This is Atlalpi (Age of TLA Language Parallel Instance), an a-priori developed conlang which is intended to provide the grammar structure used in Thrilettrabbrian. For practical purposes the words of Atlalpi are chosen at random, without any respect to the international vocabulary.
- 1 Setting
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Grammar
- 3.1 Formal grammar
- 3.1.1 Nouns
- 3.1.2 Adjectives
- 3.1.3 Pronouns
- 3.1.4 Numbers
- 3.1.5 Verbs
- 3.1.6 Adverbs
- 3.2 Syntactical grammar
- 3.3 Word formation
- 3.1 Formal grammar
- 4 Dictionary
- 5 Example text
- 6 See also
Setting[edit | edit source]
Phonology[edit | edit source]
Combined tonal-pressure accent, always on the last syllable "ultima".
Grammar[edit | edit source]
Agglutinative, just in order to get the language work, without trouble. So the language will become blablative.
Formal grammar[edit | edit source]
Nouns[edit | edit source]
Form: stem + aggregateform + case + number + determination
Stem[edit | edit source]
A stem is any number of syllables, ending in a consonant. The most usual case is stems from one syllable only.
Aggregation[edit | edit source]
Aggregation counterparts Ithkuil's basic morphology, which handles different kind of object formations, such as pairs-of-X (somewhat like dual number), masses-of-X, the-entire-mass-of-X (collectives), materials-of-X, arrays-of-X, etc.. Having such forms may make certain scientific concepts very concise, such as astronomy Kuiper-belt-object (belt being an aggregation), compsci flexible array of integer (flexible array being an extraordinarily common aggregation in compsci). Ithkuil exhibit 9 times 4 times 4 (144) of those basic forms counterparting Atlalpi's aggregations. Such a number might become topical also for Atlalpi, but for now, only a few of the most necessary are sketched:
|specimen form||+e||siter||a human|
|dual form||+a||sitar||human pair|
|collective form||+o||sitor||the folk||also used for materials|
|class form||+u||situr||humans in general|
In this context I here speculate that the Arabic broken plurals might initially have been various kind of aggregation forms, maybe with specific meaning, but these aggregations were by "babelism" sadly extensively confused from speaker to speaker, and also confused with an originally regular plural.
Cases[edit | edit source]
Following a case grammar model more than five cases are seldomly needed. The language could be ergative-absolutive, or nominative-accusative, I here provisionally assert nominative-accusative because they're most frequent. (Ithkuil has cases according to semantic role - this important concept is simply ignored in Atlalpi's grammar, since the main interest is the word derivation efficiency in Atlalpi)
I also provisionally assert SOV language because they're most frequent.
So I assert the following cases:
|accusative||for patient/experiencer/object of change||+m|
|ablative||for source of act; also for passive instigators of the act||+d|
|instructive||for the tool used||+k|
Sociative is not used, instead "and" is used to express duplicate subjects/objects etc..
The genitive fulfills certain adjectival functions, that I leave aside for now.
Numbers[edit | edit source]
The plural 's' is either voiceless or voiced, after a 'd' voiced, after a 'k' voiceless, and after the others voiced or voiceless at speakers' option.
Determined forms[edit | edit source]
Words are considered determined by default, i.e. the determined form is uninflected relative undetermined and demonstrative forms, and in general words aren't introduced in a speach context without an initial indetermined or extensively specified occurrence. The one exception is where the culture defines a default individual, f.ex. a king over a certain country, may in that country initially be mentioned in the determined form, the ("default") sun may in the relevant solar system initially be mentioned in the determined form.
|Introductional||+e||kalere a man|
|Determined||-||kaler the man|
|Demonstrative||+a||kalera this/that man|
|General||+o||kalero any man in general|
|Abessive||+i||kaleri no man|
Adjectives[edit | edit source]
Pronouns[edit | edit source]
Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]
1-4p, for plural inclusive and exclusive forms are needed, which instead implies that collective derivations as per Ithkuil should be combined with duplicate inclusive/exclusive plural [FIXME!!]...
Demonstratives[edit | edit source]
Relatives[edit | edit source]
Instead of the primitive apparatus of which/who/whome at one hand, and conjunction markers on the other hand, Atlalpi combines those two systems in an ortogonal system for inter-clause references.
Numbers[edit | edit source]
Verbs[edit | edit source]
Verb classes[edit | edit source]
|transitive I||normal acts, various N-A plus possible objects/instruments D, Ab and I||N A [D Ab I] V|
|transitive II||state verbs such as is, become, etc. N for instance, Ab for quality/class||N Ab V|
|intransitive I||experiencing, using A for "subject" (absolutive tendency)||A V|
|intransitive II||acting performing, using N for "subject", (normal accusative mode)||N V|
Verb conjugation[edit | edit source]
Mode + Aspect + Tempus
This person/number stuff of IE languages is extraneous: many languages have enclitic affixes for diverse pronouns. How and to what the affix connect, seems very random to me just now...
Mode[edit | edit source]
|Indicative||I experienced that X||+u+|
|Conjunctive||I believe that X||+e+|
|Optative||I have heard that X||+i+|
Aspect[edit | edit source]
|Repetitive||I X, I use to X||+r+|
|Perfect||I have finished X||+b+|
|Inchoative||I'm starting X||+d+|
Tempus[edit | edit source]
|Far preterite||I once did X||+u|
|Preterite||I did X||+o|
|Presens||I do X||+a|
|Future||I will X||+e|
|Far future||One day, I will X||+i|
Adverbs[edit | edit source]
Syntactical grammar[edit | edit source]
Word formation[edit | edit source]
Dictionary[edit | edit source]
Example text[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
The natural language partner, see that page for rationales etc.: