Avb'el is a conlang that is currently work in progress.
|4 (masculine, feminine, neuter, and indeterminate)|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
- 1 History
- 2 Phonetics
- 3 Word order
- 4 Tenses and aspects
- 5 Lexicon
- 6 Transforming words
- 7 Particles
- 8 Gender
- 9 Pronouns
- 10 Interrogatives
- 11 Numbers
- 12 Comparison
- 13 List of affixes
- 14 Swadesh list
- 15 Example sentences
- 16 TBC
History[edit | edit source]
I came up with the idea of creation of a new language without any particular reason... But, it doesn't make me stop creating it. Because I know English and Ukrainian and am learning Chinese, some words might be partly based on these languages. But, mostly, I want it to be unique one. Also, I'm trying to keep it simple and don't add a lot of declensions. I am using modified Latin alphabet for it.
Phonetics[edit | edit source]
Alphabet with IPA[edit | edit source]
|rr||/r:/||akorro||trill r, but longer||рр|
|yu||/ɥ/||reyɣb||a mix of /j/ and /w/||ю|
Alphabet[edit | edit source]
Latin (Main)[edit | edit source]
Adding macron to a vowel will make it a double vowel (i.e. a -> ā or ɣ-> ɣ̄)
Some sounds are expressed through two letters (lh and ph).
In "tg", the "t" is not read, leaving only a "g".
Letters n, r, k, l, b, m can be doubled.
x is only lowercase because it cannot be found in beginning of any Avb'el word.
Combination "yɣ" was originally planned to be read like /ju/, but later I realized that I pronounce it in words more like /ɥ/. Of course, it would still technically be correct if you said /ju/ instead of /ɥ/, but it is just a way I find simpler.
Letter "i" is read /j/ when it is placed after another vowel.
Cyrillic (Alternative)[edit | edit source]
Latin is used as the main alphabet, but cyrillic can be used alternatively.
Adding macron to a vowel will make it a double vowel.
Letters н, р, к, л, б, м can be doubled,
Sound f is represented through combination пх.
In "тґ", the "т" is not read, leaving only a "ґ".
х is only lowercase because it cannot be found in beginning of any Avb'el word.
Letter ю is used to represent the combination "yɣ", and љ is used to represent the combination "lh".
Letter "і" is read /j/ when it is placed after another vowel.
IPA charts[edit | edit source]
Vowels[edit | edit source]
Pulmonic consonants[edit | edit source]
|p b||t d||k g||ʔ|
|Sibilant fricative||s z||ʃ ʒ|
|Non-sibilant fricative||f v||(ʝ)||h|
Co-articulated consonants[edit | edit source]
Stress/Accent[edit | edit source]
Generally, almost every word of Avb'el stresses the first vowel. If there are two or three vowels in a row, the stress goes to second vowel (e.g. Yiera - [ji'ɛrɑ]). Foreign words might have other stress.
For example, Yoɣra is read like /'jɔurɑ/, not /jɔ'urɑ/ or /jɔu'rɑ/
Word order[edit | edit source]
Word order in Avb'el is only SVO (subject-verb-object) because nouns and pronouns are not declining to any cases. Thus, to make it clear where is which part of sentence, only SVO is used.
Example: Yoɣra namʓe namʓ. - You eat food.
Adjectives are added before nouns or gerunds.
Example: Yoɣra namʓe bagsali namʓ. - You eat loud food.
Adverbs are added before verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
Example: Yoɣra rɣpɨa namʓe namʓ. - You speedily eat food.
In addition, all adpositions are prepositions.
Example: Yoɣra namʓe ka dodê. - You eat on bed.
Also, time-place-manner order is used. ENG example: I today [time] to Germany [place] ride train [manner].
Tenses and aspects[edit | edit source]
Avb'el has 4 tenses: present, past, future, and absolute.
Present tense[edit | edit source]
Present tense shows an action that is going on in the present. To write in present form, do not add any extra particles.
Example: Tomora tapkite lop ekepase soll bora mobb bora. (They walk and listen to each other.)
Absolute tense[edit | edit source]
Absolute present tense shows an action that is going on at the moment. To write in absolute form, add ngɣ particle before the first verb.
Example: Tomora ngɣ tapkite lop ekepase soll bora mobb bora. (They are walking and listening to each other.)
Past tense[edit | edit source]
Past tense shows an action that was going on before. To write in past form, add hor particle before the first verb.
Example: Tomora hor tapkite lop ekepase soll bora mobb bora. (They walked and listened to each other.)
Perfect aspect[edit | edit source]
Adding ze particle after hor particle shows that an action is already finished.
Example: Tomora hor ze tapkite lop ekepase soll bora mobb bora. (They had walked and listened to each other.)
Future tense[edit | edit source]
Future tense shows an action that will be done. To write in future form, add hal particle before the first verb.
Example: Tomora hal tapkite lop ekepase soll bora mobb bora. (They will walk and listen to each other.)
Perfect aspect[edit | edit source]
Adding ze particle after hal particle shows that an action will be finished.
Example: Tomora hal ze tapkite lop ekepase soll bora mobb bora. (They will have walked and listened to each other.)
Mixing tenses[edit | edit source]
To mix tenses, add the corresponding particle before the verbs.
Example: Tomora hal tapkite lop hor ekepase soll bora mobb bora. (They will walk and listened to each other.)
Another example: Tomora hor tapkite lop ngɣ ekepase soll bora mobb bora. (They walked and are listening to each other.)
To mix with present tense, add met̆ particle.
Example: Tomora hor tapkite lop met̆ ekepase soll bora mobb bora. (They walked and listen to each other.)
Perfect aspects can be added, too.
Example: Tomora ngɣ tapkite lop hor ze ekepase soll bora mobb bora. (They are walking and had listened to each other.)
Lexicon[edit | edit source]
*It is not done yet and will be improved in future.
Parts of speech[edit | edit source]
Avb'el has the following parts of speech:
- Noun (n.) - thing, person, place, quality, or idea.
- Verb (v.) - action, occurrence, or state of being.
- Pronoun (pron.) - replaces nouns.
- Adjective (adj.) - describes nouns.
- Adverb (adv.) - describes verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
- Transgressive (trans.) - a concurrently proceeding or following action.
- Preposition (prep.) - expresses relationship of objects in time and space.
- Interrogative (interrog.) - used to ask questions.
- Particle (part.) - helps to establish meaning to word or phrase.
- Conjunction (conj.) - helps joining words or phrases.
- Interjection (interj.) - expresses feeling or reaction.
Transforming words[edit | edit source]
In Avb'el, adjectives and adverbs are formed by adding special suffixes to a noun. Thus, they can be easily identified from other words by the suffixes.
Making adjectives[edit | edit source]
To form an adjective, add -i suffix to a noun.
Example: Dok (doctor, n.) + i = Doki (doctor, adj.)
If some words that are borrowed from other languages (names, places, other borrowed words) end on 'i' already, then an 'ɇ' is added to the end. When transforming these words, the ɇ is removed and the i is doubled.
Example: Bɣlhiɇ (bully, n.) + i = Bɣlhī (bully, adj.)
Adding -like suffixoid to noun makes it an adjective meaning similarity (i.e. cat -> cat-like). Same thing can be done in Avb'el, adding suffixoid -goɇ to the end of the word. It can be added only to nouns.
Example: Patit (father, n.) + goɇ = Patit-goɇ (father-like, adj.)
Making adverbs[edit | edit source]
To form an adverb, add -ɨa suffix to a noun.
Example: Et̆rod (exception, n.) + pɨa = Et̆rodpɨa (exceptionally, adv.)
If the word already ends on a 'p', then add only -ɨa.
Example: Rɣp (speed, n.) + ɨa = Rɣpɨa (speedily, adv.)
Making verbs[edit | edit source]
To form a common verb, add -e suffix to noun.
Example: Dakk (touch, t.) + e = Dakke (to touch, v.)
To form a modal verb, add -ɣnh suffix to noun.
Example: Yek (need, n.) + ɣnh = Yekɣnh (to need, v.)
There are only two exceptions for this rule: van (to be) and ɯab (to like).
Making transgressives[edit | edit source]
To make a transgressive, add -sɨ suffix to a verb.
Example: Milenne (make, v.) + sɨ = Milennesɨ (making, g.)
Group suffix[edit | edit source]
To show a group of things, add -or suffix.
Example: Namʓ (food, n.) + or = Namʓor (group of foods, n.)
The difference between grouped and ungrouped namʓ is that the usual one is not saying exactly if there is only one food or a group of it, while the grouped version specifies that it is a group.
Plurality[edit | edit source]
To change a singular noun to a plural noun, add -s suffix.
Example: Ersa (human, n., sing.) + s = Ersas (humans, n., pl.)
You can even make a grouped word plural.
Example: Naɣsor (group of sciences) + s = Naɣsors (groups of sciences)
If the word ends on following (ʓ, z, ɯ, t̆, sɇ, ʓɇ, zɇ, ɯɇ, t̆ɇ), suffix -ês is used instead.
Example: Lenʓ (lens, n., sing.) + ês = Lenʓês (lenses, n., pl.)
Diminutive[edit | edit source]
To make diminutive (as in ENG: cat -> kitty), add suffix -olh.
Example: Loy (drink, n.) + olh = Loyolh (small drink, n.)
It can even be added to names!
Example: Aleks (Alex, n.) + olh = Aleksolh (Alex, but smaller and cuter, n.)
If the word already ends on o, then double it.
Example: Bordo (Bordeaux, n.) + olh = Bodrōlh (small Bordeaux, n.)
It CANNOT be added to transgressives, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, prepositions, and other parts of speech other than nouns.
Particles[edit | edit source]
The particles help arranging the words and identifying the types of sentences and tenses.
Type of particle
|Possessive (left-right)||kɣ||Equivalent of English " 's ", shows possession from left to right.|
|Possessive (right-left)||dē||Equivalent of English "of", shows possession from right to left.|
|Past tense||hor||Add before first verb to convert to past tense.|
|Future tense||hal||Add before first verb to convert to future tense.|
|Absolute tense||ngɣ||Add before first verb to convert to absolute tense.|
|Present tense (mixing)||met̆||Add before a verb to convert to present tense when the first verb is in other tense.|
|Perfect aspect||ze||Add inbetween hor/hal and verb to convert to perfect apsect.|
|Question||phaɯ||Add in the end of a direct question when no interrogative word is used.|
|Command||zarʓ||Add in the end of the sentence to show command.|
|Reflexive||mobb||Add after a pronoun or noun to convert to reflexive form (i.e. reflexive of 'you' is 'yourself').|
|Instrumental||bɨ̄ryɣ||Add after noun or pronoun to convert to instrumental form.|
Gender[edit | edit source]
There are four genders in Avb'el: masculine, feminine, neuter, and indeterminate.
Masculine gender[edit | edit source]
Masculine gender is used in male animals (including humans).
So, words like husband, man, tom cat, and father automatically become masculine.
Feminine gender[edit | edit source]
Feminine gender is used in female animals (including humans).
So, words like wife, woman, she-cat, and mother automatically become feminine.
Neuter gender[edit | edit source]
Neuter gender is used in plants, fungi, prokaryotes, and non-living objects.
So, words like mushroom, tree, bacteria, stone, and air automatically become neuter.
Indeterminate gender[edit | edit source]
Indeterminate gender is used when you do not specify if an animal (including humans) is a male or a female.
It is also automatically set to words that can be either female or male. Those words include spouse, human, cat, parent, and student.
Pronouns[edit | edit source]
Personal pronouns[edit | edit source]
|1st person singular||Yiera||I|
|1st person plural||Yiɣtra||We|
|2nd person singular||Yoɣra||You, thou|
|2nd person plural||Toɣra||You|
|3rd person singular masc.||Hora||He|
|3rd person singular fem.||Dora||She|
|3rd person singular neut.||Sora||It|
|3rd person singular indet.||Bora||One (he/she/it)|
|3rd person plural||Tomora||They|
*Some of these, like "third person singular masculine personal pronoun," sound scary, although this phrase can be simplified into word "he."
Interrogatives[edit | edit source]
|Thing||Ʒos||What||What is this object?|
|Kind||Ʒerd||What||What color is it?|
|Person||Ʒlɣ||Who||Who are you?|
|Location||Ʒmis||Where||Where is the building?|
|Possesion||Ʒlɣkɣ||Whose||Whose table is it?|
|Signification/Goal||Ʒmizo||Whither (old)||Whither are you going?|
|Source||Ʒniso||Whence (old)||Whence did he come?|
|Time||Ʒam||When||When will she start?|
|Reason||Ʒda||Why||Why did it happen?|
|Manner||Ʒeha||How||How are you doing it?|
|Choice||Ʒoph||Which||Which one should I chose?|
|Ʒêv||Whether||Whether you like this or that?|
|Ʒerin||How much/how many||How much water is there?|
|Time spent||Ʒalh||How long||How long did it take?|
Numbers[edit | edit source]
Common numbers[edit | edit source]
Complex numbers[edit | edit source]
To make complex numbers like twenty-two and four hundred eighteen, you should use the simple numbers combined.
Example: Lō zeno lō [Two ten two] (Twenty-two) 22
Example: Vlō keno mêno zeno [Four hundred eight ten] (Four hundred eighty) 480
Example: Êtno keno zeno gem [Thousand hundred ten one] (One thousand one hundred eleven) 1111
Example: Sllō gemnê trō zeno êtno rsō keno vinyo zeno phlhō [Six million three ten thousand seven hundred nine ten five] (Six million thirteen thousand seven hundred ninety-five) 6013795
Comparison[edit | edit source]
Positive adjectives[edit | edit source]
Adjectives without prefixes da- or eph- are automatically classified as positive. They are used as base adjectives for transforming into either comparative or superlative form. They are never used for comparison.
Comparative adjectives[edit | edit source]
To change the adjective to comparative form add da- prefix.
Example: da + Ersai (Human, adj., positive) = Daersai (Humaner, adj., comparative)
Sentence example: Hora van daersai omt eɯonn (He is humaner than alien)
Superlative adjectives[edit | edit source]
To change the adjective to superlative form, add eph- prefix.
Example: eph + Naɣsi (scientific, adj., positive) = Ephnaɣsi (the most scientific, adj., superlative)
Sentence example: Sora van ephnaɣsi omt tomora. [It is the most scientific than them] (It is the most scientific compared to them)
List of affixes[edit | edit source]
Suffixes[edit | edit source]
|Plurality suffix||-s||Common version, add to noun.|
|Plurality suffix||-ês||Used when the word ends on z, ʓ, ɯ, t̆, sɇ, zɇ, ʓɇ, ɯɇ, or t̆ɇ, add to noun.|
|Group suffix||-or||Adding it makes the word grouped.|
|Adjective suffix||-i||Common version, add to noun.|
|Adjective suffix||-ī||Used when the word ends on iɇ, change iɇ to the suffix, add to noun.|
|Adverb suffix||-pɨa||Common version, add to noun.|
|Adverb suffix||-ɨa||Used when the word ends on p, add to noun.|
|Deminutive noun suffix||-olh||Common version, add to noun to make it sound smaller and cuter.|
|Deminutive noun suffix||-ōlh||Used when the word ends on o, change o to suffix.|
|Modal verb suffix||-ɣnh||Common version, add to noun.|
|Modal verb suffix||-ɣ̄nh||Used when the word ends ɣ, add to noun.|
|Transgressive suffix||-sɨ||Common version, add to verb.|
|Verb suffix||-e||Common version, add to noun.|
Suffixoids[edit | edit source]
|Alternative to ENG -like.||-goɇ||Similar to ENG -like. Example: cat-like, stone-like, ship-like. Added to nouns|
Prefixes[edit | edit source]
|'No' prefix||le-||Similar to ENG un-, in-, im-, non-. Added to nouns, adjectives, adverbs, or gerunds.|
|'With' prefix||bag-||Similar to ENG with- and -ful. Added to nouns, adjectives, adverbs, or gerunds.|
|'Without' prefix||lebag-||Similar to ENG without- and -less. Added to nouns, adjectives, adverbs, or gerunds.|
|Comparative prefix||da-||Similar to ENG -er. Added only to adjectives.|
|Superlative prefix||eph-||Similar to ENG -est. Added only to adjectives.|
Swadesh list[edit | edit source]
Basic Swadesh list with Avb'el, its IPA, English, Ukrainian. [not done yet]
Example sentences[edit | edit source]
Yiera dɨɣnh spove Avbxelɨi. - I can speak Avb'el
Milennesɨ yiera kɣ hemêni milenn, yiera hor ze namʓe serɯi namʓ. - While doing my homework, I had eaten my evening meal.