Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

Classification and Dialects[]

Asrakh (Asrakhi Latin: Âsrakh, Âsrax, or Âsrak') is a language that is predominantly spoken by the Razaq people, that which has its roots in the Middle East. More specifically, the Razaq people are most commonly found within the Levant region (Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey and Palestine), Iran, and Iraq. The language has a significant number of speakers, totaling over 5 million within the Levant region alone. Outside of the Levant, the language continues to thrive, with an additional 5 million speakers in Iran and Iraq.

Asrakh exhibits diversity through its three dialects: Asrakh, Nistar, and Khafiz. The standard Asrakh dialect predominates in Iran, while Nistar is prevalent in regions across Turkey, Jordan, and Palestine. On the other hand, the Khafiz dialect thrives in Iraq, Lebanon, and Syria. Each of these dialects is characterised by unique linguistic features, with their vocabulary and, to a lesser extent, grammar influenced by the substrate languages that have interacted with them over time.

Asrakh Dialects
Dialects Location Superstrate Substrate
Asrakh Iran, Norway, France Asrakh Persian, Latin, French and Norwegian
Nistar Jordan, Palestine, Turkey Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic and Turkish
Khafi Iraq, Lebanon, Syria Akkadian, Tamazight, Coptic and Arabic



Labial Coronal Dorsal
Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive Tenuis p t k
Voiced b d g
Affricate Tenuis t͡s t͡ʂ t͡ɕ
Voiced d͡z d͡ʐ d͡ʑ
Fricative Tenuis f s ʂ ɕ ç χ h
Voiced v z ʐ ʑ ʝ ʁ ʔ
Liquid l
Rhotic r
Glide w j ɥ ɰ


  • /p t̪ k t͡s t͡ʂ t͡ɕ/ are unaspirated [p t̪ k t͡s t͡ʂ t͡ɕ].
  • Asrakh contrasts affricates from stop-fricative clusters in two ways. First option is to aspirate the first consonant, while the second option is to slightly germinate the fricative.
  • The pronunciation of /r/ depends on the speaker. It can be a trill, approximant or a flap. It can also be realised in retroflex variants: [ɻ ɽ].


Front Back
Flat Round Flat Round
Close ɪ ʏ ɨ ʊ
Middle ɛ øː œ ə ɔ
Open æː ɑː ɐ


Asrakh words consists of the typical syllable structure:



  • No syllable may start without an initial vowel. If ever the consonant is not reflected in orthography, the glottal stop /ʔ/ will serve as the inherent initial consonant.
  • Historically, Asrakh forbids consonant clusters in the initial of a word. However in Modern Asrakh, consonant clusters are accepted, provided they pass any of these conditions:
    • The first consonant can be a plosive or affricate, but the second consonant must be a liquid/glide, fricative or nasal.
    • The first consonant is a fricative, and the second consonant is a plosive or an affricate.
  • Germinated consonants are never permitted word initially.

Writing System[]

Arabic Script[]

Asrakh uses the Perso-Arabic script in both formal and informal writing. It is an abjad so only consonants and written while vowels are left out to be inferred by the speaker. However in this case, Asrakh slightly deviates from the convention, since it writes long vowels like consonants. It consists of 35 consonants and 17 vowels.

Formal Asrakh is used in government, business and academic documents, and thus it requires to write all the letters including the diacritics. In contrast to the formal conventions, Informal Asrakh permits omission of short vowels, ever since they are inferred by the reader. However, short vowels may be added for clarity. Another difference is that the glottal stop is optionally written if it starts with a long vowel. It is only when the glottal stop occurs between syllables or word-finally, or if it begins with a short vowel, must the letter be written.

Below is the table of Asrakh consonants.

Letter ر ذ د خ ح چ ج ث ت پ ب ا
Sound r d͡z χ ç t͡ɕ d͡ʑ t͡s v b ʔ
Letter ف ڠ غ ع ظ ط ض ص ش س ژ ز
Sound f ʝ ʁ ŋ ʐ t͡ʂ d͡ʐ ʂ ɕ s ʑ z
Letter ې ي ۊ ه ن م ل ڭ ك ق ڤ
Sound ɥ j w h n m l ɰ k g p

Asrakh distinguishes long and short vowels in orthography. Long vowels tend to be written like consonants while short vowels use diacritics like the Arabic Harakat.

Front Back
Flat Round Flat Round
Close اى اِ اۈ اٖ اٙ او اُ
ɪ ʏ ɨ ʊ
Middle ائ اٍ اۆ اٛ اً اؤ اٌ
ɛ øː œ ə ɔ
Open اأ اٱ اَ
æː ɑː ɐ


Asrakh is a moderately inflected language. Only verbs and adjectives undergo inflection and the rest remain analytic in nature. Nouns are partially suffixed but is not declined. It's morphosyntactic alignment is the Nominative-Accusative, which the subject of an intransitive verb is equal to the subject of a transitive verb, while the object of a transitive verb is marked differently. It is a head initial language, thus the head word comes before it's complements in a phrase. It has a flexible word order, with either being SOV, SVO, OSV, OVS, VOS, or VSO.


Pronouns serve as linguistic shortcuts that replace nouns to avoid repetition and enhance the flow of language. They stand in for people, places, things, or ideas, streamlining communication by referring back to previously mentioned entities.

Personal Pronouns[]

In Asrakh, a distinction is made between subject and object pronouns, each serving distinct syntactic functions within the language. Subject pronouns are utilised to indicate the subject of a sentence, while oblique pronouns serve to represent the object of a verb or preposition, or even possessive.

Subject pronouns in Asrakh exhibit an interesting characteristic—they are often optional due to the conjugation patterns of verbs. Unlike languages where subject pronouns are obligatory for sentence coherence such as English, Asrakh employs verb conjugations that naturally conveys the subject of the sentence.

Subject Pronouns Singular Plural
1st Person مٱي نٌرت
2nd Person تو ۊٌرت
3rd Person اِل ذيَ

The absence of standardised object pronouns in Asrakh, Nistar, and Khafi dialects attributes to linguistic developments rooted in Old Asrakh. Old Asrakh pronouns exhibited flexibility in their usage, serving both as subjects and in oblique cases. However, this linguistic evolution led to distinct mechanisms in the modern dialects. Other languages play a role in this evolution as well.

In Asrakh, for instance, the emergence of a distinct set of oblique pronouns facilitated grammatical clarity, delineating between subject and object functions. Conversely, as a result of influence from Turkish, as well as Semitic languages like Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Akkadian, Coptic and Amazight, the Nistar and Khafi dialects adopted a different approach, employing enclitic pronouns to fulfill object roles.

Asrakh lacks enclitic pronouns similar to Nistar and Khafi dialect, therefore, to indicate possession of an object by an oblique pronoun, it must be connected through Id'âfeh.

Oblique Pronouns Asrakh Nistar Khafi
~C ~V ~C ~V
Singular 1st Person مٍترؤ ـَم ـم ـى ـيى
2nd Person تٍبيؤ ـَتَخ ـتخ ـَك ـك
3rd Person اَفتؤ ـَل ـل ـؤ ـهٱ
Plural 1st Person مًڤى ـَبِز ـبِز ـنَا
2nd Person اٖسمأ ـَسٍن ـسٍن ـكٌم
3rd Person سٱحتئ ـهٌم

Demonstrative Pronouns[]

Demonstrative pronouns are deictic pronouns which refer to an object relative to the speaker's spatial or temporal distance. It can be used as a pronoun or a determiner. The key difference in using demonstratives as pronouns or determiners is that demonstrative pronouns stand alone, while demonstrative determiners are followed by a noun.

Singular Plural
Proximal دَ (Asrakh)

زئ (Nistar)

هٱد (Khafi)

دِ (Asrakh)

اٍلۈ (Nistar)

هٱتٍن (Khafi)

Distal اِن (Asrakh)

ظؤت (Nistar)

زَلكى (Khafi)

ڤٍي (Asrakh)

ژؤت (Nistar)

زٱلق (Khafi)

Interrogative and Relative Pronouns[]

Interrogative pronouns are words used to ask questions. They serve to inquire about specific information or objects. Examples include English "who," "what", "how", etc. These words are used to introduce questions that seek clarification, identification, or explanation about a person, thing, or idea. Asrakh holds a comprehensive amount of interrogative pronouns.

Asrakh Interrogative/Relative

(what, which, who)

كى Manner




اَي Reason




قتٱم Purpose



(where from)

مٙن Quantity

(how much)


(where to)

رٱڤًد Degree

(how ...)



Nouns play a fundamental role in all languages as they are used as means to label and represent objects, concepts, and events. They may function as the subject or object in a sentence, clause, or phrase. The Asrakh language is characterised by an analytical approach to nouns. In light of this approach, nouns typically do not change their form through declension (a form of inflection targeted to nouns and adjectives) in order to indicate specific grammatical features. Instead, Asrakh utilises certain particles that which determines the entire grammatical attributes of the noun.


Gender is treated as a semantic concept in Asrakh, thus it does not belong as a grammatical attribute but rather a lexical attribute. On account of this approach, it often results into irregularity of nouns when it corresponds to the same meaning, with the gender standing as the difference. In addition, gender only applies to animate nouns, as inanimate nouns are inherently neutral. Animate nouns describe 3 genders, Masculine, Feminine and Neutral.

However, it is important to acknowledge that the categorisation of nouns based on gender starts to diminish gradually as the Asrakh language progresses towards contemporary times, with animate nouns becoming increasingly gender-neutral. This semantic shift is a result of the historical association of gender with discriminatory implications. Back in the 1970s, masculine-gendered nouns were linked to positive connotations of superiority, whereas feminine-gendered nouns were often perceived in a light of inferiority. But gender is preserved in nouns only for scientific purposes.


Number defines the amount of instances in which a noun comes with. In Asrakh, there are two types of number, singular and plural. Singular nouns come in one instance, while plural nouns come in dual or multiple instances, reflecting the multiplicity or quantity represented. By default, nouns are inherently singular in themselves. To turn a noun plural, it is first important to note that Asrakh recognises two subcategories of Plurality; General Plural and Discrete Plural.

General Plural[]

Nouns in the general plural form typically indicate that objects, concepts, or events occur in multiple instances. This form is structured by adding the particle "نو" before the noun, which signifies the plural nature of the noun.

Discrete Plural[]

The Discrete plural form represents a distinctive type of plural usage that appears in Asrakh nouns. Contrastingly to the General Plural, the Discrete Plural serves to indicate the specific quantity or number of occurrences of the noun. The formation of the discrete plural is carried out by adhering to the prescribed phrase structure.

Quantifier + (Measure Particle) + Noun in the General Plural

  • Quantifiers are a form of determiners that which defines the quantity of nouns. Quantities may be in form of numbers or quantitative adjectives (few, some, many, several, etc..)
  • Measure Particles are utilised in order to collectively count nouns. It is only optional in countable nouns because of their discrete nature, however it must be added for mass nouns on the grounds that it indicates a relatively undifferentiated substance. Measure Particles can be any noun.


Definiteness pertains to the distinction between a noun phrase referencing a specific entity versus a general one, a concept crucially dependent on context for proper interpretation. Initially, nouns are considered indefinite in itself, denoting a general entity. However, to specify definiteness, particularly in Asrakh, the article "اِلّئ" can be added before a noun, highlighting a specific referent. Notably, in informal communication, this distinction may not always be explicitly marked in nouns, as contextual cues often suffice to discern intended meanings.

A feature unique to the Khafi dialect is that the prefixes اِلـ, اَلـ or اُلـ can be inserted into a noun to indicate definiteness, as this stems from the influence of Arabic.


In Asrakh, Id'âfeh serves as a crucial particle facilitating the genitive construction by connecting two nouns. Analogous to the Persian Ezafe and Arabic Idafah, it plays a pivotal role in linking terms to indicate possession, description, or association. The construction involves appending the particle ة to the first term, thereby signaling the genitive relationship, while the subsequent term assumes the genitive case. Notably, this grammatical structure enables the seamless expression of relationships between entities in the language. Furthermore, the versatility of Id'âfeh extends to constructions involving three or more nouns.

Do note that in the Khafi and Nistar dialects, a notable linguistic distinction arises in the connection between nouns and pronouns. Unlike in Asrakh where the particle ة is employed for this purpose, in Khafiz and Nistar, this usage differs. Instead of utilizing the particle ة, the dialects opt for enclitic pronouns to convey the same grammatical meaning.





Case Asrakh Case Asrakh
Dative كؤ Privative شئ
Allative ٱد Semblative ظوا
Ablative ذُر Substitutive چأ
Locative زَي Equative لٖص
Temporal ڤى Comparative ثٙ
Instrumental عٱم Aversive ڤَه
Comitative طً Limitative دَۊ
Benefactive فٖر
Distributive اُع


Verbs are words that express actions, occurrences, or states of being in a sentence. Asrakh classifies three types of verbs in terms of transitivity, Transitive, Intransitive and Ambitransitive. Transitive verbs take a direct object, whilst Intransitive verbs cannot take a direct object. Ambitransitive verbs function as both Transitive and Intransitive.

Unlike other parts of Asrakh grammar which retain it's analytic nature, verbs undergo conjugation patterns by separating the stem and replacing it with a certain ending which defines the tense, aspect, mood, person and number. Below are the tenses and moods that Asrakh verbs conjugate:

Table of Tense, Aspect and Mood Aspect






Indicative Past Preterite Imperfect Pluperfect
Near-Past Near-Past Near Imperfect Near-Pluperfect
Present Present Progressive Perfect
Near-Future Near-Future Near-Future Continuous Near-Future Perfect
Future Future Future Continuous Future Perfect
Subjunctive Past Preterite


Present Present Subjunctive
Future Conditional Conditional Perfect

For the Conjugations, see Asrakh/Verb Conjugation.



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