Type Agglutinative
Alignment Ergative-Absolutive
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress 0%
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]

Classification and Dialects[edit | edit source]

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m ŋ
Plosive pʰ p t̪ʰ t̪ kʰ k
Fricative ɸ β θ    ð s̺   (z̺) ʃ (ʒ) x    ɣ
Approximant ɹ̺ j
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l l̥
Lateral flap

All phonemes, with the exception of geminated stops) have geminated counterparts (/p/ vs. /pː/), which contrast phonemically with their simple counterparts. In Latin script, geminate sounds are signaled by a double letter.

When preceding or following a voiced consonant, the voiceless /ʃ/ and /s̺/ may be voiced to [ʒ] and [z̺], respectively. This occurs more frequently in informal speech and the rural dialect (to be named).

In the rural dialect, /j/ and /ɹ̺/ may be realized as [ʒ] and [z̺], which was universal in earlier dialects.

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High iː y u
Near-high ɪ
Mid ɛ
Low-mid ɔ
Low a

Vowels, with the exception of the /iː ɪ/, /oː ɔ/ and /eː ɛ/ pairs (which also show a change in vowel quality), all vowels may be geminated. This is shown in Latin script by a double letter, which also signals a pronunciation change in the aforementioned pairs. That is, < o > signals /ɔ/ and < oo > signals /oː/.

Some, especially rural, communities may maintain gemination of /i e o/ without a change in vowel quality in ungeminated realizations.

With the exception of /y/, roundness is a feature of back vowels.

There are no diphthongs; vowels in contact are always in hiatus.

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

There are two basic syllable structures in Atti. The first is (C)VC(C). In the case of a syllable cluster in the coda, the first phone must be a fricative and the second a (non-aspirated) plosive. Aspirated plosives may only occupy the onset of a syllable. Geminates may only occur in intervocalic contexts.

The second syllable structure is C(C), where the consonantal nucleus is a syllabic fricative or nasal. In practice, only a small set of the fricatives /β p/ and one nasal /m/ are found in this context, always in monosyllabic words, like vt /βt̪/ "again" or mm /mː/ "yes."

Writing System[edit | edit source]

Latinized Orthography[edit | edit source]

Letter m mm n nn ng nng p b bb t d dd
Sound /m/ /mː/ /n̪/ /n̪ː/ /ŋ/ /ŋː/ /pʰ/ /p/ /pː/ /t̪ʰ/ /t̪/ /t̪ː/
Letter k g gg f ff v vv th tth dh ddh s
Sound /kʰ/ /k/ /kː/ /ɸ/ /ɸː/ /β/ /βː/ /θ/ /θː/ /ð/ /ðː/ /s̺/
Letter ss z zz sh ssh x xx gh ggh j jj r
Sound /s̺ː/ /z̺/ /z̺ː/ /ʃ/ /ʃː/ /x/ /xː/ /ɣ/ /ɣː/ /j/ /jː/ /ɹ̺/
Letter rr l ll lh llh i ii y yy e ee a
Sound /ɹ̺ː/ /l/ /lː/ /l̥/ /l̥ː/ /ɪ/ /iː/ /y/ /yː/ /ɛ/ /eː/ /a/
Letter aa o oo u uu
Sound /aː/ /ɔ/ /oː/ /u/ /uː/

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Syntax[edit | edit source]

Lexicon[edit | edit source]

Example text[edit | edit source]

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