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|Verbs conjugate according to...|
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Avreça is an Indo-Romance language spoken in a variety of communities in Western Europe and the United States, as well as in the Middle East, South Asia, and East Asia. It shares many features with most Romance languages, and is primarily fusional.
Vocabulary and Dialects[edit | edit source]
Avreça's vocabulary is consists of a relatively even mix of Romance language vocabulary, primarily drawing from Spanish, Italian, and Catalan, and of Kannada and Hindi-Urdu vocabulary.
Avreça has two main dialects, Western and Eastern, and two minor dialects, Northern and Southern. The main dialects occupy the position of prestige dialects, having separate traditions of literature and spoken language. The Northern and Southern dialects are considered to be inferior dialects, particularly for their tendency to simplify vowels and merge consonants. Their vocabulary is largely similar to that of Western and Eastern, respectively.
There is also an older version of Avreça, known as Classical Avreça, in which there is an more complicated grammar, as well as slightly different pronunciation. Classical Avreça is used only in old religious texts, and is debated as a medium through which foreign religious texts, such as the Bible and Vedas, can be translated.
Phonology[edit | edit source]
Consonants[edit | edit source]
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g||q*||ʔ*|
|Fricative||f v||θ||s z||
|Flap or tap|
- Only in Classical Avreça or in limited cases in Modern Avreça.
Vowels[edit | edit source]
- Western uses a and Eastern uses ɑ.
Phonotactics[edit | edit source]
Writing System[edit | edit source]
Grammar[edit | edit source]
Nouns[edit | edit source]
Nouns decline into one of six cases: nominative (unmarked), accusative, benefactive, ergative, instrumental-ablative, and temporal. These cases are largely used in formal language and upper register language, but only in the Eastern and Western dialects. Unlike in Romance languages, nouns do not possess grammatical gender. The definite article is al and the indefinite article is un. There are prepositional contractions and case declensions for the articles as well.
Verbs[edit | edit source]
Verbs conjugate according to person, number, aspect, tense, and mood. There are five tenses in Avreça, which are present, past, future, conditional, and temporally independent. The latter expresses "tense-less-ness", often used in street signs, public instructions, and idioms. Verbs conjugate in very different ways, but according to the same criteria, in Classical Avreça. In Southern and Northern Avreça, a complex mood system has developed in addition to the subjunctive mood. The other moods include jussive, energetic, sarcastic, inferential, volitive, and necessitative.
Syntax[edit | edit source]
Syntax in Avreça is fairly straightforward: SVO in the West and North and SOV in the East and South. Classical Avreça has an extremely fluid sentence order, though it favors SOV, VSO, and OVS, and only when all information is marked in the nouns and verbs. All modifiers follow the subject being modified.
Lexicon[edit | edit source]
Most vocabulary in Avreça comes from Spanish, Italian, Catalan, Hindi-Urdu, and Kannada. Case declensions and mood inflections are new developments. In the Eastern and Southern dialects, words are more likely to be of Hindi-Urdu and Kannada origin, while Romance borrowings predominate in the Western and Northern dialects. For example the word for "watermelon" in Western/Northern Avreça is seondi (from Spanish sandía) whereas in Eastern/Southern Avreça, it is tarbaz (from Hindi-Urdu तरबूज़ [tarbūz]).
There also exist poetic variants of common words, primarily borrowed from Classical Avreça as well as substitutions made in real time from other languages. For example, the common word for "to come" is viner-se (from Spanish venir). However, in poetic and Classical Avreça, it is taxrifir-se (from तशरीफ़ लाना [taśrīf lāna]). If this word is used in common parlance, it would have a different meaning, specifically referring to the coming of a respected figure or one of high status. Ex. S'axta taxrifinte al Reija-e-Jannat. (The Ruler of Paradise is coming/arriving).
Words of Hindi-Urdu and Kannada origin can mix with words from Romance languages. An example is vapaviner-se, which combines viner-se (a Spanish borrowing) and vapa, (from Hindi-Urdu/Kannada वापस/ವಾಪಸ [vāpas/vāpasa]). Also, words in Avreça can sometimes have altered meanings, forms, or uses that do not come from the language it is borrowed from. For example, viner-se is a reflexive verb, and in Spanish, Italian, and Catalan, the verb is not reflexive.
Example text[edit | edit source]
Formal Avreça - Translated from the Five Virtues of Meditative Value
Ha’af al capacità di proveder clemenzze sin considerar al sè, xemsa sin juçgar, e alcançar al cor com se evha al di sè. Ha’af al seu vice al errèdeum, al duem d’invidia e d’ixàlah e al seu deformazeon, al pre-ocupazeon. Al cura d’achès huxàd ha’af al saper del mancàs di controle. Se s’offràh al màn e ha’af recusah, ha’af al lìmite del fissèvel.
Ha'oñ-ra ral capacitàxe di provedetaṃ clemenzzre sin considerviṃ sal sère, xemsare sin juçgerviṃ, e alcançerviṃ sal corre com se èuiha ral di sè. Ha'oñ-ra ral seu vixxe sal errèdeumre, al duem d'invidia e di'ixàlah e al seu deformazeon, ral pre-ocupazeonxe. Ral curaxe d'achès huxàd al saper del mancàs di controle. Se s'offro sal màñe e ha'oñ-ra recusah, ha'oñ-ra ral lìmitere del fissèvel.
It is the capacity to grant kindness without considering the self, forgiveness without judgement, and to reach the heart as if it were one's own. Its vice is errèdeum, the duality of envy and jealousy, and its deformation, worry. The cure of this illness is to know the extent of control. If one offers the hand and it is refused, it is the limit of the doable.