, while having no ending in the accusative plural.
  7. Vocalic stems in /ki, gi, fi, si, pi, bi/ lose the cluster and have a nominative singular ending /-s(s)/. When the consonant is preceded by /l/, this /s/ is elided, while if they are preceded by /r/, it becomes /f/.
  8. Vocalic stems in /li/ usually have no ending in the nominative singular; if the /l/ is preceded by a consonant, the cluster is usually broken by an epenthetic /e/.
  9. Vocalic stems in /mi, ni/ normally have a nominative singular in /-ns/. If the nasal is preceded by /l/, the cluster however falls away, or becomes /f/ if preceded by /r/. Any other preceding nasal is also deleted.
  10. Vocalic stems in /ri, rsi/ have a nominative singular in /-rf/.
  11. Vocalic stems in /di/ normally have regular change of the /d/ and this results in a nominative singular in /-řs/ if the /d/ is preceded by a vowel; otherwise, if it is preceded by /l/, it simply all falls away; becomes /-rf/ if it is preceded by /r/; and becomes /-ns/ if it preceded by a nasal.
  12. Monosyllabic nouns whose vowel is /u:/ generally have it become /i:/ unless an ending is attached that makes the noun disyllabic.
Irregular nouns[]

In attested Umbrian, three nouns show an irregular declension, and they are:

  1. /juwepa:ter/: juwepater, juwes, juwe, deim, di, juwi, juwen;
  2. /bus/: bus, buwes, bue, bum, bus, bue, buwen; bus, buwom, buwus, buf, bus, buwus;
  3. /su:s>si:s/: sis, suwes, suwe, sim, sis, suwe, suwen; sis, suwom, suwus, sif, sis, suwus.

Fourth declension[]

The fourth declension mostly comprises feminine and neuter nouns with stem in /u/, except for the masculine manus. The declensions are hereby illustrated with the nouns manus and castru.

Fourth masculine declension
Singular Plural
Nominative manʊs manu:s
Genitive mano:s manwo:m
Dative mano: manʊs
Accusative manʊm manu:f
Vocative manʊs manu:s
Ablative mani: manʊs
Locative manu:(wen)
Fourth neuter declension
Singular Plural
Nominative kastri: kastrwɔ:
Genitive kastro:s kastrwo:m
Dative kastro: kastrʊs
Accusative kastri: kastrwɔ:
Vocative kastri: kastrwɔ:
Ablative kastri: kastrʊs
Locative kastru:(wen)

Fifth declension[]

Only one noun is comprised in the Umbrian fifth declension; due to this, it is best treated as an irregular noun. Its declension is given below.

Declension of res
Singular Plural
Nominative re:s re:s
Genitive ri: re:ro:m
Dative ri: re:s
Accusative re:m re:f
Vocative re:s re:s
Ablative ri: re:s
Locative ri:(jen)


In Umbrian, like in Latin, adjectives can either belong to the first class, following the second declension for neuter and masculine nouns and the first declension for feminine nouns, or to the second class, following the vocalic third declension. As such, because the details of those inflection have already been exposed, there will be no further overview here of positive adjectives.


Comparatives of positive adjectives are formed by a suffix /-jos/ like in Latin. Although some prepositions and adverbs can also derive a comparative form with a different suffixes, we will treat these as separates lexemes and thus not include them in the grammar section. See the lexicon for more.

If the stem of the adjective ends in /k/, this becomes /ʃ/, and after a vowel, is lost everywhere expect in the direct neuter cases. Similarly, a stem-final /g/ assimilates to /j/.

A comparative inflection is here shown with the adjective rufer "red", obviously from the stem rufr-.

Comparative of rufer
Singular Plural
Masculine/feminine Neuter Masculine/feminine Neuter
Nominative ru:frjo:s ru:frɪs ru:frjo:re:s rufrjo:rjɔ:
Genitive ru:frjo:rɛ:s ru:frjo:rɛ:s ru:frjo:ro:m ru:frjo:ro:m
Dative ru:frjo:rɛ: ru:frjo:rɛ:s ru:frjo:rɪs ru:frjo:rɪs
Accusative ru:frjo:rɪm ru:frɪs ru:frjo:ri:f rufrjo:rjɔ:
Vocative ru:frjo:s ru:frɪs ru:frjo:re:s rufrjo:rjɔ:
Ablative ru:frjo:ri: ru:frjo:ri: ru:frjo:rɪs ru:frjo:rɪs
Locative ru:frjo:rɛ: ru:frjo:rɛ:

In attested Umbrian there is no clear unequivocal separate superlative suffix. In artificial Umbrian, this suffix is /-em-/, and the word then declines as a first class adjective. As an example, rufer is again used.

Notice that in forms other than the masculine nominative and vocative singular, when it is preceded by a single consonant, the /e/ of the affix frequently syncopates; in case a cluster /pm, bm/ is left behind, this simplifies to /mm/.

Superlative of rufer
Masculine singular Masculine plural Feminine singular Feminine plural Neuter singular Neuter plural
Nominative ru:frɛns ru:frɛmu:s ru:frɛmɔ: ru:frɛma:s ru:frɛmɔm ru:frɛmɔ:
Genitive ru:frɛmɛ:s ru:frɛmo:m ru:frɛma:s ru:frɛma:ro:m ru:frɛmɛ:s ru:frɛmo:m
Dative ru:frɛme: ru:frɛme:s ru:frɛmɛ: ru:frɛmɛ:s ru:frɛme: ru:frɛme:s
Accusative ru:frɛmɔm ru:frɛmu:f ru:frɛma:m ru:frɛma:f ru:frɛmɔm ru:frɛmɔ:
Vocative ru:frɛns ru:frɛmu:s ru:frɛmɔ: ru:frɛma:s ru:frɛmɔm ru:frɛmɔ:
Ablative ru:frɛmu: ru:frɛme:s ru:frɛma: ru:frɛmɛ:s ru:frɛmu: ru:frɛme:s
Locative ru:frɛmɛ: ru:frɛmɛ: ru:frɛmɛ:

Umbrian can form adverbs from many different suffixes; however, the most productive one is artificial Umbrian is /-e:/, which attaches to the stem of the adjective. It can be applied equally to first- and second-class adjectives, unlike in Latin, where a suffix -iter also exists.


Numerals are scarse in attested Umbrian and are thus mostly coined in Artificial Umbrian. Like in Latin, four types of numerals exist: cardinals, ordinals, distributives and adverbials. Ordinals are usually formed with a suffix /-e:sens/, distributives with a suffix /-pler/, and adverbials with a suffix /-is/ or /-ɔ:per/; many are however irregular.

A list is given below.

Umbrian numerals
Cardinal Ordinal Distributive Adverbial
1 u:ns prons prewer semmelom
2 du:s eter dupler dis
3 tri:s tertis tripler tris
4 petor truts trupler peter
5 po:mpe po:nts po:ntupler po:ntis
6 sehs sests sestupler sestis
7 sehm sehtens sehtupler sehtis
8 ohto: ohta:us ohtupler ohtis
9 nowem nowe:ns nowe:pler nowis
10 desem desens desupler desis
11 desemu:ns desemprons desemprewer desentsemmelom
12 desendu:s desemeter desendupler desendis
13 desentri:s desentertis desentripler desentris
14 desempetor desentruts desentrupler desempeter
20 wi:genti: wi:gente:sens wi:gentipler wigentis
21 wi:gentu:ns wi:genti:prons wi:genti:prewer wi:genti:semmelom
30 tri:gentɔ: tri:gente:sens tri:gentipler tri:gentis
40 trugentɔ: trugente:sens trugentipler trugentis
50 pompegentɔ: pompegente:sens pompegentipler pompegentis
100 centom cente:sens centipler centis
200 ducentu:s ducente:sens ducentipler ducentis
1000 smi:sljɔ: smi:sle:sens smi:slipler smi:slis
2000 dɔ: smi:sljɔ: eter smi:sle:sens dupler smi:sliper dis smi:slis

/u:ns, du:s/ decline like respectively singular and plural first-class adjectives with stems /u:n-, duw-/; the nominatives and accusatives may contract to /du:s, da:s, du:f, da:f/. Although with an irregular nominative and vocative /tri:s/, the numeral 3 declines like a second-class adjective with stem in /i/.

Cardinal multiples of 10 after 20 are formed with the suffix /-gentɔ:/ appended to the stem of the source numeral. To add a number from 1 to 10 to these, it is simply suffixed, as seen in the table. Cardinal multiples of 100 are formed by prefixing the stem of the source numeral; resulting numerals are declined as first-class adjectives. The numeral 1000 behaves as a /i/-stem third declension neuter noun, and whatever noun it qualifies, takes the genitive; to multiply it, it is simply qualified by a bare numeral. To link two separate numerals, including those derived by affixing, the conjunction /et/ is used, usually from the biggest number to the smallest.

Ordinals are declined as first-class adjectives, and as such frequently undergo syncope. In particular, all ordinals in /-ens/ actually have a stem in /em-/, and when an ending other than /-s/ is attached, the /e/ usually syncopates if preceded by a single consonant; for example, the neuter form of /desens/ is /desmom/. So for example the stems of the first nine ordinals are /prom-, etr-, tertj-, turt-, po:nt-, sest-, sehtem-, ohta:w-, nowe:m-/.

In the same way, distributives decline as first-class adjectives with stem in /pler-/ (and as such drop the ending /-s/). Notice that unlike in Latin, nouns paired with distributives are always singular.

Other than the forms listed in the table, adverbial numerals can be formed by adding the suffix /-per/ to the neuter accusative of the cardinal. Such forms are completely regular.


Personal pronouns[]

The inflection of Umbrian personal pronouns is given below.

Personal pronouns
First singular Second singular Third reflexive First plural Second plural
Nominative ego: tu: se: no:s wo:s
Genitive mɛ: twi: swi: nostrom westrom
Dative me: tefe se:fe no:f wo:f
Accusative me:d tjom se:d no:s wo:s
Vocative tu: no:s wo:s
Ablative me:d te:d se:d no:f wo:f
Locative me:(n) te:(n) se:(n) no:f(en) wo:f(en)

Although a third-person dative /se:so/ is attested, this form is deprecated in Artificial Umbrian.

To these pronouns correspond the possessive adjectives /mej-, tow- suw-, nostr-, westr-/, which decline as regular first-class adjectives.


Artificial Umbrian mainly employs a proximal-distal system of demostratives, with the distal represented by a stem /ejs-/ and the proximal by a stem /ess-/. The declension is however highly irregular, with enclitics frequently added, and shown below.

Distal demonstrative
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative ɛ:rɛk ɛ:ru:s ɛ:rɔ:k ɛ:ra:s ɛ:ʒɛk ɛ:rɔ:k
Genitive ɛ:rɛ:s ɛ:ro:m ɛ:ra:s ɛ:ra:ro:m ɛ:rɛ:s ɛ:ro:m
Dative ɛ:re:k ɛ:re:s ɛ:rɛ:k ɛ:rɛ:s ɛ:re:k ɛ:rɛ:s
Accusative ɛ:rɔm ɛ:ru:f ɛ:ra:m ɛ:ra:f ɛ:ʒɛk ɛ:ʒɛk
Ablative ɛ:ru:k ɛ:re:s ɛ:ra:k ɛ:rɛ:s ɛ:ru:k ɛ:re:k
Locative ɛ:re:k ɛ:rɛ:k ɛ:re:k
Proximal demonstrative
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative ɛskɛ ɛsu:s ɛsɔ:k ɛsa:s ɛsɔm ɛsɔ:k
Genitive ɛsɛ:s ɛso:m ɛsa:s ɛsa:ro:m ɛsɛ:s ɛso:m
Dative ɛse:k ɛse:s ɛsɛ:k ɛsɛ:s ɛse:k ɛsɛ:s
Accusative ɛsɔm ɛsu:f ɛsa:m ɛsa:f ɛsɔm ɛsɔ:k
Ablative ɛsu:k ɛse:s ɛsa:k ɛsɛ:s ɛsu:k ɛse:s
Locative ɛsɛ: ɛsɛ: ɛsɛ:

Other marginal demostratives exist, and they are listed below. These usually decline as regular first-class adjectives, and may or may not take an intensifier /-k/ when ending in a vowel.

  • /esm-/, a proximal or medial demonstrative;
  • /or-/ or /ol-/, a distal demonstrative;
  • /est-/, a proximal demonstrative;
  • /eson-/, a self-indicating demonstrative, related to Latin ipse.
Relative pronoun[]

The declension of the relative pronoun is given below.

Relative pronoun
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative poji pu:ri: paji pa:ri: poʒe paji
Genitive pore:s poro:m pora:s paro:m pore:s poro:m
Dative pore: pore:s porɛ: porɛ:s pore: pore:s
Accusative pom pu:fi pam pa:fi poʒe paji
Ablative poru: pore:s pora: porɛ:s poru: porɛ:s
Locative porɛ:(n) porɛ:(n) porɛ:(n)
Interrogative pronoun[]

The declension of the interrogative pronoun (cognate with Latin quis, quid) is given below.

Interrogative pronoun
Non-neuter Neuter
Singular Plural Singular
Nominative pis(e) pi:se piʒe
Genitive pjɛ:se
Dative pjɛ:
Accusative pime pi:fe piʒe
Ablative pi:

Additional indefinite and interrogative pronouns are:

  • /pispe:/, obtained by suffixing the forms of /pis/ with /-pe:/, akin to Latin quisque, with the enclitic /-pe:/ being generally used as a generalizer, like Latin -que;
  • /pispis/, obtained by reduplication of the forms of /pis/, akin to Latin quisquis;
  • /pisher/, obtained by suffixing the forms of /pis/ with /-her/, akin to Latin quilibet;
  • /se:poderpe:/: corresponding to Latin uterque, it is formed by suffixing the adjective se:poder with the enclitic /-pe:/;
  • /pufe/, cognate of ubi;
  • /puse/, cognate of ut;
  • /-(h)ont/, an enclitic applied to demonstrative to create indefinites with the meaning of "same one", akin to Latin -dem;
  • /-pa/, an enclitic akin to Latin -quam.


A list of the most common Umbrian conjunctions is given below.

  • /swepo/, cognate of sive;
  • /poru:mins/, cognate of quominus;
  • /puʒe/, "how";
  • /piʒe/, used like Latin quod;
  • /pone/, cognate of Latin narrative cum;
  • /pane/, cognate of quam, usually following the relevant clause;
  • /pufe, ife, pwe/, "where";
  • /puse/, cognate of ut, but with additional meaning of velut si;
  • /appe/, "when";
  • /arnipom/, "until", becoming /neʒa:m/ after a negative clause;
  • /panno:pe:/, "whenever";
  • /swe/, "if";
  • /et/, "and";
  • /enem/, cognate of Latin enim;
  • /ote/, "or";
  • /heris/, counterpart of vel;
  • /noswe/, "unless";
  • /ne:p/, "not".



Like in Latin, Umbrian verbs are divided into four conjugations, depending on which thematic vowel between -a-, -e-, -i- and none are added to the root throughout the conjugation: first conjugation verbs add -a-, second conjugation verbs add -e-, third conjugation verbs add none and fourth conjugation verbs add -i-. These are eluded by two athematic verbs, whose conjugation will be shown later.

Verbs are inflected for six persons, mirroring the ones of Latin and English, three finite moods (indicative, imperative and subjunctive), five indefinite moods (infinitive, participle, supine, gerund and gerundive), two voices (active and passive) and different tenses. Personal ending generally follow mood and tense endings. Their formation is detailed in the sections below. Person and voice endings can be primary (used in the present, future and future perfect indicative) and secondary (used everywhere else).

The use of the moods will be more closely explained in the syntax section, though their usage largely mirrors that of Latin.

Present indicative[]

The present indicative is derived by directly adding the personal endings to the stem. This tense is largely regular, however:

  • The thematic vowel of the first conjugation becomes /ɔ:/ in the second plural;
  • When the ending /-jo:(r)/ is added after a vowel, the /j/ may be elided, as in sta:o:. On the other hand, it usually causes the elision of a preceding /k/, and the weakening of a preceding /g/ to /j/;
  • The third singular and second plural often drop the epenthetic vowel /e/ after a single consonant in the third conjugation active ending, which can trigger elision of a preceding /l/ and weakening of a preceding /p, f, k/ to /h/.
  • The third plural of the fourth conjugation may either have /i/ or /e/ as a thematic vowel.

An example conjugation is shown below with the verbs suboca:wo:, habeo:, sesto:, herjo:.

First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
1SG suboca:wo: suboca:wo:r habeo: habeo:r sesto: sesto:r herjo: herjo:r
2SG suboca:s suboca:rf habe:s habe:rf sestes sesterf heri:s heri:rf
3SG suboca:t suboca:ter habe:t habe:ter sestet sester heri:t heri:ter
1PL suboca:ns suboca:mor habe:ns habe:mor sestens sestemor heri:ns heri:mor
2PL subocɔ:ts suboca:mni: habe:ts habe:mni: sestets sestemni: heri:ts heri:mni:
3PL subocant subocanter habent habenter sestent sestenter herint/herent herinter/herenter
Imperfect indicative[]

The imperative indicative is largely formed by adding after the thematic vowel an affix /fa:/ (or /ba:/ after /m/) and then adding personal endings. The tense is largely regular; however, in the third conjugation, the affix causes assimilation of a preceding dental to /f/ as well. The same change of the vowel to /ɔ:/ seen in the present is replicated here in all conjugations.

Imperfect indicative
First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
1SG suboca:fa:m suboca:fa:r habe:fa:m habe:fa:r sesfa:m sesfa:r heri:fa:m heri:fa:r
2SG suboca:fa:s suboca:fa:rf habe:fa:s habe:fa:rf sesfa:s sesfa:rf heri:fa:s heri:fa:rf
3SG suboca:fa: suboca:fa:tur habe:fa: habe:fa:tur sesfa: sesfa:tur heri:fa: heri:fa:tur
1PL suboca:fa:ns suboca:fa:mor habe:fa:ns habe:fa:mor sesfa:ns sesfa:mor heri:fa:ns heri:fa:mor
2PL suboca:fɔ:ts suboca:fa:mni: habe:fɔ:ts habe:fa:mni: sesfɔ:ts sesfa:mni: heri:fɔ:ts heri:fa:mni:
3PL suboca:fa:f suboca:fantur habe:fa:f habe:fantur sesfa:f sesfantur heri:fa:f heri:fantur
Future indicative[]

The future indicative is largely sigmatic, i.e. formed by means of an affix /s/, added after the thematic vowel and followed by the personal endings. It is frequently affected by rhotacism in the thematic conjugations and becomes /r/, except in the third singular, where syncope produces a cluster /st/. In the third conjugation, lacking a thematic vowel, the affix triggers a number of assimilations:

  • After /n, m/, it becomes /(n)ts/;
  • After a cluster /rt/, it fuses with it into /rf/;
  • After /p, b/, it triggers assimilation and gives rise to a cluster /s/;
  • After a dental /t, d/, it triggers assimilation to /s/.
  • After a velar /k, g/, those weaken to /h/.

Notice that because the vowel after the suffix is short, confusion with the imperfect subjunctive never occurs (at least in speech). This short vowel is also frequently syncopated.

Future indicative
First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
1SG suboca:ro: suboca:ro:r habe:ro: habe:ro:r sesso: sesso:r heri:ro: heri:ro:r
2SG suboca:res suboca:rerf habe:res habe:rerf sesses sesserf heri:res heri:rerf
3SG suboca:st suboca:ster habe:st habe:ster sest sester heri:st heri:ster
1PL suboca:rens suboca:smor habe:rens habe:smor sessens sesmor heri:rens heri:smos
2SG suboca:sts suboca:sni: habe:sts habe:sni: sests sesni: heri:sts heri:sni:
3PL suboca:rent suboca:renter habe:rent habe:renter sessent sessenter heri:rent heri:renter
Indicative perfect[]

The indicative perfect is formed, contrarily to the three tenses shown above, by adding endings to the perfect stems; the personal endings are also somewhat unique and can't be easily be mapped to the usual personal endings.

The formation of the perfect stem, like in Latin, is not wholly predictable. However, five main patterns can be discerned:

  • The reduplicating perfect: the perfect is formed by appending the first syllable of a verb a second time as a prefix, mainly in third conjugation verbs.
  • The ablauting perfect: the perfect is formed by changing the vowel of the root, in quality and/or in length. This perfect is also common in third conjugation verbs.
  • The /l/ perfect: the perfect is formed by means of an affix /-l-/, and is usually found in third conjugation verbs that haven't preserved an original reduplicating or ablauting perfect. This affix causes regressive assimilation to /l/ of any preceding cluster beginning in a nasal; also, it velarizes any preceding /t/ to /k/.
  • The /f/ perfect: the perfect is formed by means of an affix /-f-/. This perfect is tipically found in thematic verbs and as such triggers no assimilations, except in specific verbs with an irregular perfect (an example is exactly habeo, with a perfect haffi, shown below). Notice that a syllable /fe/ arising from affixing of the affix /-f-/, may be syncopated, similarly to Latin.
  • The velar perfect: the perfect is formed by means of an affix /-nʃ-/. This perfect is also typical of thematic verbs and is therefore regular. Most thematic verbs can interchangeably take an /f/ perfect or a velar perfect; however, the most common verbs usually settle on one of the two. (In the table below, only the /f/ perfect is shown for simplicity.)
Perfect indicative
First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
1SG suboca:fi: suboca:fi:r haffi: haffi:r steti: steti:r heri:fi: heri:fi:r
2SG suboca:festi: suboca:fester haffesti: haffester stetesti stetester heri:festi: heri:fester
3SG suboca:fe suboca:fer haffe haffer stete steter heri:fe heri:fer
1PL suboca:fens suboca:femor haffens haffemor stetens stetemor heri:fens heri:femor
2PL suboca:fests suboca:femni: haffests haffemni: stetests stetemni: heri:fests heri:femni:
3PL suboca:fe:ref suboca:fe:rentur haffe:ref haffe:rentur stete:ref stete:rentur heri:fe:ref heri:ferentur

Notably, artificial Umbrian has a synthetic conjugation for the passive even in tenses formed from the perfect stem. However, Latin-like periphrastic forms also exist, so that heri:fer may become heri:ts est (in the masculine form). This will also be true for all tenses derived from the perfect stem discussed below.

Indicative pluperfect[]

This tense is largely regular, formed by adding a suffix /-ura:-/ to the perfect stem and then the personal endings.

Indicative pluperfect
First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
1SG suboca:fura:m suboca:fura:r haffura:m haffura:r stetura:m stetura:r heri:fura:m heri:fura:r
2SG suboca:fura:s suboca:fura:rf haffura:s haffura:rf stetura:s stetura:rf heri:fura:s heri:fura:rf
3SG suboca:fura: suboca:fura:tur haffura: haffura:tur stetura: stetura:tur heri:fura: heri:fura:tur
1PL suboca:fura:ns suboca:fura:mor haffura:ns haffura:mor stetura:ns stetura:mor heri:fura:ns heri:fura:mor
2PL suboca:furɔ:ts suboca:fura:mni: haffurɔ:ts haffura:mni: steturɔ:ts stetura:mni: heri:furɔ:ts heri:fura:mni:
3PL suboca:fura:f suboca:furantur haffura:f haffurantur stetura:f steturantur heri:fura:f heri:furantur
Future perfect indicative[]

This tense is likewise formed by adding a suffix /-us-/ (often with rhotacism) to the perfect stem and then personal endings, except that if an epenthetic vowel is added, it is /o/. Also, the second person endings is simply /-us/.

Future perfect indicative
First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
1SG suboca:furo: suboca:furo:r haffuro: haffuro:r steturo: steturo:r heri:furo: heri:furo:r
2SG suboca:fus suboca:furerf haffus haffurerf stetus steturerf heri:fus heri:furerf
3SG suboca:fust suboca:fusor haffust haffusor stetust stetusor heri:fust heri:fusor
1PL suboca:furons suboca:furomor haffurons haffuromor steturons steturomor heri:furons heri:furomor
2PL suboca:fusts suboca:furomni: haffusts haffuromni: stetusts steturomni: heri:fusts heri:furomni:
3PL suboca:furent suboca:furenter haffurent haffurenter steturent steturenter heri:furent heri:furenter
Present subjunctive[]

The Umbrian present subjunctive is formed by means of an affix /-a:-/ after the thematic vowel and before the personal endings. Contrary to Latin, the vowel doesn't contract and thus stays transparent throughout all the four conjugations. The resulting conjugation is shown here.

Present subjunctive
First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
1SG suboca:ja:m suboca:ja:r habea:m habea:r sesta:m sesta:r herja:m herja:r
2SG suboca:ja:s suboca:ja:rf habea:s habea:rf sesta:s sesta:rf herja:s herja:rf
3SG suboca:ja: suboca:ja:tur habea: habea:tur sesta: sesta:tur herja: herja:tur
1PL suboca:ja:ns suboca:ja:mor habea:ns habea:mor sesta:ns sesta:mor herja:ns herja:mor
2PL suboca:jɔ:ts suboca:ja:mni: habeɔ:ts habea:mni: sestɔ:ts sesta:mni: herjɔ:ts herja:mni:
3PL suboca:ja:f suboca:jantur habea:f habeantur sesta:f sestantur herja:f herjantur
Imperfect subjunctive[]

Like in Latin, the imperfect subjunctive is formed by means of an affix /-se:-/, which regularly rhotacizes in the thematic conjugations. However, in the third conjugation, because no thematic vowel intervenes, the suffix stays /-se:-/, and may come into contact with another consonant and trigger the same assimilations seen in the future indicative. The passive third singular follows the same transformation as in the future perfect, and has an ending /-sor/.

Imperfect subjunctive
First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
1SG suboca:re:m suboca:re:r habe:re:m habe:re:r sesse:m sesse:r heri:re:m heri:re:r
2SG suboca:re:s suboca:re:rf habe:re:s habe:re:rf sesse:s sesse:rf heri:re:s heri:re:rf
3SG suboca:re: suboca:re:tur habe:re: habe:re:tur sesse: sesse:tur heri:re: heri:re:tur
1PL suboca:re:ns suboca:re:mor habe:re:ns habe:re:mor sesse:ns sesse:mor heri:re:ns heri:re:mor
2PL suboca:re:ts suboca:re:mni: habe:re:ts habe:re:mni: sesse:ts sesse:mni: heri:re:ts heri:re:mni:
3PL suboca:re:f suboca:rentur habe:re:f habe:rentur sesse:f sessentur heri:re:f heri:rentur
Perfect subjunctive[]

The perfect subjunctive is formed by adding the suffix /-je:-/ to the perfect stem (except for the passive third singular, which has an ending /-jor/). This suffix may occasionally cause assimilations:

  • When added directly to a reduplicated or ablauting perfect, it may cause a preceding /k/ to be lost, and a preceding /g/ to assimilate to /j/;
  • When added to a velar perfect, it may contract into a suffix /-nj-/.
Perfect subjunctive
First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
1SG suboca:fje:m suboca:fje:r haffje:m haffje:r stetje:m stetje:r heri:fje:m heri:fje:r
2SG suboca:fje:s suboca:fje:rf haffje:s haffje:rf stetje:s stetje:rf heri:fje:s heri:fje:rf
3SG suboca:fje: suboca:fjor haffje: haffjor stetje: stetjor heri:fje: heri:fjor
1PL suboca:fje:ns suboca:fje:mor haffje:ns haffje:mor stetje:ns stetje:mor heri:fje:ns heri:fje:mor
2PL suboca:fje:ts suboca:fje:mni: haffje:ts haffje:mni: stetje:ts stetje:mni: heri:fje:ts heri:fje:mni:
3PL suboca:fje:f suboca:fjentur haffje:f haffjentur stetje:f stetjentur heri:fje:f heri:fjentur
Pluperfect subjunctive[]

The pluperfect subjunctive is formed by adding to the perfect stem the affix /-jere-/. The affix triggers the same assimilations as the perfect subjunctive.

Pluperfect subjunctive
First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
1SG suboca:fjerem suboca:fjerer haffjerem haffjerer stetjerem stetjerer heri:fjerem heri:fjerer
2SG suboca:fjeres suboca:fjererf haffjeres haffjererf stetjeres stetjererf heri:fjeres heri:fjererf
3SG suboca:fjere suboca:fjeror haffjere haffjeror stetjere stetjeror heri:fjere heri:fjeror
1PL suboca:fjerens suboca:fjeremor haffjerens haffjeremor stetjerens stetjeremor heri:fjerens heri:fjeremor
2PL suboca:fjerets suboca:fjeremni: haffjerets haffjeremni: stetjerets stetjeremni: heri:fjerets heri:fjeremni:
3PL suboca:fjeref suboca:fjerentur haffjeref haffjerentur stetjeref stetjerentur heri:fjeref heri:fjerentur

The Umbrian imperative has a present and a future tense, and an active and passive voice. The plural person is usually obtained by a final suffix /-t-/ plus a vowel. The present is constituted by the mere thematic vowel, while in the future, a suffix /-tu:-/ is added after it. However, in the third conjugation, when a suffix with /t/ is added, numerous assimilations are triggered:

  • A preceding /l/ is dropped;
  • A cluster /rt/ fuses into /rf/;
  • A cluster /nt, nd/ fuses into /f/;
  • A preceding /p, t, f/ weakens to /h/;
  • A preceding dental /t, d/ fuses into /ss/;
  • A preceding /k, g/ weakens to /j/ or be downright elided.
First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active singular present subocɔ: habe: seste heri:
Passive singular present suboca:re habe:re sestere heri:re
Active plural present suboca:te habe:te sesse heri:te
Passive plural present suboca:mno: habe:mno: sestemno: heri:mno:
Active singular future suboca:tu: habe:tu: sessu: heri:tu:
Passive singular future suboca:mu: habe:mu: ses(t)mu heri:mu:
Active plural future suboca:tu:tɔ: habe:tu:tɔ: sessu:tɔ: heri:tu:tɔ:
Passive plural future suboca:mu:mɔ: habe:mu:mɔ: ses(t)mu:mɔ: heri:mu:mɔ:
Indefinite moods[]
Indefinite moods
First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
Active present infinitive suboca:wom habeom sestom herjom
Active supine suboca:tom habetom sta:tom heri:tom
Passive present infinitive suboca:rom habe:rom sesterom heri:rom
Active perfect infinitive suboca:fesse haffesse stetesse heri:fesse
Present participle suboca:f habe:f stetef heri:f
Perfect participle subocɔ:ts habets stɔ:ts heri:ts
Gerundive subocans habens stens herins
Future participle suboca:tu:r habetu:r sta:tu:r heri:tu:r
Passive supine suboca:ti: habeti: sta:ti: heri:ti:

The present active infinitive is added by adding /-om/ after the thematic vowel, while the passive has a suffix /-rom/.

The future participle is formed by adding the suffix /-u:r/ to the supine stem (see below). It is declined as a first class adjective in /-r/.

The active supine is formed by adding the suffix /-om/ to the supine stem, while the passive supine adds the suffix /-i:/.

The present participle is formed by adding /-nd-/ after the thematic vowel, or /e/ for the third conjugation; it is then declined as a second class adjective, which is why adding the nominative singular ending /-s/ makes the suffix contract to /-f/.

The perfect participle is adding by directly adding the endings of a first class adjectives to the supine stem (hence the /-ts/ suffix and the change of thematic vowel in the first conjugation).

The gerundive is formed by adding /-nn-/ after the thematic vowel; the resulting stem is declined as a first class adjective, which is why the suffix contracts to /-ns/ in the nominative singular (notice that because the vowel is short, no confusion happens with the first plural of the present indicative).

The perfect infinitive is formed by adding the suffix /-erom/ to the perfect stem.

All other forms (active future infinitive, passive perfect infinitive, passive future infinitive) are periphrastic, and formed by using respectively the future participle, perfect participle and gerundive in the accusative followed by the infinitive erom.

Athematic verbs[]

The conjugation of the two athematic verbs sum and eo: is shown below. The tenses not derived from the perfect stem are regular except for the stem.

Conjugation of sum
Present indicative Imperfect indicative Future indicative Perfect indicative Present subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Future participle Present infinitive Present imperative Future imperative
1SG sum era:m furo: fui: si:m fure:m
2SG es era:s fus fuesti: si:s fure:s fu futu:
3SG est era: fust fue si: fure: futu:r erom
1PL suns era:ns furens fuens si:ns fure:ns
2PL ests erɔ:ts fusts fuests si:ts fure:ts fute futu:tɔ:
3PL sent erant furent fue:ref si:f fure:f
Conjugation of eo:
Present indicative Imperfect indicative Future indicative Perfect indicative Present subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Future participle Present infinitive Present imperative Future imperative
1SG eo: i:fa:m eso: ji: ea:m i:re:m
2SG i:s i:fa:s es jesti: ea:s i:re:s e: e:tu:
3SG i:t i:fa: est je ea: i:re: etu:r jom
1PL i:ns i:fa:ns esens jens ea:ns i:re:ns
2PL i:ts i:fɔ:ts ests jests eɔ:ts i:re:ts e:te e:tu:tɔ:
3PL i:f i:fa:f erent je:ref ea:f i:re:f

Derivational morphology[]

The suffix /-tu:r/ is used to form deverbal agentive nouns belonging to the third declension. This mirrors the /-tor/ suffix of Latin; notice, however, that unlike Latin, the /u:/ is elided when additional derivational suffixes are applied: so for example the Latin suffix -atorius is found as -atris in Umbrian. This suffix is also found occasionally in kinship terms as /-te:r/; the /e:/ is elided throughout the declension.

The suffix /-ti:n/ is used to derived abstract nouns like Latin /-tio(:n)/. The suffix is however sometimes seen in the form /-ti/; in both cases it declines as a third declension noun. Also, when it is preceded by a dental, it assimilates into a suffix /-ssi:n/, and the /ss/ becomes a singleton if preceded by a long vowel. Obviously, the nominative singular /*-ti:ns/ shows assimilation to /-ti:f/.

The suffix /-o:n/ (or feminine /-o:na:-/) can be used more rarely to derive agentive nouns. It declines according to the third declension.

The suffix /-mn-/ forms neuter third declension nouns denoting the material result of an action. The /e/ in /*-me(n)/ is restored when no ending is added, as it is lost to syncope throughout the rest of the declension. An extended form of the suffix /-mner/, parallelling Latin -mentum, also exists.

Different suffixes in /-lo-/ exist, variously forming instrumental, locative or diminuitive nouns. Among these we can find /-(e)lo-/, /-flo-/, /-klo-/, /-tro-/. /-(e)lo-/ drops its /e/ in all cases except the masculine nominative singular; all nouns ending in these suffixes decline as second declension nouns. Though they are mostly neuter, a sizeable portion is masculine.

A suffix /-tra:/ is used to derive instrumental nouns of the first declension. A similar behaviour is shown by /-nom/, /-na:/, /-mom/, /-ma:/, /-u:rja:/ (the last one only attached to numerals).

The suffix /-jom, -ja:/ is also widely used to derive nouns indicating abstract objects, which sometimes correspond to the Latin fourth declension abstract nouns derived from the supine stem like magistratus in nouns indicating institutional constructs (though here /-a:to/ is also used sometimes); they can be attached either to simple roots or to other derived nouns, and it declines as either a neuter second declension noun or a first declension noun.

Another suffix used to derive abstract nouns indicating qualities or institutional constructs is /-itja:/, which declines as a first declension noun. Similarly behaves /-ta:t/ which declines according to the third declension as a feminine noun.

A last suffix for action nouns is /-tu/, which generates a fourth declension noun; the /t/ can again assimilate to /s/ after a dental.

A variety of suffixes in /j/ exist deriving simple adjectives; among its forms, /-jo, -ijo, -eo, -ajo, -ejo/ are the most common.

An other adjective-deriving suffix is /-a:sjo/, which mirrors Latin -arius.

Some suffixes in /n/ are used to derive adjectives, especially pertaining to groups of people, like /-ner, -a:no, -a:njo/. Also used for groups of people is the plain /-ko/; on the other hand, /-i:no/ can derive many kinds of adjectives.

There is also an ample class of suffixes in /k/, deriving many kinds of adjectives, such as /-iko/, /-ikjo/, /-a:k/, /-a:ko/.

In the same way behave the suffixes /-ro, -a:li, -a:ri, -i:lo, -wo/.

The suffixes /-wio, -owio, -edjo/ are used to derive adjectives acting as proper names.

The suffix /-fli/ produces adjectives denoting ability, much like English -able.

The prefixes /an-, wen-/ can also be used to negate adjectives.

Verbs can be derived by directly adding conjugation endings to nouns or adjectives. Though this mostly belong to the first conjugation, examples from the second or fourth conjugation are also found.

Derivation of adjectives and verbs by prefixation of prepositions is also common; this will be discussed again in the preposition section.

Other suffixes frequently used to derive verbs are /a:-/ (Latin ab-), /am-/ (Latin amb-), /an-/, /dis-/, /pur-/, /re-/.



Following is a list of artificial Umbrian words. Note that the vowels /ʉ, ɛ:, i, ɔ:, u/ are spelt <â, ê, î, ô, û>; /a, ɛ, ɪ, ɔ, ʊ/ simply as <a, e, i, o, u>, and /a:, e:, i:, o:, u:/ as <a:, e:, i:, o:, u:>. /ʃ, ʒ/ are spelt <sh, zh>.

Nouns are listed in the nominative singular and accompanied by their nominative plural (not their genitive, as in Latin dictionaries, as the third declension genitive singular has been borrowed into the second declension in Umbrian), or the ablative when this is lacking, or in nouns where the two nominatives don't disambiguate the whole declension. Adjectives are listed in the masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular. Verbs are listed by their present indicative in the first person, as in Latin dictionaries, and followed by the first person singular perfect indicative, the active supine and the active present infinitive.

Attested lexemes[]

  • a:nfehts, a:nfehtô, a:nfehtom: uncooked; unfinished.
  • aper, apru:s: boar.
  • apro:nom, ô: boar.
  • Akezho:niô, a:s: Acerdonia, a district of Iguvium.
  • acnom, ô: year.
  • a:der, a:drô, a:drom: dark.
  • anfi:go:, fi:gli:, fi:htom, fi:gom: to tuck, to put in, to shove, to push in.
  • ager, agru:s: field.
  • a:-: prefixed to verbs means "from, away".
  • a:tri:pu:zhôts, a:tô, a:tom: on a tripode.
  • a:weno:, we:ni:, wendom, wenom: to turn away.
  • aesens, aesnô, aesnom: made of bronze.
  • ahtîs, ahtju:s: ceremony, ritual.
  • Ahtus, Ahti:: Actus, proper name of a god.
  • ago:, e:gi:, a:htom, agom: to push, to push forward; to conduct, to administer, to do.
  • aîs, aju:s: chaos, agitation, disturbance.
  • alfs, alfô, alfom: white.
  • am- or amb- or an-: prefixed to verbs means "in both ways" or "inside" or "not".
  • ambolo:, ambolli:, ambo:tom, ambolom: to walk.
  • ambarjo:, ambari:fi:, ambari:tom, ambarjom: to set up, to put on, to locate.
  • ambarjo:r, ambari:fi:r, ambari:tom, ambari:rom: to rise, to stand up.
  • ambenno:, ambelli:, ambefom, ambennom: to offer, to pay.
  • ambezhjô, ambezhja:s: ankle.
  • ambrefo:, ambreffi:, ambrehtom, abrefom: to go around.
  • andenno:, andelli:, andendom, andennom: to lean in, to lean towards; to fill, to put in, to reach out to.
  • ander-: prefixed to verbs means "between, among".
  • andersesto:, andersteti:, andersta:tom, andersestom: to stand between.
  • anderwaco:, anderwaco:nês: intermission, intermediation.
  • anfero:, ande:zha:fi:, ande:zhatom, anferom: to take around.
  • anglô, a:s: augural bird.
  • anglom, ô: angle.
  • anho:stôts, anho:sta:tô, anho:statom: not equipped with a spear.
  • anowjo:, anowi:fi:, anowi:tom, anowjom: to get dressed, especially said of ritual clothing.
  • anserja:wo:, anserja:fi:, anserja:tom, answerja:wom: to observe, to watch, to spot.
  • astimbo:, astimbli:, astintom, astimbom: to distinguish, to tell apart, to put apart, to treat differently.
  • astipla:to:r, astipla:to:rês: stipulant, contractor.
  • angs, angs, anshe: turn, time.
  • ansihts, ansihtô, ansihtom: ungirded, unenclosed.
  • antager, antagrô, antagrom: full, whole, unbroken.
  • anterme:f, anterme:ntsô, anterme:ntsom: of the new moon.
  • appe: when, usually followed by the indicative.
  • abehtre: from the outside; extrinsic.
  • ample:nîs, ample:njô, ample:njom: filled up.
  • azh-: cognate of Latin ad; when prefixed, it means to, towards, forward.
  • azhnipo:: until, followed by the subjunctive.
  • arshla:tô, a:s: arculata, a specific circular cake offered in sacrificies by the ancient Umbrians.
  • arwô, a:s: field, planted field, agricultural field, ploughed field.
  • arwjom, ô: produce, agricultural product.
  • -azh: used as a suffix for the preposition to; also used as a standalone preposition azh.
  • azhcanîm, jô: song, singing.
  • azhepom, ô: fat portion, fat.
  • azhfertu:r, u:rf, u:re: bringer, the one who brings forward.
  • arsîs, arsjô, arsjom: sacred, holy.
  • azhîs, azhjô, azhjom: other.
  • arsma:wo:, a:fi:, a:tom, a:wom: to ordain, to declare, to proclaim.
  • arsma:tîs, arsma:tjô, arsma:tjom: official.
  • Azhmo:ns, Azhmo:nu:: Admonus, epiteth of Jupiter.
  • azhpello:, azhpli:, azhpe:tom, azhpellom: to push up, to push forward, to move.
  • azhbâtra:tus, azhbâtra:tu:s: opinion.
  • azhvego:, azhve:gi:, azhvejtom, azhvegom: to add, to bring, to bring forward.
  • a:sô, a:s, altar.
  • a:nseshets, a:nseshetô, a:nseshetom: uncut.
  • a:nsnôts, a:nsna:tô, a:nsna:tom: unwet, dry.
  • a:rf, a:rsô, a:rsom: burnt, consumed by fire.
  • Anshets, Anshets, Anshete: Ancites, a class of Umbrian gods.
  • aterom, ô: illness, ruin, catastrophe, bad event.
  • awjom, ô: prediction, fortune-telling.
  • awjekôts, awjeka:tô, awjeka:tom: favourable, favoured.
  • awjekel, awjeklô, awjeklom: augural.
  • aûs, awe:s: bird.
  • a:wizhe:ts, a:wizhe:tô, a:wizhetom: unseen.
  • benjo:, be:ni:, bendom, benjom: to come.
  • beri:, berwô: spear.
  • bjom, bjô: bag, purse.
  • bu:s, bu:s, bu:we: ox.
  • cabri:ns, cabri:nô, cabri:nom: of goats.
  • cabrom, ô: goat.
  • calezhs, calezhô, calezhom: white-foreheaded, white.
  • capes, capes, capezhe: bowl.
  • ca:ro:, ca:rli:, ca:rtom, ca:rom: to share, to distribute.
  • caro:, carf, carne: meat.
  • cazheo:, cazhe:fi:, cazhe:tom, cazheom: to call.
  • castruwom, ô or castruûs, u:s: head.
  • catel, catlu:s: puppy.
  • caterawo:, catera:fi:, catera:tom, catera:wom: to deploy as a troop, to line up, to get ready.
  • ces, cebu:s: food.
  • ceheo:, cehe:fi:, cehe:tom, ceheom: to light, to light up, to turn on.
  • cisternô, a:s: cistern.
  • cla:wlô, a:s: rump.
  • cletrô, a:s: litter, stretcher, vehicle.
  • com: with; can be used both as a preposition and a postpositional suffix; can also be prefixed to verbs with the meaning "to make together, to join, to do all at once, to do unto a whole group".
  • combifjawo:, combifja:fi:, combifja:tom, combifja:wom: to announce, to command.
  • commoweo:, commo:wi:, commo:tom, commoweom: to move forward, to bring up, to offer, to fetch.
  • comma:lo:, comma:lli:, comma:tom, comma:lom: to break, to strip, to break down, to squeeze, to shatter.
  • conigôts, coniga:tô, coniga:tom: genuflected, on their knees.
  • co:werto:, co:worti:, co:wortom, co:wertom: to turn back, to come back, to return.
  • cringa:trom, ô: band, ribbon.
  • conceheo:, concehe:fi:, concehe:tom, conceheom: to set on fire.
  • comna:clom, ô: assembly.
  • comen, comnô: comitium.
  • cu:ra:wo:, cu:ra:fi:, cura:tom, cu:ra:wom: to cure, to heal, to care for, to make sure.
  • curna:s, curna:s, curna:she (accusative singular: curna:com): crow, specifically Corvus Corone.
  • curshla:sîs, curshla:sju:s: last, final, ending (originally "closing the circle").
  • cuto:, cecuti:, cussom, cutom: to murmur, to hum, to whisper.
  • conwego:, conwe:gi:, conwehtom, conwegom: to bring together, to act, to gather.
  • cwesto:r, cwesto:rf: quaestor.
  • dahe:tom, ô: felony, crime.
  • di:co:, dedi:ci:, di:htom, di:com: to say.
  • dezhecus, dezhecu:s: debt.
  • dersuûs, dersuwô, dersuwom: prosperous.
  • deshendu:s, deshendês: twelve.
  • dehster, dehstrô, dehstrom: right, right-hand side.
  • de:wi:îs, de:wi:jô, de:wi:jom: divine, god-like.
  • djo:, dedi:, di:tom, djom: to give.
  • di:fuûs, di:fuwe: two-sided.
  • di:zho:, di:zhi:, di:zhatom, di:zhom: to give.
  • dislera:ljo:, dislera:li:fi:, dislera:li:tom, dislera:ljom: to void, to null, to retract, to make useless.
  • donom, ô: gift.
  • dupus, dupus, dupuzhe: bipedal, two-feeted.
  • duti:: again.
  • he:betrô, a:s: exit.
  • ecel, eclô, eclom: all, whole.
  • e:f: then.
  • e:furfa:wo:, e:furfa:fi:, e:furfa:tom, e:furfa:wom: to purge, to clean, to deepclean.
  • e:tuzho:, e:tu:zhi:, e:tu:som, e:tuzhom: to exterminate, to expel, to drive away, to banish, to beat up.
  • e:hja:wo:, e:hja:fi:, e:hja:tom, e:hja:wom: to emit, to dispatch, to send.
  • e:welclom, ô: vote, judgement, sentence.
  • e:wello:, e:welli:, e:weltom, e:wellom: to order.
  • e:cwa:sôts, e:cwa:sa:tô, e:cwa:sa:tom: collegial.
  • e:cwa:sô, a:s: collegium.
  • esco:, e:sci:, estom, escom: to elicit, to receive, to demand, to ask.
  • e:tipo:, e:ti:pi:, e:tissom, e:tipom: to decide, to settle, to discern.
  • emo:, e:mi:, emptom, emom: to accept.
  • endenno:, endetenni:, endendom, endennom: to put in, to add, to reach.
  • enem: then, therefore, thus.
  • eneo:, enji:, enetom, enjom: to go in, to enter.
  • enom or enoc or enomec: then.
  • êreshlom, ô: shrine.
  • erje:s, erje:s, erje:te: aries, ram.
  • erhont (es+hont): same, the same.
  • eru:c: there.
  • erus, erurô: celebration, sacrifice.
  • ezhe: and then.
  • esoc: like this, this way.
  • eso:ns, eso:nô, eso:nom: holy, sacred.
  • eto:, eta:fi:, eta:tom, eta:wom: to go about, to attend, to attend regularly, to wander, to roam.
  • etants, etantô, etantom: so big, so much; usually followed by a completive.
  • e:wejeo:, e:we:ji:, e:we:tom, e:wejeom: to promise, to swear.
  • etsa:rjô, a:s: food, bait.
  • famezhjô, a:s: family.
  • fa:r, fa:r, fa:rre: far, wheat, spelt.
  • fa:rsjom, ô: spelt cake.
  • fashefel, fashefle: sacrifiable.
  • facjo:, fe:ci: or fa:ki:, fehtom, facom, imperative future fe:htom: to do, to give, to sacrifice, to make.
  • fahtom, ô: fact, concept, event.
  • fe:lîs, fe:ljô, fe:ljom: lactating.
  • feren, ferinô: coffin.
  • fero:, tetoli:, la:tom, ferrom: to take, to bring, to carry.
  • fesnô, a:s: shrine, temple.
  • fi:clô, a:s: cake.
  • fi:go:, fi:gli:, fihtom, fi:gom: to fasten, to fix, to pin, to stick.
  • fo:ns, fo:nô, fo:nom: favourable, nice, sympathetic, on good terms.
  • fra:ter, fra:ter, fra:tre: brother.
  • fra:trecs, fra:trecô, fra:trecom: brotherhoodly, about brotherhood.
  • fra:treca:s, fra:treca:ts: brotherhood, official post.
  • fri:go:, fri:gli:, frihtom, fri:gom: to fry, to roast, to cook.
  • fri:hs, fri:cs, fru:ge: crop.
  • fre:s, fre:ts: trust.
  • fro:so:, fro:sli:, fro:setom, fro:som: to defraud, to trick, to deceive.
  • fujo:, fehts som, fujom: to become; cognate with Latin fieri.
  • furfo:, furfa:fi:, furfa:tom, furfa:wom: to clean, to purge, to rinse, to sweep.
  • furom, ô: forum, square, market.
  • gomîs, gomjô, gomjom: pregnant, fertile.
  • habeo:, ha:bi:, habetom, habeom: to have, to stay, to mantain, to keep.
  • habi:ns, u:s: lamb.
  • hapo:, he:pi:, hahtom, hapom: to take, to catch, to seize.
  • herjo:, heri:fi:, heri:tom, herjom: to want, to wish.
  • herje:: or, in an inclusive sense (Latin vel).
  • hollo:, ho:li:, ho:tom, hollom: to delete, to cancel, to destroy.
  • homo, homons: person.
  • hondons, hondomô, hondomom: lowest, at the bottom.
  • hondra:: below.
  • honno:, ho:ni:, hondom, honnom: to ruin.
  • ho:stôts, ho:sta:tô, ho:sta:tom: armed with a spear, speared.
  • huntô, a:s: well, pit, water source.
  • jepi: or ife: there, then.
  • inemec: then, consequently.
  • jowîs, jowjô, jowjom: young.
  • isec: same one.
  • iseshetom, ô: insect.
  • itec: thus, so, this way.
  • ju:com, ô: plea, plead, prayer.
  • i:wengô, a:s: mares, female horses.
  • ma:letom, ô: flour.
  • mandra:clom, ô: towel.
  • manus, manu:s: hand.
  • me:fô, a:s: table; food.
  • me:nts, me:nts, me:ntse: month.
  • mers, mers, merse: right, law.
  • mersts, merstô, merstom: rightful, right, righteous, lawful, legal, proper, favourable, propitious, beneficial.
  • mersuûs, mersuwô, mersuwom: usual.
  • mêster, mestrô, mestrom: bigger, major, great.
  • mo:tô, a:s: fine, sanction, penalty.
  • mu:ga:wo:, mu:ga:fi:, mu:ga:tom, mu:ga:wom: to moo, to make a noise.
  • mu:neclom, ô: gift, duty.
  • na:rra:clom, ô: announcement, news, reading.
  • na:rra:wo:, na:rra:fi:, na:rra:tom, na:rra:wom: to narrate, to recount, to tell, to explain, to speak, to announce.
  • na:ti:n, na:ti:ns: nation, people.
  • azhhabeo:, azhha:bi:, azhhabitom, azhhabeom: to apply.
  • nepjo:, ne:pi:, nepi:tom, nepjom: to flood, to inundate, to fill.
  • nerf, nerf, nere: prince, nobleman.
  • nerter, nertrô, nertrom: left, left-hand.
  • nersa: until, until that, with the indicative or subjunctive.
  • nesime:: very closely.
  • ningwo:, ningli:, ninctom, ningwom: to pour on.
  • no:men, no:mnô: name.
  • noswe: unless.
  • nuns, nummu:s: coin.
  • o:car, ocre:s: mountain.
  • o:nsô, a:s: umerus, forearm.
  • o:serclom, ô: observatory.
  • opeo:, o:pi:, ope:tom, opeom: to choose, to pick, to elect.
  • orjor, orts som, ori:rom: to stand up.
  • ossa:wo:, ossa:fi:, ossa:tom, ossa:wom: to make, to operate, to produce.
  • os, os, osse: resources, labour.
  • ostenno:, ostetenni:, ostendom, ostennom: to show, to set out, to prepare, to furnish.
  • ôte: or, in an exclusive sense (Latin aut).
  • oûs, owe:s: sheep.
  • pa:ca: because of, with the genitive.
  • pa:cer, pa:cre: propitious, favourable.
  • pants, panda, pandom: how much?
  • pannu:pe: whenever, at any time.
  • parfô, a:s: owl.
  • pa:r, pa:re: equal, even.
  • pahs, pacs, pashe: peace.
  • pa:ter, pa:ter, pa:tre: father.
  • pi:cs, pi:cu:s: magpie.
  • peîs, pejô, pejom: black, dark; made of pitch.
  • pelmen, pelmnô: meat dish, meat.
  • pelsa:wo:, pelsa:fi:, pelsa:tom, pelsa:wom: to bury.
  • purco:, pepurci:, purcetom, purcom: to demand, to ask, to beg.
  • pecus, pecu:s: herd.
  • pera:cen, pera:cne: solemn.
  • pera:cer, pera:cre: optimal, well-preserved, functional.
  • percô, a:s: pole, stick.
  • perets, peretô, peretom: expert, skilled.
  • perna:îs, perna:jô, perna:jom: old, ancient, previous, placed in front.
  • perne: before.
  • persclom, ô: prayer, ritual, rite, sacrifice.
  • persnjor, persni:ts sum, persnjor: to pray.
  • personder, persondru:s: image, representation.
  • persco:, pepersci:, perscetom, perscom: to put, to set.
  • pertenno, pertetenni, pertendom, pertennom: to lean forward, to lean in.
  • pezha:îs, pezha:jô, pezha:jom: lying down, on the ground.
  • pes, pezhs: foot.
  • pezhom, ô: hole, trench.
  • peshetom, ô: sin.
  • pehtenôts, pehtena:tô, pehtena:tom: comb-shaped.
  • peturpuzhs, peturpuzhe: four-footed.
  • pija:clom, ô: repentance sacrifice.
  • pija:wo:, pija:fi:, pija:tom, pija:wom: to purify, to expiate.
  • pi:r, pi:rf, pu:re: fire.
  • pezhe: because, if, when.
  • pisher: whoever, declining as pisi+suffix -her.
  • pinso, pepisi:, pistom, pinsom: to grind, to crunch, to flatten, to beat.
  • ple:na:sîs, ple:na:sjô, ple:na:sjom: full, whole, wholesale, complete.
  • ple:ns, ple:nô, ple:nom: full.
  • po:ns, po:ne:s: flour or alternatively vinegar, wine.
  • po:nishôts, po:nisha:tu:s: servant, herald.
  • popel, poplu:s: people, nation.
  • porcs, porcu:s: pig.
  • porta:wo:, po:rti:, porta:tom, porta:wom: to bring, to carry.
  • pozhe: that, cognate with Latin quod.
  • post: after.
  • posti:: according to, depending on.
  • postpane: after that.
  • posna:îs, posna:jô, posna:jom: future, placed behind.
  • postne: afterwards.
  • poster, postrô, postrom: posterior.
  • pra:ca:wo:, pra:ca:fi:, pra:ca:tom, pra:ca:wom: to fence, to bound, to encircle.
  • prê: before.
  • prêhabeo:, prêha:bi:, prêhabitom, prêhabeom: to provide, to supply.
  • prêpa:: before that.
  • prêpersnjor, prêpersni:ts sum, prêpersni:rom: to evoke, to invoke.
  • prêplôta:wo:, prêplôta:fi:, prêplôta:tom, prêplôta:wom: to make noise with, to cheer.
  • prêter, prêtrô, prêtrom: prior.
  • pre:ve:: individually.
  • prêvenno:, prêve:ni:, prêvendom, prêvennom: to turn away.
  • prêwishla:wo:, prêwishla:fi:, prêwishla:tom, prêwishla:wom: to chain preventatively.
  • pri:nuwôts, pri:nuwa:tu:s: ambassador, deputy.
  • pro:cano:, pro:ca:ni:, pro:candom, pro:canom: to shout, to sing, to sing aloud.
  • pro:mom: first, firstly, at first.
  • profe:: well, appropriately.
  • pro:seca:wo:, pro:se:ci:, pro:seshetom, pro:seca:wom: to cut, to slice.
  • pro:seshô, a:s: organs.
  • pro:sico:, pro:si:ci:, pro:sihtom, pro:sicom: to announce.
  • pro:tsuzhs, pro:tsuzhe: able, capable, master.
  • po:nts, po:nte:s: group of five.
  • pordo:wjo:, pordo:winshi:, pordo:wi:tom, pordo:wjom: to present, to offer.
  • pordi:fel, pordi:fle: sacrifiable, acceptable.
  • rehte:: correctly.
  • resta:wo:, resta:fi:, resta:tom, resta:wom: to offer anew, to renew, to repropose.
  • rewiso:, rewi:si:, rewistom, rewisom: to return to, to revisit.
  • rufs, rufô, rufom: red, reddish, blonde.
  • ru:fer, ru:frô, ru:from: red.
  • sacer, sacre: holy, sacrificial.
  • sacrom, ô: sacrifice.
  • sa:l, sa:l, sa:le: salt.
  • salûs, salwô, salwom: safe.
  • sa:ns, sa:nô, sa:nom: healthy.
  • sarshi:te:: on all levels, completely.
  • sawjo:, sa:wi:, sawi:tom, sawjom: to beat, to wound, to shatter.
  • scalcs, scalcs, scalshe: cup, goblet, grail.
  • scaplô, a:s: shoulder.
  • scre:bo:, scre:bli:, scre:htom, scre:bom: to write.
  • se:menja:r, se:menja:rô: greenhouse, planthouse.
  • se:menîs, se:menjô, se:menjom: related to seeds.
  • scems, scemô, scemom: middle, half.
  • simplom, ô: simpulum.
  • sepse:: wholly.
  • serjo:, se:ri:, seri:tom, serjom: to preserve, to guard, to keep.
  • se:zhs, se:zhs, se:zhe: headquarters, place.
  • sezho:, se:zhi:, sezhetom, sezhom: to sit.
  • se:se:: straight, into, against.
  • sesto:, steti:, statom, sestom: to put, or to stay.
  • sewa:cen, sewa:cne: solemn, official.
  • se:ûs, se:wô, se:wom: all, complete, whole.
  • si:so:, sesi:, si:stom, si:som: to sit, to lean, to stop, to sit down.
  • snôts, sna:tô, sna:tom: wet.
  • sons, sommô, sommom: highest, peak.
  • sono:, so:ni:, sonetom, sonom: to make noisy, to make noise.
  • so:s, so:pô, so:pom: placed below, inferior.
  • sozha:l, sozha:le: related to pigs.
  • sozhs, sozhu:s: pig.
  • spa:ha:wo:, spa:fi:, spa:fom, spa:ha:wom: to throw.
  • spantîs, spantju:s: side.
  • spantes, spanteô, spanteom: lateral, to the side.
  • spe:fs, spe:fô, spe:fom: scattered, scattered about, wide.
  • spi:njô, a:s: column.
  • staca:wo:, staca:fi:, staca:tom, staca:wom: to decide, to settle, to rule.
  • stafla:r, stafla:re: related to farms.
  • sta:mô, a:s: position.
  • sta:mitom, ô: decision, law.
  • sta:wo:, steti:, statom, sta:wom: to stay, to stand.
  • sta:tita:wo:, sta:tita:fi:, sta:tita:tom, sta:tita:wom: to decide.
  • stipla:wor, stiplôts sum, stipla:rom: to swear, to solemnly promise.
  • strushlô, a:s: cake, bread.
  • subago:, sube:gi:, subahtom, subagom: to put down, to lay aside, to set down.
  • subboca:wo:, subboca:fi:, subboca:tom, subboca:wom: to call, to invoke.
  • subbocom, ô: invocation, call.
  • subra:: above.
  • suca:wo:, suca:fi:, suca:tom, suca:wom: to call out, to declare.
  • sumel: meanwhile, at the same time, while.
  • su:mo, su:lli:, su:ndom, su:mom: to take, to catch.
  • supro:se:se:: upwards.
  • suttenno:, suttetenni, suttendom, suttennom: to substitute, to put below.
  • swi:sewe, swi:sewjô: pot.
  • shersjô, a:s: banquet, party.
  • shersna:wor, shersnôts sum, shersna:rom: to dine.
  • shersnô, a:s: dinner.
  • shi:hts, shi:htô, shi:htom: encircled, girded.
  • shi:hshezhom, ô: gate.
  • shi:mo:: backwards.
  • shi:we: on this side.
  • taflô, a:s: table.
  • tapiste:ns, tapiste:nu:s: heater, heated pot.
  • tashets, tashetô, tashetom: silent.
  • tefer, tefru:s: flame, hearth.
  • tehtezhîs, tehtezhju:s: coverage, blanket, protection.
  • teneo:, te:ni:, tendom, teneom: to keep, to hold.
  • derco:, dederci:, dercetom, dercom: to vote.
  • termna:wo:, termna:fi:, termna:tom, termna:wom: to terminate, to put to an end.
  • termnom, ô: term, end.
  • dica:men, dica:mnô: devotion.
  • dishel, dishlu:s: guarantee, grant, devolution.
  • dishi:t: to be appropriate, Latin decet; takes an accusative+infinitive.
  • tocs, toccô, toccom: salted, with salt.
  • to:tecs, to:tecô, to:tecom: urban.
  • tôr, tôru:s: ox.
  • to:tô, a:s: town, city.
  • tra:f: on the other side of.
  • tra:worfi:: tilted, transversely.
  • trebeo:, tetrebi:, trebe:tom, trebeom: to be in, to be located at.
  • tremjo:, tetremi:, tremi:tom, tremjom: to scare, to startle, to cause to shiver.
  • tre:men, tre:mnu:s: tent.
  • tribzhisho:, tribzhisho:ns: a group of three.
  • trifus, trifu:s: tribe.
  • tu:der, tu:derô: end.
  • tu:dera:wo:, tu:dera:fi:, tu:dera:tom, tu:dera:wom: to end.
  • dupla:c, dupla:cô: pitchfork, stake.
  • terreo:, teterri:, terre:tom, terreom: to scare, to push out, to push away.
  • ôhto:r, ôhto:r, ôhto:re: author.
  • ummen, umnô: oil, fat.
  • ummo:, u:mmi:, undom, ummom: to oil.
  • urna:sîs, urna:sjô, urna:sjom: related to urns.
  • ozheo:, o:zhi:, ozhtom, ozheom: to burn, to turn into smoke.
  • usti:s, usti:ts: storm.
  • u:tor, u:trô: water.
  • wa:pes, wa:pezhs: tack.
  • va:potom, ô: incense.
  • was, wassô: flaw.
  • wa:s, wa:su:s: vase, pot.
  • wassets, wassetô, wassetom: flawed.
  • wa:ter, wa:trô, wa:trom: extar, for the organs.
  • watus, watuô: organ.
  • welo:, welli:, we:tom, welom: to pick, to choose.
  • werpensunter, werpensuntrô, werpensuntrom: fake, ficticious.
  • wepura:wo:, wepura:fi:, wepura:tom, wepura:wom: to set off, to turn off.
  • wepurs, wepurô, wepurom: without fire.
  • werfa:le, werfa:ljô: temple.
  • wers, weru:s: door.
  • wesclom, ô: small pot, small vase.
  • westica:wo:, westica:fi:, westica:tom, westica:wom: to offer a sacrifice.
  • westîs, westjô, westjom: sacrificial.
  • westishô, a:s: sacrifice.
  • veto:, ve:ti:, vettom, vetom: to distribute, to share, to splice, to divide, to slice.
  • wiô, a:s: road.
  • wi:nom, ô: wine.
  • wir, wiru:s: man.
  • witel, witlu:s: lamb.
  • wo:cs, wo:cu:s: house.
  • wo:som, ô: vote, promise.
  • wo:fets, wo:fetô, wo:fetom: consacrated.
  • wo:fer, wo:frô, wo:from: votive.
  • werto:, worti:, wortom, wertom: to change.
  • wowo:, wo:wi:, wo:wetom, wowom: to wash.


The following terms have been coined either by adaptation from Latin or by development into Umbrian of an Indo-European root.

  • bacclom, ô: stick, pole, cognate with Latin baculum.
  • bels, blô, blom: strong, from PIE *bel- via *blós.
  • fos, fodu:s: pleasure, from PIE *bhed- via *bhodós.
  • fodo:, fo:di:, fossom, fodom: to dig, cognate with Latin fodio.
  • fas, fas, fafe: grave, from PIE *bhedh2- via *bhedh2s.
  • fegjo:, fe:gi:, fehsom, fegjom: to destroy, from PIE *bheg- via *bhégyeti.
  • fohs, fogô, fogom: bad, unfortunate, damaging, from PIE *bheg- via *bhógos.
  • fohmen, fohmnô: fragment, smithereen, from PIE *bheg- via *bhógsmn.
  • fohts, fohtô, fohtom: despaired, unfortunate, unlucky, from PIE *bheg- via *bhógtos.
  • fa:wa:wo:, fa:wa:fi:, fa:wa:tom, fa:wa:wom: to heat up, to excite, cognate with Latin faveo.
  • fa:ns, fa:nu:s: glitter, shine, twinkle, from PIE *bheh2- via *bhéh2nos.
  • fa:mô, a:s: voice, cognate with Latin fama.
  • fateo:r, fôts som, faterom: to speak, cognate with Latin fateor.
  • fulgo:, fefulgi:, fu:tom, fulgom: to light up, to shine, to be vigorous, cognate with Latin fulgeo.
  • flagrjo:, flagri:fi:, flagri:tom, flagrjom: to cook, cognate with Latin flagro.
  • flammô, flamma:s: flame, cognate with Latin flamma.
  • fla:wo:, fla:fi:, fla:tom, fla:wom: to swell up, to explode, cognate with Latin flo.
  • fols, folle:s: ball, cognate with Latin follis.
  • folgeo:, fofolgi:, fo:tom, folgeom: to support, cognate with Latin fulcio.
  • fals, fallu:s: bag, sack, from PIE *bhelg'h via *bhólg'hos.
  • funfô, a:s: sling, cognate with Latin funda.
  • fa:nsus, fa:nsu:s: pact, covenant, from PIE *bhendh- via *bhndhtús.
  • frigo:, fri:gi:, frihtom, frigom: to chirp, cognate with Latin frigutio.
  • fordu:nô, a:s: good luck, cognate with Latin fortuna.
  • fru:so:, fru:so:ns: breast, from PIE *bher- via *bhréwson.
  • forgjo:, forgi:fi:, forgi:tom, forgjom: to rise, from PIE *bherg'h- via *bhorg'heyeti.
  • forts, forte: strong, cognate with Latin fortis.
  • fortus, u:s: magic, spell, from PIE *bherg'h- via *bhrg'htus.
  • fera:wo:, fera:fi:, fera:tom, fera:wom: to wound, cognate with Latin ferio.
  • fo:reo:, fofo:ri:, fo:re:tom, foreom: to pierce, cognate with Latin foro.
  • far, far, farre: emmer wheat, cognate with Latin far.
  • fors, forsu:s: top point, from PIE *bhers- via *bhrsós.
  • farsi:nô, a:s: flour, cognate with Latin farina.
  • funfo:, fu:fi:, funtsom, funfom: to proclaim, from PIE *bhewdh- via *bhwndheti.
  • fo:fs, fo:fu:s: admonishment, warning, from PIE *bhewdh- via *bhowdos.
  • fufom, fufô:, will, force of will, from PIE *bhewdh- via *bhwdom.
  • fugjo, fu:gi:, fugetom, fugjom: to flee, cognate with Latin fugio.
  • funga:wo:, funga:fi:, funga:tom, funga:wom: to break, from PIE *bhewgh- via *bhungheh2ti.
  • fêfs, fêfô, fêfom: trusted, cognate with Latin fidus.
  • fil, filô, filom: lovely, from PIE *bheyl- via *bhilos.
  • fleo:, fle:nshi:, fle:tom, fleom: to weep, to cry, cognate with Latin fleo.
  • flo:s, flo:rf, flo:re: flower, cognate with Latin flos.
  • foljom, ô: leaf, cognate with Latin folium.
  • flowo:, flo:wi:, flo:tom, flowom: to flow, cognate with Latin fluo.
  • frodjo:, fro:di:, frossom, frodjom: to struggle, from PIE *bhredh- via *bhrodhéyeti.
  • frango, fre:gi:, frahtom, frangom: to break, to be broken, cognate with Latin frango.
  • fragrjo, fragri:fi:, fragri:tom, fragrjom: to have a strong odour, cognate with Latin fragro.
  • frammen, framnô: fart, from PIE *bhreHg- via *bhreHgmén.
  • frans, frannô, frannom: decomposing, rotting, from PIE *bhreHg- via *bhreHgnós.
  • frahsa:wo:, frahsa:fi:, frahsa:tom, frahsa:wom: to patrol, cognate with Latin fraxo.
  • farceo:, fefarci:, farce:tom, farceom: to fill, to cram, cognate with Latin farcio.
  • fremo:, fre:mi:, fremetom, fremom: to mutter, cognate with Latin fremo.
  • ferwjo:, ferwi:fi:, ferwi:tom, ferwjom: to boil, cognate with Latin ferveo.
  • ferumendom, ô: yeast, cognate with Latin fermentum.
  • frutom, ô, grapemust, cognate with Latin defrutum.
  • fru:tus, u:s: rash, from PIE *bhrewH- via *bhrùHtus.
  • ferûs, ferwu:s: stew, from PIE *bhrewH- via *bherHwos.
  • frustom, ô: piece, cognate with Latin frustum.
  • frusa:wo:, frusa:fi:, frusa:tom, frusa:wom: to shatter, from PIE *bhrews- via *bhruséh2eti.
  • frjo:, fri:fi:, fri:tom, frjom: to crumble, to make into crumbs, cognate with Latin frio.
  • damnom, ô: damage, cognate with Latin damnom.
  • doceo:, do:ci:, docetom, doceom: to teach, cognate with Latin doceo.
  • degen, degnô, degnom: worthy, cognate with Latin dignus.
  • disco, didici:, discom: to learn, cognate with Latin disco.
  • dolo:r, dolo:r, dolo:re: pain, cognate with Latin dolor.
  • doljo, doli:fi:, doli:tom, doljom: to hurt, cognate with Latin doleo.
  • damnîs, damnju:s: material, substance, from PIE *dem- via *dmnyos.
  • doma:wo:, doma:fi:, doma:tom, doma:wom: to tame, cognate with Latin domo.
  • doren, dornu:s: part, from PIE *der- via *drnos.
  • dorcô, a:s: front, frontal part, from PIE *derk'- via *drk'eh2.
  • du:co:, dedu:ci:, duhtom, du:com: to pull, cognate with Latin duco.
  • dêns, dênô, dênom: quick, swift, from PIE *deyh1- via *deyh1nòs.
  • dihts, dihtu:s: finger, cognate with Latin digitus.
  • dormjo:, dormi:fi:, dormi:tom, dormjom: to sleep, cognate with Latin dormio.
  • di:rs, di:rô, di:rom: unlucky, cognate with Latin dirus.
  • foweo:, fo:wi:, fowe:tom, foweom: to warm up, to boil, cognate with Latin foveo.
  • fefs, fefe:s: flame, from PIE *dhegwh- via *dhegwhis.
  • fefer, fefre:s: fever, cognate with Latin febris.
  • faclô, a:s: assembly, from PIE *dheh1- via *dhh1tleh2.
  • do, dedi:, datom, da:wom: to give, cognate with Latin do.
  • swefo:, swe:fi:, swetom, swefom: to usually do, cognate with Latin soleo.
  • fe:manô, a:s: woman, cognate with Latin femina.
  • fe:ts, fe:tô, fe:tom: pregnant, cognate with Latin fetus.
  • fe:nom, ô: hay, cognate with Latin fenom.
  • fe:li:hs, fe:li:ce: happy, cognate with Latin felix.
  • fêlîs, fêlju:s: son, cognate with Latin filius.
  • fe:ljo:, fefe:li:, fe:li:tom, feljom: to suckle, cognate with Latin fello.
  • fo:f, fo:f, fonte: source, cognate with Latin fons.

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