Attuvish
Atteuvje'ng
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Active-Stative
Head direction
right
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General Information[edit | edit source]

Attuvish (Atteuvje'ng [ʔaːtːɤvdzeˀŋ]) is the most spoken Attuf language, spoken by the semi-nomadic Attuf people across the Horn of Hacounm on the planet Patrona.

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal Labiovelar
Nasal m ˀm n ˀn ŋ ˀŋ ŋm ˀŋm
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ kp gb
Fricative f v s z x ɣ h
Affricate ts dz ʔh
Approximant l j w
Trill r

m, 'm, n, 'n, ng, 'ng, nm, 'nm, p, b, t, d, k, g, ', kp, gb, f, v, s, z, kh, gh, h, c, j, ch, 'h, l, y, w, r

  • The trill /r/ only appears in a handful of non-borrowed words, usually onomatopoeia.
  • Most consonants can be geminated between vowels.

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Central Back
High i ɯ u
Mid e ɤ o
Low a

i, u, ou, e, eu, o, a

Diphthongs (all are falling): ue /ɯe/, ueu /ɯɤ/, ouo /uo/, ey /ei/, eeu /eɤ/, euy /ɤi/, eue /ɤe/, ay /ai/, aeu /aɤ/

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

CV(C)

  • Geminate consonants are phonemically two consecutive identical consonants, and as such, they cannot border another consonant.

Stress[edit | edit source]

Any one of the first three syllables may be stressed, and the stressed vowel is lengthened. Stress is not usually marked, but it will be here, but not if it's on the first syllable. Stress stays on the same vowel in any inflectional form.

Nouns[edit | edit source]

class sg pa pl transl.
-C may'n mayneu mayneuf person
-V nikpágba nikpágbeu nikpágbaf storm
apophony I jous jis arrow
apophony II 'houof 'hueuf spirit
mass noun poro'ngémi math

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Person circumfixes[edit | edit source]

Nonfuture tense[edit | edit source]

sg pa pl
1ex ya-i peu-ida
1in - in-ima in-ida
2 me-i me-ida
3 a-a ya-a peu-a

Future intentive tense[edit | edit source]

sg pa pl
1ex 0-iya 0-idapeu
1in - 0-imayn 0-idayn
2 0-ime 0-idame
3 0-aeu 0-aya 0-apeu

Future inferential tense[edit | edit source]

sg pa pl
1ex ya-ukh peu-ey
1in - in-ouo in-ey
2 me-ukh me-ey
3 0-zi ya-zi peu-zi

Imperative[edit | edit source]

sg pa pl
2 u-0 me-0

Example[edit | edit source]

takp- "to poison" atikakpa, atumakpa

sg pa pl
perfect
1ex yatakpi peutakpida
1in intakpima intakpida
2 metakpi metakpida
3 atakpa yatakpa peutakpa
intentive
1ex takpiya takpidapeu
1in takpimayn takpidayn
2 takpime takpidame
3 takpaeu takpaya takpapeu
inferential
1ex yatakpukh peutakpey
1in intakpouo intakpey
2 metakpukh metakpey
3 takpzi yatakpzi peutakpzi
imperative
2 utakp metakp

Tense/Aspect infixes[edit | edit source]

The tense/aspect infixes are placed after the first consonant of a root. They can only be used with the nonfuture tense.

Perfect (-0-), Present continuous (-ik-), Past (-um-)

ex. ceula "It has said", cikéula "It is saying", cuméula "It said"

Voice infixes[edit | edit source]

Passive -fou- is placed before the final consonant of the root. ex. Ceufoulaya. "They few will be told."

Non-finite circumfixes[edit | edit source]

0-0 infinitive

Syntax[edit | edit source]

SVO

Vocabulary[edit | edit source]

Numerals[edit | edit source]

Decimal system:

# name 10+# #*10
0 hun sippóu
1 neung sippóuneung sippóu
2 heung sippóuheung heunsip
3 ha'm sippóuha'm ha'nsip
4 hi sippóuhi hissip
5 sa sippóusa sassip
6 saneu' sippóusaneu' sozip
7 saheu' sippóusaheu' chezip
8 saha' may'n pezip
9 gawsippou sippóugaw gawsip1
10 sippóu heunsip aghudóuleu
  1. ninety has a couple of translations: gawsip being the most common/informal, gawághudouleu being the most proper, or rarely pezipsippou.A peculiarity of Attuf languages is the fact that most have simple words for several unsimple numbers. The additional simplex numerals in Attuvish are for 25 (compound for 75), 18 (compounds for 36 and 54), 45, 200 (compound for 400), and a few others which have completely fallen out of use.
# name meaning
18 may'n person/man
25 daláwa arch. quarter
36 heung-mayneu two people
45 figba' ?
54 ha'm-mayneu three people
75 ha'm-daláweu three quarters
200 vizya silver
400 heung-vizyeu two silvers

Example text[edit | edit source]

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