Asglian
Asglëis t‘ił
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
left
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General Information[edit | edit source]

Asglian (Asglëis t‘ił /ʔə̤skɺɛ̤jʃ t’iɬʲ/) is a language spoken by the Cittus, insect-looking sapients from the planet Cittus-V.

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

alveolar dorsal laryngeal
simple palatalized simple palatalized
tenuis t k ʔ
aspirate tʲʰ kʲʰ
ejective t’ t’ʲ k’ k’ʲ
fricative s ɬ ʃ ɬʲ ħ h
approximant ɹ ʎ ɰ j
flap ɺ
unpalatalized palatalized unpalatalized palatalized
t k
tʲʰ kʲʰ
t’ t’ʲ k’ k’ʲ
s ʃ ɬ ɬʲ
ɺ ʎ ɰ j
  • /ʔ/, /ħ/, /h/, and /ɹ/ are unpalatalized without any palatalized counterparts.

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Central Back
High ʲi (ʲɪ) (ɯ̽) ɯ
Low ɛ (ə) (ʲə) ʌ ʲʌ
  • The vowels in parenthesis are reduced vowels which only appear in unstressed syllables.
  • Diphthongs are /ɯj/, /ɛj/, /ɛɰ/, /ʌj/, /ʌɰ/, /ʲʌj/, /ʲʌɰ/. They are only found in stressed syllables.

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

C(C)V(F)

  • Final consonants allowed are /s/, /ʃ/, /ɬ/, /ɬʲ/, /ħ/, /ɹ/, /ʔ/, /ɺ/, and /ʎ/.
  • Consonants labeled "palatalized" can only occur before the palatalizing vowels: /ʲʌ/, /ʲi/, /ʲɪ/, or /ʲə/; before another "palatalized" consonant; or on the end of a word after /ʲʌ/, /ʲi/, /ʲɪ/, /ʲə/, or /j/.
  • Nonpalatalized consonants (except for the glottal stop /ʔ/) cannot occur before palatalized ones, before a palatalizing vowel, or after a word final /ʲi/, /ʲɪ/, or /j/.

Phonation[edit | edit source]

While Asglian has no phonemic tone, it does have phonemic phonation. There are three distinguished phonations: modal, breathy, and creaky. Reduced vowels obtain the phonation of their neighboring vowels.

Phonation Example 1 Example 2
Modal ji "in" kʲʰʌɰ "bright"
Breathy ji̤ "sky" kʲʰʌ̤ɰ "child"
Creaky jḭ "coin" kʲʌ̰ɰ "weapon"

Parts of Speech[edit | edit source]

  • Nouns: person, place, or thing
  • Pronouns: pro-forms of nouns
  • Adjectives/Adverb: descriptors
  • Postpositions: signify various nominal functions, ex. i "in"
  • Attitudinals: marks attitude
  • Aspectual particles: marks grammatical aspect
  • Verbs: closed class with very basic meanings
  • Coverbs: open class with very specific meanings
  • Ideophones: invoke ideas in sound

Word order[edit | edit source]

Subject-Adverb-Coverb-Verb-Postpositional phrase-Object-Particles

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Plurality[edit | edit source]

Plurality formed by reduplication, not used if a quantity is provided.

  • kyäu /kʲʰʌ̤ɰ/ "child" > kyakyäu /kʲʰə̤kʲʰʌ̤ɰ/ "children"

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

sg pl
1 łui łułui
2 ħãu ħaħãu
3 de dede

Adjectives and Adverbs[edit | edit source]

Adjectives are always placed before the noun they modify, whereas adverbs are always placed before the coverb or after the object or verb, this difference in placement is the only way to distinguish the two.

  • kyau ĩ t‘it‘ïs e. "The bright coin shimmered." vs. ĩ kyau t‘it‘ïs e. "The coin shimmered brightly"

Verbs and Coverbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs[edit | edit source]

There are only fifty-odd verbs in Asglian. Verbs typically have very broad meanings, for example yã’ "come, go, move".

Coverbs[edit | edit source]

There are many more coverbs in Asglian and they have much more specific meanings which can be further influenced by the verb they accompany.

Particles[edit | edit source]

Attudinals[edit | edit source]

Asglians end most spoken sentences with particles which serve emotional purposes, some of these purposes are:

  • assert a point: sãu
  • emphasize obviousness:
  • emphasize unimportance:
  • ask a question:
  • ask for agreement:
  • express anger:
  • express disbelief:
  • express pity:
  • express lamentation:

Aspectual particles[edit | edit source]

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