Conlang
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ABCL
Type mixed
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations Yes
Genders no
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 99%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 100%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 100%
Words 7500 of 10000
Creator Aydın Baykara


CLASSIFICATION[]

AyBayConLang is an a priori language, which means that the complete vocabulary has been created entirely new, starting from zero. ABCL is a conlang containing partly the features of philosophical and logical languages. It is less agglutinative, but fairly inflective and derivative too.

ABCL is considered completely developed for Level 1 (for daily talk, about B2  level of CEFR) with basic nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions particals, prepositions and pronouns already. The lexicon with about 8000 vocabulary would be sufficient for a fair communication. Level 2 is thought for the full utilization of all aspects for higher purposes like printed papers and literature.

PHONOLOGY[]

Consonants[]

Labial/Bilabial Dental/

Alveolar

Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive/

Affricate

voiceless p t ç (t͡ʃ) k (c)
voiced b d c (d͡ʒ) g (ɟ) ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ş (ʃ) x h
voiced v z j (ʒ)
Approximant l (ɫ) l y (j) ı (ɯ) ğ (ɤ̞ɯ̞)
Flap r (ɾ)
IPA pronunciatios of the letters different from/or not existing in English are given in brackets. In ABCL the nuances in pronunciation is not important for correct understanding and differentiation of words.

Vowels[]

Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i y ɯ u
Open e œ a o

ABCL has no defined allophony at all. The vocabulary is defined so that each word for itself is distinguishable and understandable without help of the allophony. A speaker may use it as he/she is used to it in the native language.

Phonotactics[]

The syllable structure is fixed for root words. For root nouns CVCCV; fo root verbs CVC; for root adjectives VCV; for root adverbs VC; for conjunctions and prepositions CV and for pronouns V and VCV. For derivation however they differ. There are no consonant clusters within a syllble, except one case of modular verbs and negation suffix "x". There are also no diphthongs except with the plural suffix "_i" at the end of the nouns.

Writing System[]

Writing system relays on Turkish ABC, where the letters are written same as in English, except Ç, Ğ, I, Ö, Ş and Ü. (Compared with English Q and W are dropped, X is added.)

Other letters with differing sound from English are shown in the second line of the table.

Letter Ç Ğ I Ö Ş Ü
Sound t͡ʃ ɣ ɯ ø ʃ y
Letter C J Y L G E
Sound d͡ʒ ʒ j l/ɫ g/ɟ e/ɛ
Letter
Sound

GRAMMAR[]

NOUNS[]

Nouns are separated as Basic/Root Nouns and Derived Nouns.

Basic/Root Nouns[]

“Basic/root nouns” consist principally of five letters (CVCCV). Derived nouns are derived from verbs, adjectives and other nouns having six-seven letters. They all end on a vowel same as the basic nouns. The root nouns are classified in 17 noun classes, each of them heading a special area of use, such as “body”, “human”, “animals”, plants, “mental”, psychology-spirit”, social”, “daily home”, “health”, “pastime”, ”nature and environment”, “science”, "technic", “construction-transport”, "military", “time” and “others”. Each of them has its own special initial consonant. Nouns are created by the use of an Excel matrix; an example for the main topic “BODY” is shown below.

With this matrix scheme, using 20 initial consonants, it is possible to create up to 512 000 nouns. We aim to utilize for the Level 1 about 5000 nouns only, The matrix scheme would also allow using the computer programs for word creation and translation.

The matrix allows further sub-subheading such as from Body to “Head”, the first column (S-İNe) indicating sense organs like eye, nose, ear (denoted as SinC*a,e: primary) and further columns right of them, the subparts of first noun at the beginning (denoted as “seconders”). For example: eye (sinye) (first column), then in the same row; iris (sengö), eyelid (sinyo), pupil (sinyü). Being Excel table, the matrix allows right click explanation for each cell, where we can put the meaning of a word in any language.

Here are some guidelines for easy understanding of the following text: (where “C” indicates consonants and “V” vowels) The sign “*” attached to a “V”(V*) or “C”(C*) indicates that the vowels vary from “a” to “ü” and the consonants from “b” to “z” respectively. The sign “#” is a placeholder for a varying vowel or consonant. The point “.” between syllables of ABCL words is used to indicate an affix. It is just a demo to make the role of the suffixes clearer in this article. It will not be applied in normal usage of the language.

SİN: HEAD

SinC*a,e: Primary SinC*e-i-o-ö-ü: Secondary
sin#a,e sin#e,i sin#i,o sin#o,ö sin#ö,ü
sinha head sinhe eye brow sinhi eye lash sinhö ... sinbü ...
sinbe skull sinbi scalp sinbö jaw, chin sinbü cheekbone
sinta tooth sinte canine tooth sinti grinder sinto foretooth sintü gum

Derived Nouns[]

ABCL uses for deverbal nouns five derivational suffixes and a special gerund form, four suffixes for denominal nouns and one suffix for the nouns derived from adjectives.

Deverbal Nouns[]
ABCL Suffix

Level 1

ABCL Suffix

Level 2

Example: ABCL noun (Level 2) English Suffix Some English Nouns as Samples

(nouns given in italic translated in ABCL only)

_aya

(nomina acti-result of act)

_aya kuc.aya _, ­age, _ure cut, bore, leakage, creature
_aya çöp.aya _(t)ion protrusion , indication, motion, division, organization, evaporation
_aya reh.aya _ heap
_aya han.aya _ing building, being, writing, dead, smell, piping
_aya hic.aya _ate certificate
_aya kap.aya _ package
aya bon.aya               _ledge, (a)ncy knowledge, expectancy
moz.zo




(Verb's last
two letters
reverse repeated)

CVC.CV

(nomina actionis-name of the action)

rez.ze

yun.na

_aha moz.zo (moz.aha) _ence joy, fun, thought, excellence
_aha höm.mö, tez.ze _ment employment, enjoyment, amazement, imprisonment, replacement
_aha bol.lo (bol.aha) love, liking, praise
_aha paf.fa _ure failure, pleasure, disclosure
_aha ned.de _al denial, approval, removal, proposal, refusal, dismissal, arrival, appraisal, remedial
_aha pün.nü _ance resistance, deliverance, importance, attendance, defiance, assistance
_aha çeş.şe, pil.li _, _ism speech, criticism, shave, description, classification, dance, dream
_aha boh.ho, çen.ne _ hope, end, rain, work, fear, success, result
_aha luy.yu _ion Interruption, expectation
_aha vus.sa _ing counting, dying (death), measuring
_ada nel.le (nel.ada) _ion, _tion,_sion relaxation, attention, selection, evaporation, introduction
_ada çöm.mö _age, _th, _ade message, manage, drainage, growth, health, blockade
_ada yun.nu _ run, begin, joy
_ada sab.ba _ity ability, prosperity, intensity, simplicity, customs
_ada pöt.tö _ery/-ry, _ony bribery, robbery, testimony
_ada rez.ze (rez.ada) _ancy expectancy, tendency, (walk)
_afa yun.na(yun.afa) _ing (gerund) running, beginning, rejoicing

_ana

_ama höm.ama _er, _or, -ent, -est, -ist, -ory, _ak, _ier employer, teacher, student, assistant, servant, stimulant, baker, beggar, survivor, editor, governor, waitress, tourist, signatory, runaway (leakage), liar, applicant, cashier, cleaner
_ana vus.ana _er counter, cleaner, recorder, player, opener, obstacle, scale, viewer (for suffix _scope: as microscope, telescope)

_aya

_aşa dan.aşa _ dress/clothes(ing)/wear/garment,
_aşa did.aşa _ drink, food
_asa _asa höm.asa _ee employee, refugee, trainee

_aça

_aça vüp.aça _ery,_ry refinery, bakery, laundry, laboratory, dormitory
_aca dir.aca _ing, _tion, _ bedding, station (bus stop), aim/target, passage
Denominal Nouns[]

_da

_da salma.da   (for abstract nouns) _hood, _ship, _ness, _ity, _ism, _cy, _ery, _dom motherhood, friendship, ..., humanity, socialism, fatalism, regency, slavery, military, kingdom
_ha sinse.ha spectacles, woodshed, cucumber, Spielzeug (German)
_ya salma.ya _y, -n/-en/-on, _ling, _ette mummy, doggy, chicken, kitten, maiden    darling, diskette

_ba

_va pespo.va (sulpo) (affiliation to people- group) _ian, _er, _man, _ist politician, librarian, physician, musician, porter, sportsman, fireman, statesman, pianist, artist, dentist, racist, socialist, Buddhist, atheist
_sa Türkiye.sa _ish, _ian, _an, _er, _se Turkish, Algerian, Roman, Chinese
_ba sölce.ba _ish,_ien,_an, (e)r citizen, villager, republican, English, German
_ra vatne.ra / sülne _eer engineer
_ta         (relating to a branch, area _ta banba.ta _logy, _nomy, _graphy biology, psychology, planetology, astronomy, stenography, geography, photography
_ga _ga pasna.ga; pisrö.ga _ism nationalism; racism
_ country name as in the original language, not in English
Suffix replaced by compound words such as "heat gauge" _meter thermometer

For the similar consideration as the deverbal noun derivation above, ABCL will have the suffix "da" for the suffixes of the Level 2 “da, ha, ya”; the suffix "ba" for "ba, va, ra, sa"(all human related), “ga” for “_ism”  and "ta" for scientific nouns. Even if rarely, it is possible that one Level 1 suffix covers two nouns with differing meaning (In the table above "motherhood" and "mummy" are both derived from "mother". With one Level 1 suffix ("da") only, we would have an ambiguity. Therefore, we need here to go back to Level 2, where we have two different suffixes ("da" and "ya") or some particles to highlight the one in mind.

If a noun very frequently used, we defined beside derived one also a root noun for it directly in ABCL as seen above (pespo.ba =sulpo (politician) or vatne.ra=sülne (engineer)). Derivation rules, once memorized, can be applied for new cases also but the word will be longer, other way we have to learn the new noun additionally to derived one, which we consider adequate for the Level 2 only.

Noun Derived from Adjective[]
_ma una.ma _y pinkly
_ma; (x)_ma ebe.ma, ebix.ma _ beauty, ugliness
_ma ofo.ma _dom freedom, boredom
_ma edo.ma _th depth, strength
(x)_ma gav.amox.ma* _cy vacancy
_ma opö.ma _(en)ce prominence, absence, residence
_ma ohox.ma _hood falsehood
_ma asa.ma _ness sadness, kindness, darkness, business
_ma vof.azo.ma* _(en)cy fluency, frequency
_ma silbi.do(so).ma _(al)ity, _ty, _y sexuality, normality, formality, loyalty, jealousy, victory
_ma ome.ma _side outside
_vusdu oşo.vusdu, ki.vusdu _gon polygon, pentagon

*Nouns will not be derived from deverbal adjectives but directly from verbs, so it will be “gav.va” and "vof.fo".

Compound/Combined Noun Derivations[]

adjective.verb çöt.ana telephone  
adjective.verb met.ana television
adjective.verb di*.sese[ab1] telescope
adjective.verb bi*.sese microscope
verb.noun gam.vonga magnifying glass
adjective.noun bi.vonga lens/magnifier
preposition.noun ku.vingu underground
adjective.noun şo.bse (oşo-bense) something

*Last two letters of the adjective (edi, ebi, oşo-distant, big, some) as prefix and simple present tense of the verb (ses.e-see) will be used.

In case of the combined phrases “verb+noun”, the verb keeps its basic form (infinite) followed by the noun but with separation. (e.g.: fes ((to) serve) and vitka (car) combined to “fes vitka” (service car)). Grammatically the verb acts as the adjective.

“Yes” and “No”: “Ay” and “Ya” (This pair is considered mostly as noun, therefore placed here)


[ab1]“Di” is second syllable of “edi=distant”

VERBS[]

Verbs are separated also as Basic/Root Verbs and Derived Verbs.

Root Verbs[]

Root Verbs consist basically of three letters as CVC. They are also classified in schemes similar to the nouns. Seventeen “main headings” (with the first denoting letter of the group following) are “PHYSICAL ACTS -K##”, “AKTIVE ACTIONS –Y, L,  R and G##”, “PEOPLE – S and Ş##”, “SOCIAL RELATION –F, N and P##”, “MENTAL ACTIVITIES –B and M##”, “HOUSEHOLD, … DAILY LIFE -D##”, “PASTTIME, SPOR, HEALTH -T##”, “UTTARANCE, NONPERSON ACTS-Ç##”, “BUSINESS, PUBLIC -H##”, “TECHNIC / SCIENCE / NATURE-V##”.

In PHYSICAL ACTS (Motion),  “K##” is initial consonant for the heading, ## indicates varying 8 vowels (“a” to “ü”) in the second place and alternating 20 consonants in the third place. This way 4600 verbs can be created theoretically,  For the Level 1, ABCL has about one thousand five hundred of them, which seems to be adequate. The main heading could be subdivided in subheading such as KA# for a certain type of “physical acting” and KE# for another where appropriate (not in this example, this idea however dropped later considerably to the benefit of the "evoke" approach). As example, some verbs in the category “K-physical acting” are shown below:

kaf fasten kef fill kıf köf force
kah haul/drag keh hang kıh köh hew
kak convert kek catch kık kök connect/link

Verbs will be flexed for Level 1 beside tenses also for ergative, causative, imperative, passive, subjunctive and negative.

Derived Verbs[]

Verbs will be derived from nouns and adjectives by adding suffixes according to a fixed scheme. They will typically end also on a consonant as the root verbs. For the derivation of verbs from the nouns the suffixes “_k” (for transitive) and “_l” (for intransitive)  will be added (thus we will have a four and five (for negation with _x) letter verb.  For the adjectives also the suffix “_l” is chosen (these type of verbs are always intransitive). The number of letters may be increased up to seven letters.

Derived Verbs from Nouns (Denominal Verbs)[]

Examples: (first noun of the rows translated only)

ABCL suffix ABCL verb English suffix English verb
(noun)_k

(transitive)

venfi.k, denso.k _, _en, _ize fire, salt, frighten(vt), vocalize(vt), terrorize, idolise
benli.k _ate liberate, hyphenate, concentrate, oscillate


(noun)-l

(intransitive)

vessu.l/vüsle.l _en, get … sun/sunbathe, lighten, get old, prink up
venva.l _ize/ise vaporize, get icy, materialize(vi)
banlu.l be lucky
benzü.l be unlucky
tenfe.l get … get fever
Derived Verbs from Adjectives[]

Examples:

ABCL suffix ABCL verb English verb


_l, _xl

enu.l- enux.l be new-become old
ebi.l- ebix.l biggen-become small/diminish
eşi.l- eşix.l shine-become dull/tarnish/dim
ofe.l-ofex.l be fresh/freshen-be stale (wither)
ebe.l- ebex.l become beautiful-be ugly

Infinite and Imperative[]

ABCL Suffix

Level 1

Example: ABCL noun English Suffix Some English Nouns as Samples

(verbs given in italic are imperatives)

_eş-x yun.eş(!), den.eş-x(!) to …(infinitive)/ ! to run, to eat / (run!, eat-don’t eat!)

Verb Transformation in ABCL[]

Many verbs in English are ambitransitive (ergative-anticausative) (transitive and intransitive, depending on the context) such as burn, sink, read, break etc. where the separation is provided either by their context (receiving an object) or by the special prepositions/particles. For the translation from English to ABCL, ABCL would need two different root verbs for each type of the meaning in order to overcome the ambiguity. Therefore, I have tried to minimize and to simplify this duality. The verbs defined in lexicon are either inherently intransitive (among others linking verbs including all copula verbs) as appear, be, become, feel, get, grow, keep, look, seem, sound, smell, stay, turn etc.) i.e. they cannot take object or inherently transitive, i.e. they take object anyway. Verbs such as “to boil” is considered in ABCL as inherently intransitive because boiling is an inherently specific characteristic of fluids.  Equivalent of any ambitransitive English verb is defined in ABCL always intrinsically as transitive (e.g. the verb “sink=yes” is in ABCL transitive only even though in English it may have the meanings such as: the boat sank (intransitive) and the storm has sunk the bot (transitive)). Intransitive includes also reflexive and reciprocal. (Most of the natural languages have more transitive verbs than intransitive, e.g. English and German about 60%, therefore I have chosen transitive sinse as basic in case of the duality.)

Because there are too many ambitransitive verbs, which can be transformed by reflexion in to (semi-) intransitive verbs, ABCL introduced the reflexive suffix “_m” for this purpose. (Example: look at (vt) vs look nice (vi)- bul.# vs bul.#.m) With this approach the problem of the ambitransitive verbs would be overcome in ABCL. Other way around to make out of an intransitive verb a transitive one (ergative) ABCL defined the suffix “_t” and for the reciprocal the suffix “_y”.

English uses also different word or auxiliary to make out of an inherently intransitive verb a transitive verb (like “die-kill”, “sleep- get/make… sleep”) or opposite.  Contrary to ABCL, it creates from transitive verb intransitive reflexive verbs by using reflexive pronouns (protect-protect oneself).

The verb “bab” is introduced as ABCL equivalent of English verb “to be”, it will be utilized however in copula mood as “zero copula”. For example, “it is beautiful” translates into ABCL (for the sake of simplicity) not as “u babe ebe” but as “u ebe” or simpler as “ebe” if the context permits it.

Other suffixes for further verbal forms are listed in the table under the title: Modal Verbs, Inflexions and Modus in ABCL further below.

ADJECTIVES[]

Basic Adjectives[]

Basic adjectives consist of three letters as VCV/x, yielding about 500, but doubling by using of “x” at the ends giving an adverse meaning such as “ebe” for beautiful and “ebex” for ugly. Adjectives have also been separated in classes. “Determiners” with the subtitles: “interrogative, demonstrative, indefinite (quantifier), indefinite numerical, main colours, placing and possessive” where first vowel “o”/“ö” and “u” (for colours only) indicates the “determiner group” and varying consonants (C*’s as “t, s, ş, m, y” (colours have also other consonants)) decoding the subtitles like “interrogative”. Second group is the “qualifier/classifiers” with three subtitles: First title beginning with “o” is special classes as human feature, frequently used etc.); second with “a” evaluative-descriptive for “people” (personality and behaviour mainly) and third with “e” description of “things”.

Each of them has been subdivided internally according to the scheme e.g. V#V (eC*a, eC*e; eC*i; … eC*ü). Although each subtitle was originally designed to indicate a special type of the adjectives such as “aC*e-being”, “aC*i-behaviour” or “eC*ü-nature/science, the order could not be kept due to new idea of “harmonizing” the sound between ABCL and English adjectives for the ease of memorizing by connotation. (e.g.: ebi=big, where the last letters “bi” of ABCL same (or similar) with the first letters “bi” of English word). Thus, even though the first idea has been kept; e.g. for the “aC*V, the subtitles “physical features, appearance, human attribute, opinion-view, etc.,” at the end they are mixed up to the certain degree anyway. Examples for Root Adjectives:

Indefinite (Quantifier): o/ö.ş.V* English Physical Description of Things e/o.C*.V* Person-Behaviour

a/o.C*.V*


oşa

more, _er

eşe-x sweet-bitter apo-x polite/kind/gentle-impolite/rude
oşe Most, _est ece certain ofe-x fair-biased
oşu-oşux several/many/ much -few/ little eso sour aju-x just-devious
öşo-öşox some_  - any_ oho-x hot-cold aşe-x sedate-excited
öşö each ova-x warm- cool asu superficial
öşü-öşüx every_  -no_ eva-x wide-narrow aki keen/eager

Derived Adjectives:[]

Adjectives will be derived by adding suffixes to the verbs and nouns. As the root adjectives, also derived one’s end with a vowel, typical for adjectives. Thus, they will have six to eight letters.

Deverbal Adjectives:[]

They will be derived by the suffixes “_ado/_adox” (in place of the English suffixes "_ful, _less, _ant/-ent, _ive, _ile, _ic, _ate, _y/ly,_ic, _ous, etc.), "_amo" (for capability "_able/_ible"). Differently from English, for past participle and present participle ABCL uses not the conjugated verb forms for adjective but derives new words as  “_ono” (for past participle _ed) and “_iko” (for present participle _ing).

Examples for Deverbal Adjectives:

_ado

_adox

_ful

_less

_azo  ado _ant/-ent _amo _able, _ible _ono p.p _ed/ irregular _iko _ing
boh.ado

boh.adox

hope.ful

hope.less

nel.ado relaxant keb.amo breakable dol.ono boiled ted.iko dancing
bus.ado

bus.adox

use.ful

use.less

sip.ado pleasant mir.amo admirable bon.ono known tis.iko singing
rah.ado

rah.adox

harmful

harmless

fur.ado dominant höç.amox incredible muv.ono worried moh.iko terrifying
Denominal Adjectives[]

Denominal adjectives will be derived by the suffixes “_do/_dox” (in place of the English affixes "_ful, _less, _ive, _ulent, _ile, _holic, _ic, _ate, _y/ly,_ic, _ous, un_, im_,  etc.) and "_no" (for capability "_able/_ible")

Examples

_do _ful, _ous _dox un-, -less, im-, in-, ir- _no _able, _ible
fenpü.do peaceful bonho.dox hope.less posfa.no fashionable
sonye.do handful camti.dox timeless halta.no taxable
minşi.do-x merciful-cruel pasha.dox homeless

With these 8 suffixes (ado, adox, ako, amo, ano, do, dox, no) it is possible to get unnumbered new adjectives from verbs and nouns additionally to 520 root adjectives.

Antinomies of Adjectives[]

As stated already, the antinomies of adjectives will be generally defined by adding the suffix “x”. This has been done preferably with the pairs where in English a separate adjective available for the antinomy. This way the number of words to be memorized would be reduced considerably. For the adjectives used very often we made however some exceptions. In order to avoid a mix up which comes first, it is necessary to implement certain rules. These are: For physically quantifiable, the bigger/larger/heavier/stronger etc. is the base adjectives, the latter will get “_x“ (like: big-small: ebi-ebix; for qualitative, what people normally prefer, comes first (like: honest-false: oho-ohox; hot-cold: ovo-ovax etc.). Adjectives which are used in speech mostly shall have basic form even the foregoing stated rules implies differently. (e.g.: “eda-x” (dark- light/pale), even though “dark” implies physically “unfavorability” because “light” is used relatively seldom competed with “dark”.

The suffix “_x” comes always directly after the adjective (basic or derived does not matter- e.g. ohox.ka, enux.l, minşi.do.x), followed by other derivational suffixes.

Numbers[]

Also for the numbers, the suffix “_x” meaning zero, a differing system has been created. 1 to 10: bi, çi, fi, ki, li, vi, pi, si, yi, bix

1-9 10-90 11-19 100-900 1 Th-9 Th 10 Th-90 Th 100 Th-900 Th 1 Mln-10 Mln
#i #ix bi#i #iç #if #ik #il #iv
1 bi bix bibi biç bif bik bil biv
2 çi çix biçi çiç çif çik çil çiv
.... .... ..... ..... ..... ..... ... ..... ....
9 yi yix biyi yiç yif yik yil yiv

For example: The number 6 572 120 is written in ABCL: viv.lil.pik.çif.biç.çix (includes 18 letters). The same digit written in English extends to 52 letters.

The system continues in such “ten” times pattern as (unary notion):

Bis, biy, bim, bir, bit, biv, biş, big (quadrillion)

Above that, the system follows one thousand pattern such as "bix big, biç big, bif big, bil big, biv big" etc.

At the first sight it seems to be some ambiguity with some verbs, e.g. “bip” means as verb “disappear” but as number “ten million” or “bibi” means “occurring” but as number “eleven”. However, in the syntax a mix up is not possible due to the fact that the verbs are placed secondly after the subject where the numbers stay as adjectives after the verbs and before the noun they modify. (e.g.: u bibi bibi üs bi camya=It is occurring eleven times a year.)

Ordinal numbers are as below: (example for 2 “çi”)

çi.ji                         two.half              

çi.ği                        *-th (second)

ki.ği                        four.th

öşü çi/fi                               both/every three           

ki.z.çi     two forth (two of four; four's half)          

çi.vum, fi.vum, ki.vum   double/two fold/twice, triple, quadruple

çi.ğ.ma,fi.ğ.ma       couple, trio   

ADVERBS[]

Basic Adverbs[]

Basic adverbs consist of two letters in scheme of VC, covering mostly used adverbs in many languages. As in English, in many other languages also adverbs have often the same spelling with the adjectives and conjunctives. For the sake of ambiguity, they also will have separate words in ABCL, if used as adverb. Also here there are separate headings for subdivision, indicated by choose of the vowels. For example, first letter being variable vowel, (“V*”), second letter C (consonant) indicates the subdivision. The consonants e.g.  “s, t, y” indicate “time” and “ş” the “quantity” where the first letter (vowel) varies from “a” to “ü” (* means always “varying letters” in this article). This way 110 words can be created (without the use of the vowel “ı”). The consonant “ç, f, l, n” code the “adverbs of manner” which are subdivided into four, such as limitation (*f), descriptive (*ç) etc.

Some Examples:

Time Quantity Manners/direction Manners/descriptive
V*s V*ş V*m V*ç
as always more, _er am ahead, forward together
es yet/still most üm-em in(side)-out (side) üç enough
V*t
it now all
ot tomorrow some

Derived Adverbs[]

Also here there are deviations in the number of basic letters while deriving adverbs from verbs, nouns and adjectives.

Examples for some derivations: (The firsts English words in row are translated in to ABCL only)

ABCL suffix Derived from Root Verbs


_r**

feh.r help(ing)fully
şah.r, bon.r* _(ing)ly laugh(ing)ly, know(ing)ly

*Deferring from English, the adverb will be constructed directly by adding the suffix “_r” to the root of the verb. Also without building an adjective in gerund form with “_ing”

**While reading and speaking, the vowel “i” or “ı” will be inserted before the suffix “_r”. (it reads as “feh.ir”)

ABCL suffix Derived from Derived/ Root Adjectives


_r

feh.ado.r, banlu.do.x.r (ful(ly), _(a)bly helpfully, unfortunately notably, passably, incredibly,
eni.r (enix.r),  atö.r _ly nicely (ugly), tensely, clearly, actively, quickly
omo.r-omoxr on the front-behind
ABCL suffix Derived from Root Noun
_r halce.r(x), monba.r

(in ABCL directly by noun possible)

_ally, _(ful)ly (un)economi.c.ally, joy.ful.ly       (in English only via denominal adjective possible)
_r süb.r, hünve.r, elo.r a_ a.miss,  away, along, ahead, apart,  alone

Negation suffix comes in these cases at the end of adverbial suffix “_r”

The number of derived adverbs from the verbs and adjectives only would yield about two thousand.

CONJUNCTIVES-PREPOSITIONS[]

Conjunctives-prepositions consist of two letters as CV.  Logical groupings have been built systematically, such as conjunction particles (and, or, then, so… ), particles for subordinate clauses (so that, even if, unless etc.) and prepositions. For example, the consonants “p, r, s and v” point out to coordinating conjunction (like else, consequently, however, and, but) and “k, l, m and  n” to the locational prepositions (like in, at, on, out, under, above, behind etc), with the vowel varying from “a” to “ü”.

CONJUNCTIONS
Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Subclause Correlative Conjunctions Interrogative as Subordinate Conjunctions
p_, r, s, v:     varied vowels h_, f, d, ç, b: varied vowels
sV* fV* tV*
sa and fa even if pe…so (pe) either...or ta what
so or as if pex..so neither...or te where
su but fe if/in case ça/fo (adj)…ge as.(adjec).as to           who
se still/yet fu unless ça / fo elo ge as long as why
pe either ha while fü.. (so)..x           whether...or ..not tu when
ro however du that tü           how
PREPOSITION Locational PREPOSITION
y_, ş, g k_, l, m, n
şV* kV*
şa after le between
şe before among
şo for ko across
şu by ke beside

PRONOUNS and Possessive Determiners (Adjective Pronouns)[]

Pronouns consist of one (personal pronouns) and three letters (V, VCV).  The personal pronouns are “a, o, u, e, ö, ü”. All other pronouns have VCV where first vowel is always “i” (except reflexive pronouns) with which they would be recognizable and differ from adjectives. Possessive determiners (adjective pronouns) have two letters (V*z)                   

Personal Pronoun (pp) Possessive Pronouns
iz.V*(pp) (pp).own
a I iza mine
o you izo yours
u he, she, it izu his, her, its
e we ize ours
ö you izö yours
ü they izü theirs
(i) (own)
Demonstrative Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Nonperson Pronouns
is.V* ip.V* it.V* iş.V*
isa this ipa this (one) ita what işa more
iso that ipo that (one) işe most
isu that ipu other iti which işi-x all-none
ise these ipe-x either-neither ito who işo-x some/someone- any/no one/none
isö those ipö that (place name) işö each
isü those ipü there işu much/many-few
işü.ba/sa)-x every.(thing/body)-no.(thing/body)

NEGATION AND QUESTIONS[]

Negation of the act is done by adding suffix “x” at the end of the conjugated verb and verbal modal suffixes (like passive) if any. With “_x” as suffix, ABCL construct also antonym for adjectives, (seldomly)adverbs and conjunctives/prepositions (also seldomly as the pair “with-without”) where appropriate. “X” stand alone means “not” in English but for phrases such as “… or not” or for expressions (e.g.: you, not!= o x!; not today!= x at!; not nice= x eni!) only.  “X” is also used for the number “zero”.

Questions will be indicated by the letter “J”, in case of the pronouns as prefix and in case of the nouns as particle before subject noun, spoken with a “short-soundless “ı” sound (like “ion-loud” in “station” (explained before)). It can also build vocal harmony with the first syllables of the following noun which will be however omitted in writing.

Example: J.a yüsa? (Shall I swim?), J (Jɯ or Je) şenbe b.yüs.e? (Can fish swim?)

Interrogatives are similar to English:

What                     Ota                                        Why                                      Ötö                       

Where                 Ote                                        When                                   Utu

Which                   Oti                                         How                                      Ütü

Who                      Oto                                       How much/many/old    Üta.pis/vus/cam

TENSES, ASPECTS and SUBJUNCTIVES/IRREALIS of ABCL-CONLANG[]

Tenses and Aspects[]

Verbs are conjugated for five tempus “future, simple present, present continuous, simple past (past 1) and imperfect/durational past/history” (past 2), with the corresponding vocals “a, e, i, o/ö, u/ü” placed after verbs as suffix. (“ö” and “ü” are for “prior” event in case of two linked events, otherwise u/ü and o/ö can be interchanged for the vocal harmony)

Tenses Suffix Examples ABCL English
Future _a yog.a will go
Simple present _e yog.e.x doesn’t go
Present continuous passive _i vap.i.n.x is not painted
Simple past (past 1) (“ö” for prior event if two events linked-past perfect) _o/ö dol.o (I) boiled
Durational past/history (past 2) (“ü” for prior event if two events linked-past perfect) _u/ü vap.un had been painted (in one week)


Past 1 includes all verbs indicating a completed/finished action, independently when it had occurred in the past and happened recently or long time ago.

Past 2 includes all verbs inheriting a continuity. It doesn’t make a difference whether the effect of the act is still relevant at the presence (present perfect in English) or it happened before any relative time point. It matters only that it has a duration in the past. Also here it is not relevant whether it happened recently or long time ago.

Since the primary goal of ABCL is the simplicity, I tried to simplify various aspects used in many languages as far as possible without omitting any useful/necessary aspect utilized in spoken languages at different ways. Normally none of the aspects itself express the speaker’s intention alone. To overcome this, he needs additionally different auxiliary particles, especially temporal adverbs. In fact, a language missing one “useful” aspect of another language, is still able to express the same content by utilizing these auxiliaries. With other words, it is possible for people to express themself also by other means, without the help of a big range of the aspects.

ABCL has none of the complicated aspects requiring the usage of modals and root modification of the  verbs such as in Germanic languages (progressive, perfect, past perfect, progressive perfect, past perfect progressive, future perfect progressive, conditional perfect progressive) nor in other languages (habitual, recent/far past, simultaneous, gnomic/generic etc.) All those aspects such as the frequency of occurrence and timely relation (recently, long time ago) will be expressed by the temporal adverbs and numbers where and if required. I considered e.g. the present perfect tense not necessary because whether or not a past event extends its affect in the presence, has no or very limited relevance for expressing the intent of the speaker. If it would be really necessary, he can describe it by the auxiliary particles. In fact, the differentiating of simple past and present perfect, as a relic of past, disappear slowly as seen in spoken German language.

The duration of an act in the past could not be easily described by adverbs and other means or by the inherit sense of the verb itself. Therefore, and because it could be important in many situations, I have introduced Past 2 in order to cover such aspects. Historical events are natural events of hearsay, which could not have been witnessed by the speaker. So transferred events will be also covered in ABCL with the past 2 with or without explicit duration of the event. Again, the adverbial auxiliaries can help also here in cases of uncertainty.

Future progressive, -perfect and -perfect progressive aspects could not easily be replaced by auxiliaries also. I introduced for these cases instead of modals as in English/German, the prefix “_s” in ABCL. It serves for future subjunctives followed by the aspect which is indicating the presence or past of the conjugated main event. 

Below, the examples for the cases explained above for the tenses and aspects used in English and their equivalent in ABCL:

Aspects of English present tense and their equivalent/counterpart in ABCL:

Present simple                                                 "I eat"                                                A den.e

Present progressive                                       "I am eating"                                    A den.i

Present perfect                                                               "I have eaten"                                 A den.o/ö

Present perfect progressive                       "I have been eating"                     A den.u/ü

I have been eating last year often outside. (This year I eat at home)        A den.ü oyüx camya us em.

Aspects of English past tense (and in brackets, how it is expressed in ABCL reverse translation with the help of auxiliaries):

Past simple : "I ate" (once) (often)                                                                         A den.o[ab1]  (üs) (us)

I used to eat / I ate (habitually[ab2] )                                                                                       A buso deneş/ A den.o (sihir)

Past progressive : "I was eating" (for a while)  (sweets)                                 A den.u (öt) (densö)

Past perfect: "I had eaten[ab3] " (already) (when you have arrived)                            A den.ö (oy) (he o yaro)

Past perfect       (for “prior” event)                                                                         A den.ü

Past perfect progressive: "I had been eating"  (for “prior” event)                             A den.ü

I had been eating (always) outdoor, (after 2018 I have cooked at home)                A den.ü (as) em, (şa 2018 a don.u ….)

Aspects of the future tense: (“The prefix “s_” is indicator for future aspects)

Simple future:          "I will eat"                                                                                  A den.a

Future progressive: "I will be eating" tomorrow at time of your arrival. A s.den.i ot …

Future perfect: "I will have eaten" tomorrow at time of your arrival.       A  s.den.ö ot …

Future perfect progressive:  "I will have been eating"                                     A  s.den.ü ot...

Subjunctives of future

For future aspects the prefix “_s” and for subjunctivity (would) the suffix “_k” (see below) (for hypothetical/ conditional reference) have been combined: (for Level 2)

Simple (conditional) subjunctive:              "I would eat[ab6] "                                           A dene.k                            

Future conditional progressive:                                "I would be eating"                       A s.deni.k          

Future conditional perfect:                          "I would have eaten"                   A s.denö.k         

Future conditional perfect progressive: "I would have been eating"       A s.denü.k (ot…)             

Present Subjunctive

Event is hypothetical, but possible, expressing: dependency, emotion, hopes, expectation, wish, desire, possibility, probability, likelihood, uncertainty, doubt, dubiousness, judgment, opinion, obligation, inferential (hearsay), not confirmed, necessity, imploring, asking, guessing, requiring, encouraging or action that has not yet occurred.

This case will be expressed in depended phrases, (as in subordinate clauses such as conditional “if” or as conjunctions (mainly “du”=”that” in English)) as real tenses of ABCL without the usage of any suffix, subjunctive modal and modification of the verb stem but with suitable adverbs, and special particles. Subjunctively in the head phrase will be indicated by the suffix “_k”.

Examples for Presence Subjunctives:

If I could sleep (have slept[ab7] )                                                 fe a bdare(o).k …

If-clauses (conditional present): (fe)

I would eat, if I were hungry[ab8] :                                                             fe a dene.k (fe a babe ohu)

We would stay at home if it snowed[ab9] .                                            e yaşe.k pasha fe vense ven.e  

That-clauses: (du)

I suggested that Paul should eat an apple                           a fus.o du  Paul gdeno.k şer[ab10] pa        

He recommends that you be careful                                       u nor.e du  bece.k                                         

It is important that she stay (with you) by your side.       Eji du  u yaşe.k (ne o) oz vun[ab11] ku       

Desirative-Wish-clauses: (an)

I wish I had a car then I wouldn't get on the bus[ab12]                       an (a biv.e) a mahe.k vitka ar a rege.kx vitba      

I wish I knew Japanese[ab13] .                                                                     an, a böne.k Nippon.sa

Necessity/must-modal-clauses:

I should be able to sleep (I ought to be able to sleep)       a g.sabo.k dareş

Hearsay-inferential

"He must have gone" or "he is said to have gone[ab14] " (supposedly) (a sehö/bite/gaye) (du) u yogo.k öv (u yogo.v[ab15]  öv)

Martina says that she be in love with you (can be true or not)   Martina ças.e du  u bole.k o[ab16]  öv.

Future in the Past as “Real Clause”

For events in the past which are narrated now/present. In order to express the intention of the person at the time of narrated event to do something later. This will be indicated by adverb “henceforth=üf”

He was very fat, therefore he ate more vegetables “henceforth”                             …. u den.o “üf” …

(also possible to express the same as in English indirectly: … he decided to eat more vegetables henceforth.)

Irrealis in ABCL[]

Event (counterfactual) cannot occur anymore because the prior dependency, necessity [ab17] and condition set in the past, had not been fulfilled. Also an event cannot be realized in future[ab18]  because the required condition for its realization could not be met. 

Irrealis are expressed in various world languages by modal verbs in past tense (as would, should, might), by modification of verb stem (Arabic: yaktubu-yaktuba), by adjectives, by conjunctives (if, that), by suitable verbs in subordinate clauses, by special particles and by suffixes to the verbs or by combinations of that.

Examples for Irrealis:                                                  

Irrealis clauses are all irreal subjunctive events mostly with conditional (if-clauses) and other dependent sub clauses.  Unreality in this sinse is generally possible in past only (But there are cases for simple present too). Also hypothetical future events which cannot be realized because dependent conditions of other events in the past are not fulfilled, are included here.  There are also irrealis clauses with “hidden/not outspoken” dependencies. This item includes further unreal desires and wishes (I wish/ if only) and necessity/must cases (should) as well.

This events in ABCL will have “the contrafactual suffix –ç” added to the conjugated verb, indicating that all clauses with this verb suffix are irrealis past subconjunctive.

If-clauses: (Because the sub-ordinate clause is priorly, the tense of its verbs will be “ö” and “ü” respectively)

"If I had felt well (were I well/if I were well) I would have sung"                                fe a sevö (bab.o ani) a tiso.ç[ab19] 

Would you have helped me if I had asked you[ab20] ?                                                      jo feh.o.ç  a fe a çayö o?

If I had been hungry, I would have eaten[ab21]                                                  fe a dakö (bab.o ohu) a deno.ç

Without your help (hidden condition) I could not have finished it              nex oz feh.ha a b.rifo.çx

If you would be my son[ab22]  ……                                                                                             fe o babo.ç az salsa …

I would not help him if I were you (example for simple present irrealis)  a fehe.çx[ab23]  u fe a baba o

That-clauses:

My mother had suggested that I should have eaten an apple                      az salma fuso du  a gdeno.ç şer[ab24] pa

I drunk so much, that my head would have almost[ab25]  exploded. “                      a didö fo oşu du  az sinha çozo.ç ah

Necessity/must-modal-clauses:

I should have been able to sleep (I ought to be able to sleep)                     a gsabo.ç dareş

You should have attended the meeting yesterday[ab26]                                                  o gfato.ç pösma et

Wish-clauses (incl. desiderative mood):

Only if I could have slept[ab27]                                                                                    an, a bdar.o.ç …

I wish I had a car so that I hadn't got on the bus[ab28] .                                                    an, (a biv.e) a baho vitka du  a rego.çx …

I should have learned German[ab29]                                                                                        an, a g.bönö.ç Deutsch.sa

Future-clauses:

I would have got fresh air outdoor if it had not rained this morning[ab30] .              a s.rego.ç ofe venye em fe venre venö.çx osa cemmü

ABCL considers the subjunctive in subordinate clauses as not essential for the expression of intent of the speaker and omit it accordingly. For example:  Instead of the subjunctives "I suggest that you be careful", we can say "I suggest that you are careful" without losing the sense intended. “Suggest” implies that the case is “irrealis” even though from the grammatical point of view it is “real”.  If a subordinate clause implies beside conditionality also timely priority (such as with the “if”-clauses) the tenses “ö and ü” will be used instead of “o and u”.

Subconjunctive and irrealis: How far are they required? How are they in natlangs?[]

In case of inferential (indirect reported), not witnessed, doubted and not confirmed subjunctives, such as “He said he was a physician” (German: Er sagte, er sei Arzt), the speaker can express his intention by telling it directly, i.e. he can say “He said he was a physician, but I cannot confirm it”. An adverbial auxiliary such as “allegedly or supposedly” would express the same circumstance. Also past subjunctive “He said he had no time” (German: Er sagte, er hätte keine Zeit) can be expressed the same way. The past subjunctive can be replaced also with suitable adverbs such as “He has apparently/supposedly been there” (er sei da gewesen ) and for the future as “He will assumably be there” (er werde da sein)  Turkish has a separate tense for inferential: “O git.ti” translates “o git.miş”. If it were necessary, English constructions "he must have gone" or "he is said to have gone" would partly translate this Turkish inferential sentence. Even though it is very convenient to build the subjunctive by simply adding the suffix “–miş” to the verb root “git”, it must be learned by some effort. Instead of it I preferred also in such cases using direct real clauses with suitable phrases to cover the intent of the speaker. Here we would say: “I was told that he has gone” or better “He has supposedly gone.” Even though I defined the suffix “_v” for this case for Level 2.  (a bduro.v cemrü = I was able to fall asleep at midnight supposedly (or as I was told next morning)=uyuyabil.miş.im

Past subjunctive (irrealis) is also used to form the conditional tense (as Konjunktiv II in German with modal “würde”).  Grammatically/formally irrealis “I would not help him if I were you” can be transferred as “I do not help him if I am you” Here even though both phrases are real, with the meaning of the “conditional if…” it is implied that it is not real because in reality “I cannot be you”.            

In French present and past subjunctives used mostly with verbs or adverbs. It is preceded by the conjunction que (that). In case of jussive: Il faut qu’il comprenne cela ("It is necessary that he understand that"), the “necessity” implies “the order” so that there is no need for the further subjunctive moods of the verbs. This idea has been also partially implemented in ABCL as already stated.

Italian has also similar subjunctive setting, for example with credo che, è possibile che. I believe (that) she is the best (opinion).

Arabic : Indicative yaktubu "he writes / is writing / will write" → Subjunctive yaktuba "he may / should write" could be transfer in to “It is possible (that) he writes” and “it is required (that) he writes”.

Some examples of the means for transferring the subjunctives of other languages and English into modified format to be used by ABCL:

Optative[ab31] :  "May I be loved!" transferred to “I wish that I will be loved”

Jussive[ab32] :  "Everyone should be loved", “I ask that everyone is to be loved”

Potential mood[ab33] : “She probably/possibly loves me" 

Dubitative mood[ab34] :  "I think she loves me."  

Hypothetical[ab35] :  "I might love you [if...]";  "May I love you" as “I don’t expect that I love you”

Admirative[ab36] :  "Wow! She loves me!", "Apparently she loves me."

Hortative[ab37] :  "Let us love!"

Eventive[ab38] : "I would probably love you [if...]" as “I probably love you, if …..”


MODAL VERBS, INFLEXIONS and MODUS in ABCL[]

There are no gender, number and casus declination/flexion at all. Where necessary, gender may be identified by a corresponding noun/adjective. The casus will not be needed, also no locative prepositions (in, at, to, from) since the unambiguous verb itself normally implies the cases and the object is defined clearly by its position in the sentence. Only in case of complexity the preposition may be needed.

Modal Verbs: ABCL has four real and one subjunctive modal verb as prefixes:

Modus ABCL Prefix English Modal Examples
Ability b- can bdene - can eat
Possibility d- may ddene – may eat
Necessity g- shall gdene – shall eat
Obligation ç- must çdene – must eat
Subjunctive s- would sdene/sdenö - would eat/ate-have eaten


Example: A g.vap.e.p az hanka: I shall get my house painted.

They are placed as prefix to the verbs. Because this way a cluster emerges, in speaking only the first vowel of the verb repeats as gap filling and vowel harmony in between or soundless “ı” as convenient. The modals will not be conjugated and declined at all.

There are countless “verbal modus” in living World languages. Which often used in one language does not exist such as in another at all. If necessary, modus is expressed using particles and prepositions. For the first level we abandoned most of them, leaving a few where we think it easy to learn and nice to have them for good expression.

Possession is one, which “must be”, is formed by suffix “_z” and placed after nouns and pronouns. Plural “_i” is used as suffix also after nouns.

ABCL has in Level 1 nine verb features indicated by a particle marker and suffixes. Suffixes come after the conjugated verb but before any further suffix as “x” etc.

Table of Affixes

Mood/Verb Transformation ABCL Marker /Suffixes ABCL example-English equivalent
Conditional (factual-predictive): -Binbi.so:             marker conjunctions "if" fe… (he)fe a mefe - if I feel well
Imperative/jussive/infinite- Paceş "verb".eş yogeş - go! / to go
Verbal Conjunctive (gerund)- Paciş "verb".iş yogiş - going
Passive- Bunzu _n vapon - was painted
Ergative (Intrans. to transitive) - Röş.ato (.ado) _t (u) dolot (densu) – (she) boiled (water)
Reflexive (Transitive to intr) -Ver.ato(.ado) _m (a) dasem – (I) wash myself
Reciprocal (mutuality-intransitive) -Peş.ato _y boley - make love (sevişmek)
Causative (Transitive) -Bac.ato(.ado) _p vapep -  get painted (boyattırmak)
Subjunctive/irrealis- Kök.ana                       
        Present subjunctive   

Future subjunctive (prefix)

Past/irrealis (counterfactual)

Future/irrealis (prefix)

_k tisek - would sing
s_ (verb#)_k stisük -would have been singing
tisoç/tisüç - would have sung
s_ (verb#)_ç stisaç - would have been sung
Negation _x vapenx - (is) not painted
Question (prefix to subject) j_ jo mefe - do you feel well?

#…vowel for tense

“Real” conditional mood marker is the conjunctional particle “fe”. Imperative/jussive/infinite will be performed by adding the related personal pronouns to the verb as prefix (o.Verb, u.Verb (let him.Verb), e.Verb (let us.Verb)…) and “_eş” as suffix. For second person singular the prefix “o” may be dropped thus imperative being “Verb.eş”

Passive suffix is “_n”. Passive form will be in case of ergatives (from intransitive to transitive conveyed verb) Verb.t.n (for the example in the table above, passive will be “dol#.t.n”, e.g. … dolotn (… has been boiled by …), where between the cluster “tn” a weak “i or ı-sound” may be implemented in speech. )

ABCL uses for hypothetical, but possible subjunctive cases the suffix “_k”; for the past counterfactual subjunctives (irrealis) the suffix “_ç” and “_s” as prefix aspect-modal for the future cases. (see under “aspects” above) Other types of subjunctives will be marked by suitable particles.

Negation suffix “_x” will be placed as a rule at the end of the conjugated verb and after the modal suffixes if any. In some cases, it could come to sequencing of two suffixes in a row such as “vapo.p.n.x” (the house was not get painted[ab1]  by…). In such cases also between “_x” and the suffix before a soundless “ı” or “i” or the last vowel can be put for vowel harmony.

Level 2 moods

Inferential mood/Hearsay-Binmi _v bol.#v bolev - (it is said) (he/she) love …
Optative desiderative- An Mançu (in level 1 expressed by auxiliary particle "an") _s sev.e.s (an) seves (o)- (I wish) (you) be well

Inflexinal Suffixes for Nouns:

Genitive/Possesive-Huz.ato _z şintü.z şindü / o.z şintü of, _’s (kitten of the cat) your cat
Plural-Bunyu        _i hanho.i _s        (houses)


Below are some aspectual compound verb features and moods from Turkish denoted by suffixes,                                                                                                                                                                                                applicable in Level 2 only:

These and similar are expressed in ABCL by suitable adverbial particles as given in underlined English translation

Copula mood will be enhanced by the adverbial suffix "uç", which understress the certainty of the act if and when required. (“John is big”, translates “John ebi” and if enhanced as “John ebi uç”)

Compound tenses in Turkish will be expressed by adverbial particles as:              

-   "Di" li geçmiş-hikaye (simple past-narrative): geldiydim (I had come there at …)

-   "Miş"li (görünen, öğrenilen değil) geçmiş-hikaye (simple past-past witnessed): kırılmıştı (it had been broken by then)

-   Şimdiki zamanın hikayesi (present-narrative): biliyordum (I was knowing it then/at that time)

-   Geniş zamanın hikayesi (simple present- narrative: (eskiden) severdi (he loved erstwhile/one time)

ABCL does not include singular-third person (it, one) as unspecified subject. ABCL usues passive form instead:

Ma osa venhi "daren.x". (without a subject as in Turkish -so called 'hidden subject')  It can't/will not be slept

in this heat-bu sıcakta uyunmaz.             


GREETING and WISHES[]

Infinitive/imperative form of the verbs "sen” (to be well) and "sin” (to keep in touch) have been defined as “short” greeting nouns, "sen" meaning "hallo" (“full” “sen.eş”: (I wish you) be well) to be used when people meet/phone and "sin" meaning "good by” (“full” “sin.ey”: (let us) to see you again-to keep in touch) when separate. No further greeting and courtesy words are defined. User can himself introduce such words as “good day, good luck” if he wishes by directly translating them from English or their native languages. The addressing forms such as “mr., mrs., sir, madam, etc.” have no place in ABCL.

For Level 2 however, in accordance with simplicity requirement of ABCL, further phrases are defined as follows:

sen(eş)***

sin(en) ***

sat o

enex

o tü?

(a) ani

şebis*

(a) mos

sip(eş)***

oha.cam**

aho.cam

ego.ban(lu)

ego.tan(he)


hallo

see you (good by)

thank you

welcome (unrequired)

how are you?

I’m fine

best wishes

I’m sorry

please

Happy New Year

merry/holy “Holy Day”

good luck

good health


Literally: be well

                 wish to keep in touch

                 thank you

                 unnecessary



* Being "bis" is root verb for "wish" and "oşe" is adjective "most", the full wish phrase would be: “A bis.e o oşe bantı.” meaning “I wish you the best things”. For greeting they will be merged to one word "oşebis", better “şebis”: This will be used as overall wishes for almost all situations like good luck, success, health, journey etc. (although I defined for good luck and health separate phrases for Level 2)

** Although New Year means "camne", only first syllable "cam" indicating the class "time" is taken and suffixed to "oha=happy" building one word for the sake of shortness and simplicity. The same apples also to the following phrases.

*** Short forms: sen, sin, sip

SYNTAX[]

Syntax has a defined, fixed order (SVO) as below:

Question (prefix - particle “J” or interrogative words)-subject (noun/pronoun)-(modal prefix).verb.tempus.modal suffix. negation suffix(_x)-adverb-preposition-adjective-direct object noun/pronoun- (second preposition-adjective and indirect object noun, if any). Adjective phrases will be placed also before the noun they modify. In case of many object nouns, they keep the sequence accusative, locative, dative and ablative. If it becomes too long, it would be advisable to use prepositions. I preferred SVO because the verb, as primary and basic element of an expression should be also placed before the object.

Noun-, adjective- and adverbial clauses will be placed after the verb/noun/adjective/adverb they modify. Relative clauses follow the noun or noun phrase which they modify. The clauses can be formed by the interrogative words as relative/adjective clauses or as noun clauses as in English. However, for the first level, we think in ABCL two-three (“da, de and du”) conjunctive particles would be sufficient for the speaker to express what he wants. Because, the noun or phrase to be modified will be indicated by these modifiers so that from the formation of both parts the meaning will be clear in many cases even without utilizing interrogative modifiers such as when, which, who etc.

ABCL does not use English “it” as complimentary subject as “it snows” and “it is important”. We say “vense ven.e = snow falls” and “eji = important (dropping “it is”)”. For the latter case we need for future (it will) and past (it was) however the verb (to be) “bab” as modal i.e. “bab.a” and “bab.o”. (it was important to know=boneş babo eji (to know was important) or it is important to me=lu a babe eji (to me is important)

Subordinate/dependent-Relative Clauses in ABCL[]

Subordinating and relative clauses in ABCL are designed similar to English. Linking particles/conjunctions such as conditional “fe” (=English “if”), subordinating conjunctions “du (so that), and relative pronouns “do” (what, which, who), relative adverbs (where, when, how), who and “du” (that) will be used generally as in English. Relatives can/will be combined to one “do” if it is acting like a subordinate conjunction. If the pronoun introduces describing information about a noun then “what, which and who” will be used accordingly.

Nondefinite clauses are also possible. Infinitive, participle clauses have the form as in English with some adjustments in to ABCL. (“to reach him was difficult= ger.eş u  babo eyix; the man covered with paint is decorating …= solma kokon ne hönbö tedi …)

English gerund is expressed in ABCL as three differing sense: 1. In resent continuous tens as suffix “_i” after verbs (she is smiling= u şim.i) 2. In relative clauses as suffix “_iş”(“the boy smiling always = solbo şim.iş as”; while speaking with me, he was happy= ha çeşiş ne a, u oha) 3. As deverbal noun with a special suffix which is gained by reversing the last two letters of the verb (She was surprised at losing the race= u nöson ma pollo … ) This construction will be utilized also for similar deverbal noun derivations (from “puf=forbid”, derivation “puffu=ban, prohibition, forbidden”)

In strict meaning, the participle does not exist in ABCL (there are no auxiliary verbs form of the verbs “to be” and “have”).

LEXICON[]

ABCL lexicon has been set up as Excel matrixes separated for nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctives-prepositions and pronouns for ABCL-English. Easiest way is to use the search function of the Excel table in both directions. The matrixes could be also used to include a third language (e.g. native language) by the right-click "explanation button". The access to the Table is possible through the URL page of Aybay https://aydinbaykara.com) for the interested conlangers.  I work on a “classical” lexicon listed as per alphabet order in line with my translation effort of my roman in ABCL (for time being it reached about 800 words).

CONNOTATION/EVOCATION-HINTS FOR MEMORIZING/DISREMEMBERING in ABCL /A unique feature[]

Vocabulary of ABCL has been created with the aim of easy memorizing. Firstly, it was grouping of words in logical classes as explained above for grammatical word categories. As I have tried to learn the language for speech, I have discovered that the foreseen classification would be helpful only after a large amount of the words (may be two-three thousand) have been memorized. Therefore, I have modified the system. The idea was to establish such links between English and ABCL words so that (e. g while translation from English) an English equivalent of ABCL word should include something to evoke to ABCL word. The outcome was so (Examples):

Nouns: Consonant out of first two (better both) letter of English noun will be fourth (fifth) letters of ABCL word. Examples: settlement-sölse; news- timne; car-vitca; father-salfa; mother-salma. Verbs with prefix “ex-“ get the  “_z” as third letter (explain=çez) or such with a vowel as initial letter will have “y” as last letter (ask=çay)

Verbs: First one (better two) letter of English verb constitutes adverted the last letter(s) of ABCL verb. Exemptions have been made however for verb groups having same category wit nouns, i.e. if the verb-group with the consonants “mVs” associated with “faith-mus”-subtitle of the noun-category “m-s: psyche/faith”, the corresponding verb “mus-faith” will deviate from the said rule. In this case all nouns related to “faith” will have as first syllabise “musCV”, like “musfa=faith, musro=prophet, muspa= paradise)

Examples: reg-get on; pid-disturb/discomfort; ses-see; seh-hear; lap-approach (also such, non-adverted possible)

Adjectives:

afo foreign
ahu hypocritical
alü alone
apox unpolite/rude
ave weary
ayo young


Verb to Noun: han-hanka (built-building); bun-bunde (educate-education).

Similar approach has been utilized also for adverbs, conjunctives and pronouns even limited.

This approach turned out to be quite useful after I have succeeded over 500 words to memorize already.

SAMPLE TEXT[]

Here is a text from “The Old Man and the Sea” translated in ABCL. (The particle in parenthesis indicates that it can be omitted for the first level. As seen, in English almost 60 percent more letters are required for the same expression.  

“I can remember you throwing me into the bow where the wet coiled lines were [A b.bar.e (ite) o kuf.u a mü lu vitbö te (bab.o) odux koç.ono tümle.i] and feeling the whole boat shiver and the noise of you clubbing him [sa (du) a mef.i oşa vitbo şiv.e sa vanzı (yo) o pub.iş u] like chopping a tree down and the sweet blood smell all over me.” [ge dov.vo şirye omur sa eşe sanla miş.şi oşi ak a.]

The ABCL text now put to gather:

A b.bar.e (du) o kuf.u a mü lu vitbo te (bab.o) odux kaç.ono tümle.i sa (du) a mef.i oşa vitbo şiv.e sa vanzı (yo) o pub.iş u ge dov.vo şirye omur sa eşe sanla miş.şi oşi ak a.   (127 letters only, where the English text utilized 162 letters for the same.)

ABCL is considered completely developed for Level 1 with basic nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions particles, prepositions and pronouns already. The lexicon with about 8000 vocabularies would be sufficient for a fair communication.

ABCL is free for everyone except for commercial use.

Below is a large text translation from: (paragraph by paragraph)

The Old Man and the Sea

Solmo (ayox solma) sa  Vinse

He was an old man   who         fished           alone          in a vessel/skiff in the Gulf Stream and he had gone    eighty-four days  now without taking a fish.   In the first forty days   a boy had been with him.

U bab.o     solmo    to   tüm.ü şenfi    alü.r        (mü) vitve    mü      G-S                   sa    u       yog.u                             six ki       camda    it      nex    katiş  şenfi.        Mü    oyür    kix camda   solbo    bab.u      ne     u.                                   

But after forty days without a fish the boy’s parents had told him that the old man was now definitely and finally salao,   which is (the worst form of unlucky),  and the boy had gone at their orders   in  another boat    which caught   three good fish the first week.

Su     şa    kix camda     nex   şenfi,   solbo.z salpa        çet.o        u       du       solmo       bab.o  it    nodir   sa   çenfir   “salao”, ti   (benzü.z  eş ego.x vusfu),      sa     solbo         yog.o     ma  üz   porroi       (mü)  opu    vitbo,       ti   kek.o       fi      ego şenfi    oyü  camva.

To see the old man that he come back each day with his empty skiff,  made  boy  unhappy.ly  and he always went  down   for      helping    him carrying  either   coil.ed  lines      or    gaff  and harpoon and sail  that(ki o)  was wrapped/furled   around pole/mast

Seseş      solmo          du     u   yut.o       öşö camda   ne  uz efux  vitve,  bam.o solbo    ohaxir        sa    u      as    yog.o                                                    omur   şo        feh.he     u       kac.iş       pe   koç.ono tümle.i     so   tümge  sa   tümhe    sa  vitsa     do                    kıvon                      (ük)     vitpo.

The sail was patched  with   flour sacks     and    furled,   it   looked like the flag permanent defeat of.

Vitsa     dap.o.n           ne   denfi dünsa.i     sa      kıv.on, u    bul.o.m    ge    çanfu yo  obe fönde (fönde.z çanfu).

The old man was    thin    and gaunt  with deep  wrinkles   in the back  of his neck (his neck’s back).

Solbo    bab.o         ete.x   sa  apı.x   ne     edo    çüv.ayai    mü       uz sonhe.z vünba.

The brown blotches of the benevolent skin cancer                  (which) the sun brings from its reflection on              the tropic see  were   on  his cheeks.

Uçe  lüb.ayai yo abe sansi tenka (abe sansi tenka.z uçe lübbüi)  do    vessu   lib.e    lü     uz  vüsfe/ver.re  (mo)     vintö.do vinse bab.o  mu  uz sinfe.i.         

The blotches ran     well down the sides of his face and his hands      had      the deep-creased scars from handling heavy fish on the cords.

Lüb.ayai         yun.o  ani omur      uz sinfa.z vünku     sa    uz sonyei     bah.o        edo-çüş.ono    tünşei  lü    sah.ha   ehe  şenfi mu   tümköi.        

But none of these scars were   fresh. They were  old      as  erosions in a fishless      desert.

Su   ose tünşe.i.z işix       bab.o ofex.     Ü    bab.o ayox ge   vanyo     mü  şenfi.dox   vinde.

Everything about him was   old    except  his eyes  and  they were the same colour as the sea and were   cheerful and  undefeated.

İşüba              ga      u   bab.o ayox    gü     uz sinye.i  sa     ü     bab.o       esö     vüsko  ge   vinse   sa   bab.o  meç.ado sa    fön.ono.x.             

“Santiago,” the boy said to him as they climbed the bank  from where the skiff was hauled up.

“Santiago,”  solbo    ças.o    u      he   ü      lic.o       dinbi        lü        te     vitve       kah.on     omurx.        

“I could         go        with you again.  We’ve made  some money.”

“A byog.e.k  ne    o      ut.      E        bam.o   öşo    halmo”

The old man had taught the boy     to fish             and   the boy loved him.

Solmo                bet.o           solbo   tümeş şenfi   sa       solbo    bol.o  u.

“No,” the old man said. “You’re   with  a lucky      boat.    Stay    with them.”

“Ya,”    solmo        ças.o. “O  bab.o  ne  banludo vitbo.      Yaşeş     ne      ü”

“But remember how you went eighty-seven days without fish  and then we caught big ones(piece)                    every day     for  three weeks.”

“Su    bareş           tü     o   yog.o     six pi     camda    nex     şenfi  sa    ar    e  kek.o    ebi  bi çinti                                   öşü camda    ho   fi   camva.”

“I remember,” the old man said. “I know you did not leave me because you doubted.”

“ A     bar.e”,        solmo     ças.o.   “A bon.e  o        lel.ox       a         be       o     bud.o.”

“It   was      papa  (who)  made me leave.  I am a boy   and   I must obey him.”

“U   bab.o    salfa    (to)         lel.o.p   a.              A    solbo  sa    a     çfob.e     u.”

“I know,” the old man said.   “It is quite normal.”

“A bon.e”     solmo      ças.o“    U     ul        eno (bannu.do[ab1] ).”

“He hasn’t much faith.”

“U   bah.e.x  oşu  banfa.”

“No,” the old man said. “But we have.   Haven’t we?”

“Ya,”   solmo    ças.o.      “Su   e  bah.e.  J.e  bah.e.x?

‘Yes,” the boy said. “Can I offer    you a beer on the Terrace and then we’ll take the stuff home.”

“Ay”,    solbo ças.o. “J.a b.füt.e     o    denbe   (mo)  hante       sa   ar    e       kat.a    çonşu  pasha.”

“Why not?” the old man said. “Between fishermen.”

“Otux?”            solmo    ças.o.    “ Le           şenfi.na.i”

They sat on the Terrace  and   many of the fishermen                                    made      fun                         of the old man and he was not angry.

Ü     yis.o   (mo)  hante    sa     şenfi.na.i.z   oşu.ma (oşuma yo şenfi.na.i)       bam.o (tom.o) tomya    yo   solmo           sa    u   bab.o.x  ayö.          

Others of the older fishermen,   looked at him and  were  sad.

İpui      yo     aş ayo.x   şenfi.ba.i,    bul.o        u   sa   bab.o  asa.

But they did not show it and they spoke politely about the current and the depths    they had drifted their lines at and the steady/permanent good weather and of  what they had seen.

Su     ü       koş.o.x       u   sa     ü   çeş.o   apo.r        ga       vencü        sa      edo.ma.i  te   ü       yud.o  üz    tümlei    sa           obe                           ego     venve    sa   yo   ta      ü      ses.o.              

The successful fishermen of that day                      were already in and had butchered their marlin out and carried them   laid       full length  across two planks, with two men staggering at the end of each plank, to the fish house where they waited for  the ice lorry/truck  to carry  them to the market in Havana.

Camda.z  suc.ado sulfii/şenfi.ba.i (yo osu camda)    bab.o  oy     mü   sa         dub.o         üz   şenma  em   sa  kac.o     ü         yel.o.n    efu vutma  ko    çi    hönpi,   ne   çi solma     yüş.iş         ma  çenfi  yo  öşö  hönpi,  lu   şenfi hanho     te         ü      rav.o   şo      vönvi vitlo            kacoş     ü        (lu)      hinmi    in Havana.                              

Those who had caught sharks had taken them to the shark factory  on the other side   of the cove where they were hoisted on a block and tackle, their livers removed, their fins   cut off    and their hides/skins skinned out and their flesh      cut       into        strips   for     salting.

İsü     to         kek.o      şenrii,        kat.o       ü      (lu   şenri   hinfa      mu         opu  vunsi    yo       vinko   te    ü       koh.o.n      mu    koh.ana,                   üz   senlii    lomo.n,  üz   sünfii kuc.o.n öl   sa   üz        sansii     diş.o.n         sa    üz     sunfe  kuc.o.n  (mü)(lu) çanşıi    şo   denso.k.ko.                                                                                                                                                      

When[ab2]  the wind was  in the east        a smell    came   across the port/harbour from the shark factory; but today         there was only the faint edge of the odour because the wind had backed into the north and then dropped off and it was pleasant and  sunny           on the Terrace.

Tu        venvi    bab.o mü  vundo        miş.şi    yom.o       ko          hunpo                 lü          şenşa hinfa;       su   at                  efü vusyu yo miş.şi bebo      öf                             be           venvi       sub.o      mü lu  vunno    sa   ar      şod.o  öl      sa    u bab.o    apü    sa   vessu.do(lo) (mo)  hante. 

“Santiago,” the boy said.

“Santiago,”   solbo ças.o.

“Yes,” the old man said.  He was holding his  glass and thinking of many years ago.

“Ay”       solmo     ças.o.     U        loh.u       uz  dinga  sa  bit.ü   (yo)   oşü camya  ey.

“Can I go     out    to   get  sardines for you for  tomorrow?”

Ja     byog.a em     reg.eş    şensa.i    şo   u    şo   ot/camto?

“No.  Go     and play  baseball.  I can still row and Rogelio will throw the fishnet.”

“Ya.  Yog.eş  sa  teb.eş tambu.  A b.tor.e  es   sa  Rogelio      kuf.a       tümfö.”

“I would like to go.  If    I cannot fish  with you, I would like to serve in some way.”

A    s.bal.ek yog.eş.  Fe  a  b.tüm.a.x   ne     o,    a    s.bal.ek      feseş  mü öşo  hünve.

“You bought me a beer,” the old man said. “You  are   already a man”

“O      hub.o    a    denbe”,    solmo     ças.o.   “O bab.e      oy     solma.”

“How  old         was I      when you first took me in a boat?”            

“Üta cam(ge)  a  bab.o    tu       o  kat.o oyür a   mü  vitbo?”

“Five and you (almost)nearly  were killed when I brought the fish  in to green and he nearly tore the  boat             to pieces.    Can you remember?”

“Li      sa      o        ah                   piy.o.n.ç       tu      a  lib.o       şenfi   mü lu öfö    sa    u      al      get.o    vitbo               lu çinpi.i.      J.o         b.bar.e?   

“I can remember the tail slapping and banging and the thwart breaking and the noise of the clubbing.

“A      b.bar.e        sünta    paş.iş       sa çab.iş   sa             lot.aya     keb.iş     sa    vanno   yo  pub.bu.

I can remember you flinging/throwing me into the bow  where   the wet  coiled   lines  were  and    feeling the whole boat shiver and the noise of you clubbing him like chopping a tree down and the sweet blood smell      all over me.”

A     b.bar.e (du)   o    kuf.u                     a    mü lu vitbö   te  (bab.o) odux kaç.ono tümle.i     sa (du)   a mef.i            öşa vitbo     şiv.e     sa     vanno (yo)  o   pub.iş    u        ge    doç.ço       şirte omur    sa          eşe   sanla miş.şi     oşi  ka   a.  

“Can you really remember that or did I just tell     it to you?”

“Jo            bbar.e    ül          osu   so    ja    çet.o aju  u  (lu) o?”

“I remember everything from when       we first went   together.”

“A    bar.e           işüba        lü       tu         e  yog.o oyür    oç.”

The old man looked at him with his          sun-burned,       confident loving     eyes.

Solmo           bul.o         u     ne     uz      vessu-kab.ono,       oko  bol.iko   sinye.i

“If you were        my boy(son)    I’d take     you out  and gamble,” he said. But you are   your father’s and your mother’s and you are     in    a lucky       boat.”

“Fe  o  bab.e.k az  solbo(salsa)  a  skat.ek    o  em    sa     stag.ek” u ças.o.  “Su o (bab.e)  oz  salfa.z    sa     oz     salma.z    sa     o  bab.e  mü  benlu.do vitbo.”

“May I get the sardines?    I  know  where I can get   four baits too.”

“Ja     d.reg.e   şensa.i?        A  bon.e  te     a  b.reg.e   ki  tümba af”

“I have mine left from today.   I    put   them in   salt      in the box.”

“A     lel.o  iza    lü  camda.       A   kup.o   ü   mü denso  mü dönbö.”

“Let me get four fresh ones.” 

En      a reg.e   ki    efi   çinti.

“One,” the old man said. His hope and  his confidence had never gone. But now they  were freshening as when the breeze rises.

“Bi”,        solmo   ças.o.   Uz  [ab3] bonho   sa   uz   masko       yog.ox   is.       Su       it     ü          ofe.l.ü                tu           venbe         çir.e.       

“Two,” the boy said.

“Çi”,     solbo   ças.o .

“Two,” the old man agreed. “You didn’t steal them?”

“Çi”,          solmo        soy.o.     “O   höş.ox        ü?

“I would,” the boy said.     “But I bought these.”

“A  s.bab.o.k” solbo  ças.o.  Su  a  hub.o   ise”

“Thank you,” the old man said. He was  too  plain/simple to wonder when  he  had attained humility.

“Sat o”,              solmo  ças.o.     U  bab.o oh      epi               bov.eş        tu       u      lut.o          buh.ada (buh.hu).

But he  knew         he had attained it and he knew           it  was not disgraceful                      and  it   carried  no   loss   of    true pride.

Su    u   bon.o  du  u       lut.o           u    sa   u  bon.o  du   u  bab.o.x   pösdi.do (pösgö.do.x)   sa  u   kac.o.x ya  los.so yo  etu menpi.

“Tomorrow is going to be a good day   with  this   current,”            he  said.

“Camto            bab.a            ego  camda    ne   osa   vencü(vof.fo)” u  ças.o.

“Where are you going?” the boy asked.

“Ote        o       yog.i ?    solbo    çay.o.

“Far/distant    out    to come in   when the wind    shifts.      I want   to   be   out before it is light.”

“Edi                  em     yom.eş   mü   tu       venvi     riş.e.m.  A  bav.e  bab.eş  em     de  u  vüsli.”    

“I’ll try to get  him to work  far out,” the boy said.  “Then if you     hook    truly  big  something  we can come to your aid.”

“A  lıt.a  regeş   u    haveş    edi em”,    solbo ças.o.    “Ar  fe o    tümhö.k.a  etur ebi şobse,         e    b.yom.e    lu     oz  pisye ”

“He does not like to work too far out.”

“U        balex         haveş    oh  edi em.”

“No,” the boy said. “But I will see something that he cannot see such as a bird working and get him  to come out  after (from behind of) dolphin.”

“Ya”,   solbo  ças.o.  “Su  a   ses.a      şobse     du     u    b.ses.e.x          çe      şönbi  hav.iş   sa  reg.a  u   yomeş em     (şa) şendöz lü mo.”

“Are his eyes    that bad?”

“J. uz  sinye.i  (osu) ça   ego.x?

“He is almost blind.”

“U        ah         ori”

“It is strange,” the old man said. “He never went turtle-ing.  That is      what   kills   the eyes.”

“Eno.x”,            solmo  ças.o.        “U  yog.o.x  is   şintu.k.ku.     İsu bab.e    ta     piy.e   sinye.i”   

“But you went   turtle-ing      for   years                      off the Mosquito Coast and your eyes are good

“Su    o   yog.o  şintu.k.ku   ho camya.i (elo camyai)     lö     Mosquito Coast     sa    oz   sinye.i  edi.    

Little child, be not afraid: Ebix solça, mafeşx                                    

Though rain pounds/knocks) harsh against the glass: Çö venre kon.e emi.x na vonga    

Like an unwanted stranger: Ge  bav.ono.x  solfo                                            

There is no danger: Binde beb.ex                                                          

I am here tonight: A bab.e ik ut


Little child, be not afraid: Ebix solça, mafeş.x                                    

Though thunder explodes and lightning flash: Çö ventö çoz.e sa venli vaf.e        

Illuminates: Vay.e                                                                        

Your tear-stained face: Oz sanfü-laş.ono sinfa                                                  

I am here tonight: A bab.e ik ut



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