Progress 75%
Asitane
not yet
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Active-stative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General information[edit | edit source]

This is a work in progress. More to come later.

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p r k
Fricative ɸ f θ s x h
Trill ʀ
Approximant ɹ
Lateral fric. ɬ
Lateral app. l

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Vowels are distinguished by length, short and long.

Front Near-front Central Back
Close i  y ɯ  u
Mid e  ø ɤ  o
Open a ɒ

Orthography[edit | edit source]

The residents of Asitane during this period had no writing system. I will thus use the Latin alphabet with the following correspondence:

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n nh
Plosive p r k
Fricative ph f th s x h
Trill r
Approximant rh
Lateral fric. lh
Lateral app. l
Front Near-front Central Back
Close i  iu w  u
Mid e  eu o  ou
Open a au

Long vowels are represented by a doubled vowel.

Phonotactics Syllables adhere to the pattern CV(N), where N is any consonant except plosives and /ɹ/. Vowels may be short or long.

Mutations:

  • A bilabial consonant in the coda rounds the preceding vowel
  • /h/ is elided if the preceding syllable ends in a consonant.
  • When a stop follows a consonant articulated in a different location, the stop assimilates to that same position. E.g. /xt/ -> /xk/
  • A plosive following a nasal assimilates to also become nasal. E.g. /mp/ -> /mm/

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes Yes No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs conjugate to morphologically represent gender, number, tense, mood, and polarity.

There are three tenses: past, present, and future.

There are seven moods:

  • Indicative
  • Subjunctive
  • Desiderative
  • Potential
  • Conditional
  • Hortative

The conjugation patterns follow below. The endings indicate tense, gender, number, and polarity, while moods are represented by suffixes inserted before the inflections.

Affirmative

Present 1st conj. plural 2nd conj. plural 3rd conj. plural
Male -a -au -e -eu -o -ou
Female -a -au -i -iu -w -u
Neuter -as -aus -es -eeus -ws -uus
Past
Male -at -aut -et -eut -ot -out
Female -at -aut -it -iut -wt -ut
Neuter -asta -austa -eset -eseut -wswt -usut
Future
Male -ar -aur -er -eur -or -our
Female -ar -aur -ir -iur -wr -ur
Neuter -asra -ausra -eser -eseur -wswr -usur

Negative

Present 1st conj. plural 2nd conj. plural 3rd conj. plural
Male -an -aun -en -eun -on -oun
Female -an -aun -in -iun -wn -un
Neuter -anh -aunh -enh -eunh -wnh -uunh
Past
Male -anta -aunta -enet -eneut -onta -ounout
Female -anta -aunta -init -iniut -wnta -unut
Neuter -anhta -aunhta -enhet -enheut -wnhta -unhut
Future
Male -anra -aunra -ener -eneur -onra -ounour
Female -anra -aunra -inir -iniur -wnra -unur
Neuter -anhra -aunhra -enher -enheur -wnhra -unhur

Modal suffixes

Subjunctive -akk- -ikk- -wkk-
Imperative -att- -ett- -ott-
Desiderative -ass- -iss- -wss-
Potential -annh- -ennh- -onnh-
Conditional -allh- -ellh- -ollh-
Hortative -aupph- -iupph- -upph-

The affirmative participle is formed by an irregular conjugation pattern, which follows.

Present 1st conj. plural 2nd conj. plural 3rd conj. plural
Male -aum -aum -eum -eum -oum -oum
Female -aum -aum -ium -ium -um -um
Neuter -aum -aum -eum -eum -um -uum
Past
Male -aumma -aumma -eumet -eumeut -oumma -oumout
Female -aumma -aumma -iumit -iumiut -umma -umut
Neuter -aumma -aumma -eumet -eumeut -umma -umut
Future
Male -aumra -aumra -eumer -eumeur -oumma -oumour
Female -aumra -aumra -iumir -iumiur -umma -umur
Neuter -aumra -aumra -eumer -eumeur -umma -umur

Negative participles are formed instead by adding a suffix between the verb stem and regular negative inflection. The suffix is:

-aumph- -eumph- -oumph-

The passive participle is formed by adding a suffix to the end of the corresponding active participle. The suffix is -man if the active participle ends in /m/, and -tan otherwise.

The gerund is used to form a noun out of a verb, which takes the meaning of "the act of doing x." The gerund is formed by a suffix, and declines like a first declension noun. The suffixes are as follows:

Suffix -alhe -elhe -wlhe
Gender neuter female male

Syntax[edit | edit source]

Vocabulary[edit | edit source]


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47cat
48dog
49louse
50snake
51worm
52tree
53forest
54stick
55fruit
56seed
57leaf
58root
59bark
60flower
61grass
62rope
63skin
64meat
65blood
66bone
67fat
68egg
69horn
70tail
71feather
72hair
73head
74ear
75eye
76nose
77mouth
78tooth
79tongue
80fingernail
81foot
82leg
83knee
84hand
85wing
86belly
87guts
88neck
89back
90breast
91heart
92liver
93drink
94eat
95bite
96suck
97spit
98vomit
99blow
100breathe
101laugh
102see
103hear
104know
105think
106smell
107fear
108sleep
109live
110die
111kill
112fight
113hunt
114hit
115cut
116split
117stab
118scratch
119dig
120swim
121fly
122walk
123come
124lie
125sit
126stand
127turn
128fall
129give
130hold
131squeeze
132rub
133wash
134wipe
135pull
136push
137throw
138tie
139sew
140count
141say
142sing
143play
144float
145flow
146freeze
147swell
148sun
149moon
150star
151water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
160earth
161cloud
162fog
163sky
164wind
165snow
166ice
167smoke
168fire
169ash
170burn
171road
172mountain
173red
174green
175yellow
176white
177black
178night
179day
180year
181warm
182cold
183full
184new
185old
186good
187bad
188rotten
189dirty
190straight
191round
192sharp
193dull
194smooth
195wet
196dry
197correct
198near
199far
200right
201left
202at
203in
204with
205and
206if
207because
208name


Example text[edit | edit source]

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