Conlang
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Verb Conjugation[]

Asrakh exhibits an extensive system of verb conjugation, with verbs inflected for number, person, tense, mood, and aspect. Central to this system are the two primary patterns of conjugation: the Solar Verbs (سٌل عِمِل) and Lunar Verbs (لۈنً عِمِل). Solar Verbs are characterised by an infinitive ending in ـأر, while Lunar Verbs feature an infinitive ending in ـٱر. In Asrakh, verb conjugation involves the addition of two suffixes that are applied sequentially: the tense/mood suffix and the personal suffix. The tense/mood suffix plays a critical role in indicating the mood and tense of a verb, while the personal endings serve to specify the subject of the verb.

There is one verb that is irregular and can have unpredictable conjugation patterns, the copulative verb أسترٱ (to be). It can be used as a verb with a copulative meaning,. When placed after a past participle, it creates the passive voice.

Mood[]

The moods are Indicative (فٍقىت), Subjunctive (اِنفٱظتًر) and Imperative (مَطلوب).

Indicative Mood

فٍقىت

Subjunctive Mood

اِنفٱظتًر

Imperative Mood

مَطلوب

  • The indicative mood is used to state facts, information, or beliefs.
  • Most questions are formed using the indicative mood.
  • Commonly found in independent clauses, and dependent clauses that are true.
  • The subjunctive mood is used to state various kinds of unreality (wish, doubt, opinion, judgement, hope, possibility, inferential, assumption, etc.)
  • The subjunctive mood can be used in conditional clauses, especially those expressing hypothetical or contrary-to-fact situations.
  • Used in dependent clauses.
  • Can be used as an impersonal imperative.
  • Used for commands and requests.

Indicative Tense[]

In the Indicative mood, there are a total of 15 tenses, each serving different functions in expressing actions and states. These tenses encompass various aspects of time, including past, present, and future, allowing for precise communication of when an action occurs. On the other hand, within the Subjunctive mood, there exist 4 tenses that convey potential or hypothetical situations. These tenses offer a nuanced way to discuss what may happen or what is desired to happen, adding depth to the language and enabling speakers to express wishes, hopes, uncertainties, or possibilities.

When considering the conjugation patterns, it's important to note that they primarily adhere to the Active voice, where the subject of the sentence performs the action denoted by the verb. For the Passive voice, which indicates that the subject of the sentence is being acted upon, the formation involves utilising a past participle of the verb combined with the word "أسترٱ" (to be). The conjugation of this verb determines the entire tense, aspect and mood of a passive verb.

Solar Verbs[]
Tense Aspect Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Past Simple ـئي ـئيس ـئيت ـئيمٌ ـئيسك ـئينت
Continuous ـئبَ ـئبَس ـئبَت ـئبَمٌ ـئبَسك ـئبَنت
Perfect ـئرَ ـئرَس ـئرَت ـئرَمٌ ـئرَسك ـئرَنت
Present Simple ـأ ـأس ـأت ـأمٌ ـأسك ـأنت
Continuous ـَريأ ـَريأس ـَريأت ـَريأمٌ ـَريأسك ـَريأنت
Perfect ـأپى ـأپىس ـأپىت ـأپىمٌ ـأپىسك ـأپىنت
Future Simple ـأرئ ـأرئس ـأرئت ـأرئمٌ ـأرئسك ـأرئنت
Continuous ـأبَ ـأبَس ـأبَت ـأبَمٌ ـأبَسك ـأبَنت
Perfect ـئرِ ـئرِس ـئرِت ـئرِمٌ ـئرِسك ـئرِنت

Lunar Verbs[]

Tense Aspect Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Past Simple ـؤۊ ـؤۊس ـؤۊت ـؤۊمٌ ـؤۊسك ـؤۊنت
Continuous ـؤبَ ـؤبَس ـؤبَت ـؤبَمٌ ـؤبَسك ـؤبَنت
Perfect ـؤرَ ـؤرَس ـؤرَت ـؤرَمٌ ـؤرَسك ـؤرَنت
Present Simple ـٱ ـٱس ـٱت ـٱمٌ ـٱسك ـٱنت
Continuous ـَريٱ ـَريٱس ـَريٱت ـَريٱمٌ ـَريٱسك ـَريٱنت
Perfect ـٱپى ـٱپىس ـٱپىت ـٱپىمٌ ـٱپىسك ـٱپىنت
Future Simple ـٱرئ ـٱرئس ـٱرئت ـٱرئمٌ ـٱرئسك ـٱرئنت
Continuous ـٱبَ ـٱبَس ـٱبَت ـٱبَمٌ ـٱبَسك ـٱبَنت
Perfect ـؤرُ ـؤرُس ـؤرُت ـؤرُمٌ ـؤرُسك ـؤرُنت

Irregular Verb "to be"[]

Tense Aspect Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Past Simple فۈ فۈستى فو فرَم فرٱۊ فرَ
Continuous اٍرًم اٍرًس اٍرًت اٍرًخ اٍرًف اٍرًع
Perfect پرٙ پٙرَس پرٙت پرورً پرٙقأ پٙلٌد
Present Simple سۈ ئ اَست نىست اٍتى زٌن
Continuous حأ پۆ ظَ ضىخ ېأص ڠأپ
Perfect پَي پِستئ فېِت پوا پٱذ فىنت
Future Simple رٍي رٍيس رٍيت رٍيمٌ رٍيسك رٍينت
Continuous بَرؤ بٱرٌثَ بڭَرىت بيٍمۆ بأستَ بِلأت
Perfect ڠى ڠىلِس ڠىق ڠىمٛ ڠىرًب ڠىضأ

Subjunctive Tenses[]

Solar Verbs[]

Aspect Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Simple Past ـِرَ ـِرَس ـِرَت ـِرَمٌ ـِرَسك ـِرَنت
Present ـِ ـِس ـِت ـِمٌ ـِسك ـِنت
Future ـِسئ ـِسئس ـِسئت ـِسئمٌ ـِسئسك ـِسئنت
Perfect Future ـى ـىس ـىت ـىمٌ ـىسك ـىنت

Lunar Verbs[]

Aspect Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Simple Past ـُرَ ـُرَس ـُرَت ـُرَمٌ ـُرَسك ـُرَنت
Present ـُ ـُس ـُت ـُمٌ ـُسك ـُنت
Future ـُسؤ ـُسؤس ـُسؤت ـُسؤمٌ ـُسؤسك ـُسؤنت
Perfect Future ـو ـوس ـوت ـومٌ ـوسك ـونت

Irregular Verb "to be"[]

Aspect Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Simple Past فٌرئم فؤرَس فٌرٍت فألچِ فِستٱز فؤسرٌ
Present ېأچ كئژعَه غٱ زٱېا هٱسك رِهؤ
Future جأ جأڠً جأبٌ جَلؤل جَعؤ جَهأ
Perfect Future ڭِستًم ڭِستًس ڭِستًت ڭِستًمؤر ڭِستًسكَ ڭِستًنتٱخ

Non-Finite Forms[]

Participles Infinitive Gerund Imperative
Active Passive
Solar Verbs ـئتوس ـَتوس ـأر ـَندٌ ـَتٍ
Lunar Verbs ـؤتوس ـٱر
Irregular اِستَن فۈسٍ أسترٱ ئتخ ئستٍ

Immediate Tenses[]

There are a total of 9 tenses in the Indicative, and 4 tenses in the Subjunctive that come with their own conjugation patterns. The tenses in the Past and Future are used distant from the referenced time. To express the Immediate tenses — encompassing the Near-Past and Near-Future, a distinct particle is introduced before the main verb in the present tense. The choice of particle pairs with the mood and aspect of the sentence, contributing to the specific meaning and mood conveyed by these tenses. In constructions involving passive immediate tenses, the entirety of the aspect and mood hinges on the verb "to be", which plays a pivotal role in defining how the action or event is perceived in relation to the subject.

Indicative First Term Second Term Resulting Tense
Near-Past رٍه Present Simple Near-Past Simple
Present Continuous Near-Past Continuous
Present Perfect Near-Past Perfect
Near-Future تَم Present Simple Near-Future Simple
Present Continuous Near-Future Continuous
Present Perfect Near-Future Perfect
Subjunctive First Term Second Term Resulting Tense
Near-Past رٍه Present Simple
Near-Future تَم Present Simple Near-Conditional
Present Perfect Near-Conditional Perfect
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