Lingúe asijamano
Spoken in: Slovenia, Malta, Italy
Total speakers: 75,000
Language family: Indo-European
Writing system: Latin (Asiamano alphabet)
Asiamano Braille 
Official status
Official language of: Italy
European Union
Regulated by: International Institute of the Asiamano Language
Language codes
ISO 639-1: as
ISO 639-2: asi
ISO 639-3:

Asiamano (Asijamano) is a constructed language prominent in Italy, Malta, and Slovenia, while also serving as an unofficial language of the European Union. Asiamano is descended from the Italian language. About 25% of the vocabulary is Italian loanwords, while the other 75% is a mixture of Maltese and Slovene vocabulary with occasional borrowings from other Indo-European languages. It is written using the Latin script, and is unique among Italic languages for having five major cases and a dual number (an attribute inherited from Slovene), and has the infinite fourth person (not inherited from any language). Otherwise, the grammar is based on Italian grammar and syntax.



As of the current era, there are an estimated 75,000 native Asiamano speakers, of whom 70,000 currently reside in Malta, Slovenia, and Italy. Most of the native speakers reside in Ljubljana and Valletta, and are children of the first students of the language. The Slovenian native speakers of Asiamano are natively bilingual in both Asiamano and Slovene, while the Maltese native speakers are natively trilingual in Maltese, English, and Asiamano, and usually speak fluent Italian as a second language. There are small pockets of Asiamano speakers in Naples, Palermo, and Venice (it is a recognized language in the latter two cities). Around 5,000 of the native speakers live outside of those three countries, primarily southern France and Switzerland.


Asiamano is a Romance language descended from modern Italian, but has extreme influences by Maltese and Slovene. Today, the core vocabulary is a mixture of all three languages, roughly 25% Italian, 30% Maltese, 30% Slovene, and 15% other languages. Asiamano does not have any native singular nominative words other than slang, and depends on other languages for new vocabulary.


Although Slovene has a large vowel system, Asiamano has only one phonemic value per vowel, so the pronunciation of Slovene words do change. Maltese's /ɐ/ shifts to an Italian /a/.


Consonant phonemes
Bilabial Labio-
Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop p b t d k g ʔ
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ʁ ħ
Trill r
Approximant l j w



Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɔ
Open a


/ɐʊ, ɐɪ, ɛʊ, ɛɪ, ɪʊ, ɔɪ, ɔʊ/ /a3 ac ec oI ou uI ja je jc jo ju wa we wi wo wc/

j- w-
ja wa
ɛɪ ɛʊ ɛɔ
jo wo
ɔɪ ɔʊ


Stress is strictly on the penultimate syllable, unless if the grave accent (on à è ì ò ù) or circumflex (on ô) is added.



The Asiamano alphabet is based on the Italian alphabet. It was the only orthographic system ever used for the language. Below is the Asiamano alphabet, with IPA symbols.

Letter Name IPA
A a a a
B b bei b
C c cei ʧ
D d dei d
E e e ɛ
F f eff f
G g gei g
Gz gz gzei ʤ
H h ho ʁ
I i i i
J j jot j
K k kei k
L l ellei l
Lh lh elhei /j/ (initial and final)
/lj/ (medial)
M m emmi m
N n enni n
Nh nh ennhi ɲ
O o o o
Ó ó ó ɔ
P p pei p
' 'oti ʔ
R r rais r
S s sais s
Sh sh shin ʃ
T t ti t
U u u u
Ú ú wei w
V v vei v
Z z zei z
Ź ź źei ʦ
Zh zh zhei ʒ

The grave accent can be seen on stressed vowels (à, è, ì, ò, ù) outside of the normal stress position. The circumflex (a orthographic combination of the acute and grave accents) is seen on a stressed version of ó (ô). These are mainly seen in Italian loanwords, like università (university).

There are also several loan letters from native German words and words of German origin in Slovene.

Letter Name IPA
Ä ä a umlót æ
Ö ö o umlót ø
Ü ü u umlót y


This language is unique in that it lacks any native singular nominative words (its declensions and dualization/pluralization are unique to the language), it is made completely of loanwords, mostly from Italian, Slovene, and Maltese, although French loanwords are on the rise.

The historical source of modern Asiamano vocabulary is 25% Italian, 30% Slovene, 30% Maltese, 7% French, and much of the remaining 3% English and Portuguese. Most of the function words are Maltese and Italian words.


An analysis of the etymology of the 47,500 words in Serbin's Asiamano-Italian Dictionary shows that words of Romance origin make up 25% of the Asiamano vocabulary, with spelling differences to convey the proper sound in a different orthography. They are mostly derived from standard Italian.

Maltese Italian Slovene Asiamano English
skola scuola šola skúola school
gvern governo vlata governo government
repubblika repubblica republika repubblika republic
re re kralj re king
ħabib amico prijatelj amiko friend
fjura flore cvet flore flower
ors orso medved orso bear

It is tendency in modern Asiamano to adopt words from Italian, but this is quickly being replaced by French and Portuguese.


Slovene is a huge source of Asiamano loanwords, totaling around 30% of all vocabulary.

Maltese Italian Slovene Asiamano English
natura natura narava narava nature
siġġu sedia stol stol chair
ħalib latte mleko mleko milk
qmis camicia srajca sraiźa shirt
ilma acqua voda voda water
id mano roka roka hand
flus denaro denar denar money


Maltese and Slovene make up almost equal amounts of Asiamano vocabulary.

Maltese Italian Slovene Asiamano English
kteib libro knjiga kteib book
televixin televizione televizija televishin television
nar fuoco ogenj nar fire
lingwa lingua jezik lingúa language
qattus gatto maček 'attus cat
aħmar rosso rdeč ahmar red
laħam carne meso laham meat

French, English, Portuguese, and German[]

Around 7% of all Asiamano words, mostly recent ones pertaining to technology and political terms, are formed from these four languages. French loanwords drop their diacritics and are phoneticized. English, German, and Portuguese words are phoneticized. English words can take on an umlaut (ä) for pronunciation. German words keep umlauts but "ß" is changed to "ss". Portuguese words take on a hybrid European and Brazilian phonology (words such as "principalmente" are pronounced /prin∫ipalmenʧi/ and are Asiamanocized as "prinshipalmenci").

French English Portuguese German Asiamano
téléphone phone telefono Telefon telefonu
pile battery pilha Batterie bäteri
ampoule light bulb lâmpada Glühbirne ampul
conduit pipe cano Rohr paip
qattus gatto maček 'attus right (political)
droite right (political) direita konservativ konservativ
gauche left (political) esquerda link eskeirda


Asiamano grammar is fairly regular and simple, like Italian.

Adjectives and adverbs[]

Adjectives follow nouns and are dual/pluralized as necessary. Maltese adjectives lack the definite article (lei flore ahmar as opposed to lei flore lei ahmar).


Nouns can be dualized and pluralized, as well as declined into five different cases. Only the nominative singular forms of verbs are native to the language; its declension rules are unique but simple, but depend on the language of origin. Nouns are genderless, but are divided into three different categories for declension and dual/pluralization: Italian loanwords, Slovene loanwords, and other loanwords (including Maltese). Italian dual/pluralizations ar the most true to their native form.

Words of Romance origin are usually pluralized in two manners: addition of -i or -jiet. For example, lingwa, lingwi "languages", from Sicilian lingua, lingui.

Type A: Italian Loanword Declensions

Italian nouns end in a, e, or o. There is a special declension system for each.

Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative governo governe governi
Accusative governom governem governim
Genitive governodie governedie governidie
Dative governove governeve governivi
Prepositional governoci governeci governici

Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative flore floru flori
Accusative florem florum florim
Genitive floredie florudie floridie
Dative floreve floruve florivi
Prepositional floreci floruci florici

Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative kasa kasu kase
Accusative kasam kasum kasem
Genitive kasadie kasudie kasedie
Dative kasave kasuve kasevi
Prepositional kasaci kasuci kaseci

Type B: Slovene Loanword Declensions

Slovene nouns are classified by whether they end with a consonant or a vowel. Furthermore, consonant-final words are classified differently if the end in b, g, k, lh, m, n, nh, p, or ź.

Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative roka roka rokasi
Accusative rokam rokasóm rokasim
Genitive rokadie rokasódie rokasidie
Dative rokave rokasóve rokasive
Prepositional rokaci rokasóci rokasici

Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative stol stoló stoli
Accusative stolm stolóm stolim
Genitive stoldie stolódie stolidie
Dative stolve stolóve stolive
Prepositional stolci stolóci stolici

Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative brlog brlogúo brlogis
Accusative brlogm brlogúom brlogism
Genitive brlogdie brlogúodie brlogisdie
Dative brlogve brlogúove brlogisve
Prepositional brlogci brlogúoci brlogisci

Type C: Other Loanword Declensions

These words are declined the same way regardless of whether they end in a vowel or a consonant.

Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative telefonu telefonue telefonua
Accusative telefonum telefonuem telefonuam
Genitive telefonudie telefonuedie telefonuam
Dative telefonuve telefonueve telefonuave
Prepositional telefonuci telefonueci telefonuaci


The singular definite article for non-Slovene words is lei, the dual article is lha, and the plural article is li. The indefinite articles, number regardless, are un (before a vowel) and uni (before a consonant).


  • lei flore, lha floru, li flori
  • lei ragatźa, lha ragatźu, li ragatźa
  • uni laham, uni lahama
  • lei 'attus, lha 'attuse, li 'attusa

The definite articles for Slovene words are the suffixes -et and -t, for consonant-final and vowel-final words respectively. The indefinite article is zhe.


  • zhe mleko, mlekot
  • zhe voda, vodat
  • zhe denar, denaret
  • zhe roka, rokat


Verb infinitives end in -i, and are formed from a mix of Slovene verbs, Italian -ire verbs, and Portuguese -ir verbs. There are no copulas. Verbs are conjugated by person and number.

Indicative Verbs Present Pretirite Imperfect Future
1st sing. -o -ersi -ivo -irô
2nd sing. -i -isti -ivi -irai
3rd sing. -e -erse -iva -irà
1st & 4th dual/plu. -iamo -immo -ivamo -iremo
2nd dual/plu. -ite -iste -ivate -irete
3rd dual/plu. -ono -ersero -ivano -iranno
Conditional Verbs Present
1st sing. -irei
2nd sing. -iresti
3rd sing. -irebbe
1st & 4th dual/plu. -iremmo
2nd plu. -ireste
3rd plu. -irebbero


As a minor constructed language, there are only a few dialects. The standard dialect is the original dialect, created and spoken in Naples. There is a Maltese dialect, a Venetian/Slovene dialect, and a Riviera dialect (southern France). Since the language is not very widely spoken, these dialects are quite similar and mutually intelligible. The Riviera dialect is the most unique of all of the varieties, with a larger incorporation of French, Monégasque, and German words and a smaller incorporation of Maltese. Orthographic diacritics change in different regions, usually with the letters c, sh, zh, and ź, to fit in better with the local language. The letter "h" also has different pronunciations in different areas.


There are currently two international newspapers printed in Asiamano: Okosó and Lei Karnival. Okosó is an opinion and current events paper sold throughout Northern Italy and Slovenia, but having some extent in Malta. It is based in Maribor and was founded in 2008. Lei Karnival is a celebrity and entertainment newspaper based in Qormi, sold in major Italian cities and Valletta, but having almost no influence in Slovenia. They are both biweekly editions, sold for €3 apiece. Due to growing unpopularity and lawsuits, Lei Karnival is soon to merge with a Maltese newspaper and be printed in Maltese rather than Asiamano.


The language already is, in a sense, a three-way code switch. Most natives use the language while travelling abroad, using Italian as a secondary language. Usually, Italian words replace the language that isn't that of the person's homeland (i.e. a Maltese person in Italy would code-switch in an Asiamano creole with a larger dominance of Italian words and less Slovene words).

See also[]

  • Dictionary
  • Grammar Charts and Rules
  • Kobot
  • Randot




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  • Bugeja, Kaptan Pawlu, Kelmet il-Malti (Maltese—English, English—Maltese Dictionary). Associated News Group, Floriana. 1999.
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External links[]


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