Arvernian (English: /ˈɑɹvɛrniən, -vɝniən/, Arvernian: [arˈverna]), also known as lengua arverna (Arvernian: [leŋwa arˈverna]) by its native speakers, is a Romance language spoken in southeastern France, Monaco, and northwestern Italy, as well as northern Cuba and the southeastern United States (particularly Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and the Carolinas); collectively, these regions are sometimes referred to as Arvernia (L'Arvernia).

Arvernian is one of the official languages of the United State. For this reason, the aforementioned states are known as L'Acila, or colloquially by English-speakers as Arverica. The situation is often referred to as "America's Quebec." Despite the distance and time between dialects of Arvernian, they remain entirely intelligible with one another and the differences have been compared to British and American accents. However, because Arvernian enjoys no official status in France and negligible recognition elsewhere, American Arvernian has become the global standard and the regulatory body, L'Academia da Lengua Arverna (ALA), is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.

Classification and Dialects[edit | edit source]

American Arvernian (Arverna americana)[edit | edit source]

American Standard Arvernian (Arvernian Standard de America), or ASA, is the official standard of the language by virtue of having the largest number of speakers by far. Despite this official status, which primarily applies to spelling conventions and other formalities, colloquial American Arvernian contains a number of loans, especially from English and the indigenous languages (Cherokee and Muskogee, primarily), as well as some neologisms, which are not considered standard by L'Academia. Some examples of these include:

ASA colloquial Am. Ar. meaning
astaho lahosta del mar' lobster
lihermente na ombra de slightly
pesce acola fish
ruza pinc pink
unòre ahudi hello

American Arvernian also takes a number grammatical structures from American English, which are not found outside of the United States and are proscribed by the ALA. Unlike the aforementioned examples, these grammatical developments are considered a part of the larger American Standard. For example, the T-V distinction in ASA is much less important than in European varieties. The pronoun is used primarily for strangers, bosses (though this is falling out of favor), military commanders, and professionals. It is never used to address family members, however old or distinguished, people that are well-known to the speaker, or in mass communication, such as advertisements or PSAs (Portà to masqua, not Portà vustra masqua, BUT Portà vustrà masque is okay). Virtual assistants like Siri and phone language settings now have an option to change from the default to tu after users expressed discomfort at being viewed so formally. Learners are often taught the humorous adage "If it's meeting two, you'd better use tu."

Mediterranean Arvernian (Arverna del Meiterràneo)[edit | edit source]

Mediterranean Arvernian is not under any standard, but does typically follow ALA conventions. As prescribed by the ALA's internal constitution, 20% of its staff must be European or Caribbean speakers, though only 4% are Caribbean compared to 19% European. Like colloquial American Arvernian, Mediterranean Arvernian dialects diverge from the standard in vocabulary. Generally speaking, while earlier borrowings were from northern Italian dialects and Occitan, modern Mediterranean Arvernian takes mostly from standard French and, to a lesser extent, standard Italian. Some examples of these differences include:

ASA Mediterranean Arvernian meaning
stasiondò parking, parquing parking lot
giamba geome leg
chaple capello hat
sostàne suchene bra

Caribbean Arvernian (Arverna de Cuba/Arverna Cubana)[edit | edit source]

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Stop b p t d k ʔ
Fricative ð s z ʃ ʒ
Affricate t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximant j w
Trill r~ɾ
Lateral app. l

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High
Near-high
High-mid
Mid
Low-mid
Near-low
Low

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Writing System[edit | edit source]

Letter Aa Àà Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Ll Mm
Sound Initial /a/ /eː/ /b/ /k/ /d/ /e/; /ə/ /f/ /g/[1] /∅/ /i/; /ɪ/ /l/ /m/
Medial /e/; /ə/ /ʔ/ /i/; /ɪ/ /l/, /ɫ/[2]
Final /∅/; /e/ n/a /i/ /l/
Before i n/a /s/ n/a /d͡ʒ/ n/a
Letter Nn Oo Òò Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Yy Zz
Sound Initial /n/ /o/ /wa/ /p/ /k/ /r~ɾ/ /s/ /t/ /u/; /w/ /v/ variable /z/
Medial /o/; /ə/ /r/ /s/; /z/
Final /o/ /ɾ/ /s/ /u/
Before i /ɲ/ n/a /ð/ /ʃ/ n/a /ʒ/

[1] Very rare in native words, usually found in loans or recent Latin additions.

[2] The /ɫ/ phoneme is found in all positions in American Arvernian.

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Arvernian nouns have two possible genders (masculine and feminine) and two numbers (singular and plural) and nouns often follow their natural gender. Gender only determines adjective and/or article agreement. Consider the following table, which divides the words into their pluralization paradigms, rather than by gender (with the definite article).

o/e/à/C-paradigm
singular plural

chafto m. "roof"

le chafto i chafti
pesce m. "fish" le pesce i pesci
beità f. "beauty" la beità à beiti
a/ò-paradigm
singular plural

cucina f. "kitchen"

la cucina à cucine

m. "fire"

le vò i vue

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Conjugation of dire "to say"
infinitive dire
/dir/
auxiliary verb gerund dicendò
/disendwa/
present participle dicante past participle difto
/dikant/ /difto/
person singular plural
first second third first second third
indicative eo tu el/ella

ello
present dicò dices dici dicimo dicete dicion
/dikwa/ /dises/ /disi/ /disimo/ /disete/ /dison/
progressive a la dicendò
/a la disendwa/
past perfect dicevò dicevas diceva dicevamo dicevate dicevan
/disevwa/ /disevas/ /diseva/ /disevamo/ /disevate/ /disevan/
future vam dire ves dire ve dire vemo dire vete dire ven dire
/vam dir/ /ves dir/ /ve dir/ /vemo dir/ /vet dir/ /ven dir/
future progressive vam a la dicendò ves a la dicendò ve a la dicendò vemo a la dicendò vete a la dicendò ven a la dicendò
/vam a la disendwa/ /ves a la disendwa/ /ve a la disendwa/ /vemo a la disendwa/ /vet a la disendwa/ /ven a la disendwa/
conditional eo tu el/ella

ello
present dicer diceres dicedor dicemor diceder dicentor
/diser/ /diseres/ /disedor/ /disemor/ /diseder/ /disentor/
subjunctive eo tu el/ella

ello
present dicà dicàs dicàt dicàmo dicàte dicànt
/dikeː/ /dikeːs/ /dikeːt/ /dikeːmo/ /dikeːt/ /dikeːnt/
imperative eo tu el/ella

ello
- dicà - - dicàte -
- /dikeː/ - - /dikeːt/ -
infinitive essere
/ɛsɛr/
auxiliary verb
present participle
person singular plural
first second third first second third
indicative eo tu el/ella ello
present so es è somo/som' si son
progressive
past perfect
future
future progressive
conditional eo tu el/ella ello
present
subjunctive eo tu el/ella ello
present
imperative eo tu el/ella ello

Syntax[edit | edit source]

Lexicon[edit | edit source]

Example text[edit | edit source]

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