Conlang
Advertisement

BSE or Brussels Standard English, is, as its name suggests, European Standard English, which became the official English standard of the European Union once the BSED1 or the first edition of the Brussels Standard English Dictionary was published in Brussels in the year 2100. Before 2100, the English used officially by the European Union was British English. From that time onwards, European English was considered a different standard from English, which was generally more conservative and mixed British and American features, as well as characteristics specific to the languages of Europe. Standard European English or BSE will be the language used by European Union between 2100 and 2700. Technically, European English distinguishes three varieties that function as a macrosystem of speechs:

  • General European English (GE): This is a koine dialect that mixes British and American characteristics without distinction, both phonetically, as well as in semantics, syntax, and so on, usually with many influences from European languages, especially Romance languages. Before 2100 the standard language was British English, but in reality for interlingual communication Europeans used this continuum of dialectally neutralised features called General European.
  • Standard European English (SE or BSE): In 2100 General European English was standardised for the first time in the BSED1, the first edition of Brussels Standard English Dictionary, to facilitate communication and teaching within the European Union once Europeans refused to have a British standard which was often difficult to understand for most Europeans and had generated a situation of hard diglossia. BSED1 turned out to be much more conservative in pronunciation than British English and normalised the influence of American English and other european languages. Over time different editions of the BSED were published, until the year 2700 when Euro became the official standard. This page will only describe the features of the BSED or Brussels Standard English Dictionary like a classic language which will continue to be taught in the future 2700.
  • Vernacular European English (VE): After the standardisation of European English, both British and Americans were dissatisfied, so European English began to function as the standard language of the European Union, becoming increasingly Europeanised and moving away from its constituent English dialects. Many families, mainly French and German, tried to teach Standard European English to their children as a first language, resulting in a creolised English that would be considered vernacular. This vernacular proved to be much easier for Europeans to learn and spread in short time and it would become the new official standard by 2700 and would be called Euro, as a shortening of European.
Comparison of diaphonemes in American, British and European dialects
General American Reiceved Pronunciation European English
Conservative Modern General Standard Vernacular
æ eə̯~ɛə̯~æ æ a eə~ɛə~æ~a æ ɐ
æ æ~a
ɑː / æ æ ɑ̟ː ɑ̟ː ɑ~æ ɒ
ɑː ɑ~ä ɑ̟ː ɑ̟ː ɑ~a
ɒ ɑ~ä ɒ ɔ ɑ~ɒ~ɔ~a ɔ ɔ
ɒ / ɔː ɒ~ɔ~ɑ o̞ː ɔ o~ɑ~ɒ~ɔ
ɔː ɒ~ɔ~ɑ o̞ː
ə ə ə ə ə ə ə
ɪ ɪ̞ ɪ ɪ̞ ɪ ɪ i
i ɪi̯~i ɪ ɪi̯ i~ɪ ɪɪ > i
ɪi̯~i ɪi̯ ɪi̯
eɪ̯ e̞ɪ̯ ɛɪ̯ eɪ~ɛɪ e
ɛ ɛ ɛ e~ɛ ɛ ɛ
ʌ ʌ~ɜ~ɐ ɐ ɜ~ʌ̟~ɑ̟ ɐ~ɑ~ɜ~ʌ ɐ ɐ
ʊ ʊ̞ ʊ ɵ ɵ~ʊ ʊ u
u̟~ʊu̯~ʉu̯~ɵu̯ ʊu̯ ʊ̈ʉ̯ ɵ~ʊ~ʉ~u ʊʊ > u
juː (j)u̟~(j)ʊu̯~(j)ʉu̯~(j)ɵu̯ jʊu̯ jʊ̈ʉ̯ (j)ɵ~(j)ʊ~(j)ʉ~(j)u eʊ > jʊ ø
ʌɪ̯~ɜɪ̯~ɐɪ̯ äɪ̯ ɑ̟ɪ̯ ɐɪ~ɑɪ~ɜɪ~ʌɪ~aɪ ɐj
äɪ̯ ɑɪ~aɪ
ɔɪ ɔɪ̯~oɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ oɪ̯ oɪ~ɔɪ ɤ
oʊ̯~ʌʊ̯~ɔʊ̯~o əʊ̯ əʉ̯ əʊ~əʉ~ɔʊ~ɔʉ~ʌʊ~ʌʉ~oʊ~oʉ~o o
ɔʊ̯ əʊ~ɔʊ~oʊ~ʌʊ~o
aʊ̯~æʊ̯ ɑ̟ʊ̯ aʊ̯ aʊ~ɑʊ~æʊ ɐw
ɑːr ɑɹ ɑ̟ː(ɹ) ɑ̟ː(ɹ) ɑ(ɹ) aəɹ ɐʁ
ɪər ɪɹ~iɹ ɪə̯(ɹ) ɪː(ɹ)~ɪə̯(ɹ) ɪ(ə)(ɹ)~i(ə)(ɹ) ɪəɹ
ɛər ɛɹ ɛə̯(ɹ) ɛː(ɹ)~ɛə̯(ɹ) ɛ(ə)(ɹ) eəɹ
ɜːr ɚ əː(ɹ)~ɐː(ɹ) əː(ɹ) ɜ(ɹ)~ə(ɹ)~ɐ(ɹ) əɹ əʁ
ər ɚ ə(ɹ) ə(ɹ) ə(ɹ)
ɔːr ɔɹ~oɹ o̞ː(ɹ) oː(ɹ) ɔ(ə)(ɹ)~o(ə)(ɹ) oəɹ
ʊər ʊɹ~ɔɹ~oɹ ʊə̯(ɹ) oː(ɹ) ʊ(ə)(ɹ)~o(ə)(ɹ)~ɔ(ə)(ɹ) ʊəɹ
jʊər jʊɹ~jɚ jʊə̯(ɹ) joː(ɹ) jʊ(ə)(ɹ)~jo(ə)(ɹ)~jə(ɹ) eʊəɹ > jʊəɹ ɨʁ

Background[]

Standard European English is a future standardised con-dialect of English spoken between the year 2100 and the year 2700. It developed by pidginisation under the influence of the languages of the European Union, especially French and Romance languages in general, and partially German, and by koineisation between Received Pronunciation and General American. This dialect was naturally simplified by being used as a second language (L2) by speakers of different European languages when it became the official language of the European Union. In 2100, Standard European English is officially the lingua franca of the European Union. Basically it can be considered a relex of a simplified French grammar.

History and classification[]

Its origins go back at first to Oxford British English with Received Pronunciation which was considered the European standard of English, while it was heavily influenced by American General English due to the great cultural influence of the United States in Europe, learnt by many Europeans through films, series, music, slogans, etc.

Being learnt as a second language, Europeans of different nationalities introduced a multitude of errors, mixing British and American English, misunderstanding English spelling, misanalysing syntax, having difficulties with pronunciation, etc. Over time, difficulties of Europeans in learning correct English gave rise to a strange pidginised koine. Grammar became much more analytical and isolating than modern English, with a predefined word order, vocabulary was reduced, morphemes were re-analysed, many meanings disappeared, pronunciation changed by the elimination of phonotactics, and allophones, clitics and contractions were restored as free and full forms, etc.

By the year 2100, general European English had become sufficiently distinct from British and American English to generate its own regulatory academies, the Brussels Academy of English published its first edition of a dictionary and grammatical guide distinct from the other English dialects. The first edition was called the Brussels Standard English Dictionary, or BSED1.

Native speakers of English wanted to change the name to European Standard English because of disagreements with other English regulatory academies who felt that European English was not true English and that it tarnished the purity of native English.

Since then, officially from the first edition of the BSED in 2100, European English started to be considered as a different standard language and started to evolve on its own, this new language was already informally known worldwide as Euro from 2100 onwards, but officially it continued to be called European Standard English, although it was still quite intelligible with modern 21st century English.

Dialects[]

There are some local differences, due to the large number of languages in the European Union and how the characteristics of those languages influenced European English, but overall, it is a unified language with few differences. This page only describe the standard language.

Phonology[]

The phonology used by the BSED Standard European English remained stable throughout all editions of the BSED. This section describes the phonology, the notation used, and the sound changes from Modern English to BSE. See consonants, vowels, and diphthongs, for more details on the sound changes of individual phonemes and notation used for transcribing BSE.

Consonants[]

Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive Voiceless p t k
Voiced b d g
Fricative Voiceless f θ s ʃ h
Voiced v ð z ʒ
Liquid l ɹ
Approximant j w

Some consonant phonemes that were marginal were reinterpreted as allophones and merged as follows:

  • ŋ > ng
  • ʍ > hw
  • x > h
  • ʔ > "disappears"
  • ɬ > l
  • Syllabic consonants were restored in schwa plus consonant clusters.
  • The phoneme /ɹ/ in implosive position is restored, so BSE is a rhotic dialect.

Vowels[]

The vowels that can be seen in parentheses are used in BSE in some borrowings from European languages, mainly French and German:

Front Central Back
Close ɪ (ɨ) ʊ
Mid ɛ ə ɔ
Open æ ɐ ɒ

Some vowels that were loans from european languages were reinterpreted as allophones and merged as follows:

  • œ > ɐ
  • ø > ə
  • y > ɨ

Diphthongs[]

a+
e+ eʊ > jʊ
o+
ɪ+ ɪɪ ɪə -
ʊ+ - ʊə ʊʊ

Stress and syllable separation[]

  • The stress depends on each word but there is a growing tendency to place the accent in a fixed way on the penultimate syllable. In real speech, one of the main changes in European English pronunciation was the loss of the distinctive accent. Primary and secondary stress is completely eliminated as a distinguishing feature. Stressed syllables can be placed anywhere, so many vowels that had been reduced became full vowels again. The weak forms are eliminated except in a few exceptions and are now pronounced as strong forms. European English is a free-accented dialect, the stress can be placed anywhere, although most are paroxytone, having the stress on the penultimate syllable, except in monosyllables.
  • Syllable separation was restructured and made more conservative, conforming to the boundaries of lexemes and morphemes.

Writing system[]

Every word cannot be read exactly as it is spelled, there are certain intrinsic rules, but these rules are not taught, written words must be memorized regardless of their phonetics. The writing system was inherited in its entirety from British English orthography, and it was retained until 2700.. By inherited standards, it does not accept diacritical marks and, in general, pronunciation is not predictable directly from the script. As in modern English, there are 26 letters and the apostrophe. The hyphen also is used in writing to separate words that are compounds, so it has no phonetic value, rather it has an etymological value. Many words are spelled differently, as they are interpreted as compounds, so technically BSE uses its own spelling:

Alphabet
Letter Name Pronunciation Letter Name Pronunciation Letter Name Pronunciation
A a a B b bee biː C c cee siː
D d dee diː E e e F f ef ef
G g gee dʒiː H h aitch eɪtʃ I i i
J j jay dʒeɪ K k kay keɪ L l el el
M m em em N n en en O o o əʊ
P p pee piː Q q cue kjuː R r ar ɑːr
S s ess es T t tee tiː U u u juː
V v vee viː W w double-u ˈdʌbl-juː X x ex eks
Y y wye waɪ Z z zed zed

ziː

' apostrophe əˈpɑːstrəfi

əˈpɒstrəfi

Elision[]

Elision is the deletion of letters in writing and their replacement by an apostrophe; this deletion of letters also affects pronunciation. In general, formal and educated BSE tries to avoid them, but in colloquial language and informal writing they are very common. They are often used for pronouns and the contracted forms of articles and prepositions

Grammatical categories: Introduction[]

To understand the development of the BSE dialect, it is essential to know how its vocabulary has been formed, as BSE has adopted many words from different European languages, especially Ancient Greek and Latin, as well as German and French. Its grammar is divided into closed and open classes. Closed classes do not usually accept borrowings, whereas open classes do.

Originally, the BSE was a controlled word list based on the 5,000 most frequent words that every speaker should know, i.e. a CEFR C1. This word list was analysed in the form of lexemes and morphemes and, in order to standardise the BSE, a selection of terms was made for closed classes, and only terms whose etymological origin could be traced back to Proto-Germanic [xgm], Latin [lat] or Ancient Greek [grc] were allowed, so that they would be predictable for Europeans. The parts of speech in BSE are:

Closed classes[]

  • Pronouns
  • Determiners
    • Articles
    • Quantifiers
    • Demonstratives
    • Possessives
  • Prepositions
  • Conjunctions
  • Numbers
  • Particles
  • Closed verbs
    • Auxiliary verbs
    • Phrasal verbs

Open classes[]

  • Verbs
  • Nouns
  • Adjectives
  • Adverbs
  • Interjections

Grammar: History[]

European English, before its standardisation, was a set of pidgins which mixed features of European languages, British dialect and American dialect, creating a koine which was called General European. Grammatically this Koine was considered grammarless, as it was a strongly analytical and isolating language. When European English was standardised, it was endowed with a more fusional and synthetic grammar than 21st century English, adopting mainly the grammatical basis of French with typical Romance features and some German influences.

Nouns[]

Nouns are usually inflected for number, and sometimes for gender, but apart from this, nouns are not inflected for any other grammatical category.

Number[]

Nouns are inflected according to their number. As far as spelling is concerned, the plural is formed from the singular by adding -(e)s. Some nouns have irregular plurals, but there is a growing tendency to convert them into regular plurals. The phonotactic rules for the formation of the plural are very simple and will be explained later. Most uncountable nouns are grammatically treated as singular, although some are plural.

Gender[]

Most nouns have no grammatical gender, although some words retain the distinction of masculine and feminine by opposition, and the neuter as neutralisation, but do not form a complete paradigm. This gender distinction usually coincides with the sex or natural gender of the referent, and there is a growing tendency to neutralise it due to a movement towards gender-inclusive language since the 22nd century.

Adjectives[]

Adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun they modify. Normally the plural is formed by adding -(e)s to the singular, and few adjectives differentiate between masculine and feminine. In BSE the adjective can have free position, so it can be prepositive or postpositive, unlike English, where it is mostly obligatorily prepositive. Due to the influence of Romance languages, it is usually placed after the noun it modifies, but, for example, German speakers prefer to place it before the noun in the same way as in English.

Adverbs[]

Personal pronouns[]

Personal pronouns change form to reflect the role they play in their clause. Personal pronouns are declined in gender, number, case and person. Due to BSE is devoloped from formal 21st century British English, only the forms of "you" in the second person was used for both singular and plural, there is not distinction between T-V. In the mid-22th century, the pronominal forms of "she" and "he" began to be replaced by forms of "it".

Nominative (Subject)[]

The forms used for subjects are called subject pronouns, subjective pronouns or nominative pronouns. They are as follows:

Singular Plural
Spelling Pronunciation Spelling Pronunciation
First person I we wiː
Second person you juː you juː
Third person Definite Masculine he hiː they ðeɪ
Feminine she ʃiː
Neuter it ɪt
Indefinite one wʌn

Accusative (Direct Object)[]

The accusative pronouns are not used if the object refers to the same entity as the subject, in which case reflexives are used.

Singular Plural
Spelling Pronunciation Spelling Pronunciation
First person me miː us ʌs
Second person you juː you juː
Third person Definite Masculine him hɪm them ðem
Feminine her hɜːr
Neuter it ɪt
Indefinite one wʌn

Dative (Indirect Object)[]

Indirect object pronouns or dative pronouns usually replace indirect objects with the preposition "to". When an indirect object pronoun is used, it replaces the whole prepositional phrase.

Singular Plural
Spelling Pronunciation Spelling Pronunciation
First person to me tuː miː to us tuː ʌs
Second person to you tuː juː to you tuː juː
Third person Definite Masculine to him tuː hɪm to them tuː ðem
Feminine to her tuː hɜːr
Neuter to it tuː ɪt
Indefinite to one tuː wʌn

Reflexive (Subject-Object)[]

Reflexive pronouns are used in place of direct and indirect object pronouns that refer to the same entity or entities as the subject. They are normally interpreted as genitives attached to the "self" and "selves" particles.

Singular Plural
Spelling Pronunciation Spelling Pronunciation
First person myself maɪˈself ourselves ˌaʊərˈselvz / ɑːrˈselvz
Second person yourself jɔːrˈself / jʊrˈself yourselves jɔːrˈselvz / jʊrˈselvz
Third person Definite Masculine himself hɪmˈself themselves ðəmˈselvz
Feminine herself hɜːrˈself
Neuter itself ɪtˈself
Indefinite oneself wʌnˈself

Disjunctive (Strong Pronouns)[]

Disjunctive pronouns are the strong forms of personal pronouns, the forms that are used in isolation, as emphatic subjects or as objects of prepositions. Disjunctive pronouns are an innovation that appeared once the subject and object pronouns became inseparable from the verb.

Singular Plural
Spelling Pronunciation Spelling Pronunciation
First person me miː us ʌs
Second person you juː you juː
Third person Definite Masculine him hɪm them ðem
Feminine her hɜːr
Neuter it ɪt
Indefinite one wʌn

Determiners[]

Determiners are necessary in almost all common nouns, much more so than in English. They are inflected to agree in gender and number with the noun they determine. Many of them also tend to change pronunciation when the word following them begins with a vowel sound.

Articles[]

The article is not inflected according to the gender and number of its referent. The BSE has two articles, although some determiners can sometimes also function as articles. Unlike in Modern English, articles are obligatory for the vast majority of nouns in BSE, so they are rarely omitted. The two articles in BSE are:

Definite: The definite article is used with a noun that refers to a specific item, when both the speaker and the audience know what the item is. It is used with generic nouns in both singular and plural, abstract nouns, mass nouns, nouns accompanied by adjectives, languages, academic subjects, seasons, titles, surnames, body parts, days, etc.

Indefinite: Although in modern English the indefinite article is pronounced differently if it is placed before a consonant or a vowel, in BSE this differentiation is being lost and they are used interchangeably, in most situations "an" is used in preference. In some contexts it can be interpreted as "some". The indefinite article is used with nouns referring to non-specific items, or to specific items when the speaker and the audience do not know what the item is. Its use is related to expressions of quantity, to indicate an indefinite quantity of some element, or to indicate a whole unit of an indefinite element.

Spelling Pronunciation
Definite the ðiː
Indefinite a(n) eɪ / æn

Quantifiers[]

Demonstratives[]

Possessives[]

Possessive determiners, sometimes called possessive pronouns, are used to indicate the possessor of the noun they determine. A distinction is made between masculine and feminine possessives in the third person singular. Sometimes they do not necessarily express true possession in the sense of ownership. Nowadays there is a growing tendency to lexically mark the person and number of the possessor, and they are inflected to agree with their noun in gender and number, this is due to the influence of Romance languages.

Possessive determiners, also called possessive or genitive pronouns refer to an object by identifying its possessor. They indicate the person, gender and number of the possessor. They are often misused, being used to indicate the gender and number of the referent due to the influence of Romance languages. They have dependent and independent forms, although in spoken language they are not differentiated. The old independent forms that appear in brackets must always end with the article "the".

Possessor / Possessed Singular Plural
Spelling Pronunciation Spelling Pronunciation
First person my / the mine (ðiː) maɪ(n) (the) our(s) (ðiː) ˈaʊər(z) / (ðiː) ɑːr(z)
Second person (the) your(s) (ðiː) jɔːr(z) / (ðiː) jʊr(z) (the) your(s) (ðiː) jɔːr(z) / (ðiː) jʊr(z)
Third person Definite Masculine (the) his (ðiː) hɪz (the) their(s) (ðiː) ðeər(z)
Feminine (the) her(s) (ðiː) hɜːr(z)
Neuter (the) its (ðiː) ɪts
Indefinite (the) one's (ðiː) wʌnz

Pronominal determiners[]

all determiner

all pronoun

another determiner

another pronoun

any determiner

any pronoun

anybody pronoun

anyone pronoun

anything pronoun

anywhere pronoun

both determiner

both pronoun

double determiner

double pronoun

dozen determiner

each determiner

each pronoun

either determiner

either pronoun

enough determiner

enough pronoun

every determiner

everybody pronoun

everyone pronoun

everything pronoun

few determiner

few pronoun

first determiner

half determiner

half pronoun

he pronoun

her determiner

her pronoun

hers pronoun

herself pronoun

him pronoun

himself pronoun

his determiner

his pronoun

I pronoun

it pronoun

its determiner

itself pronoun

last determiner

least determiner

least pronoun

less determiner

less pronoun

little determiner

little pronoun

lot determiner

lot pronoun

many determiner

many pronoun

me pronoun

mine pronoun

more determiner

more pronoun

most determiner

most pronoun

much determiner

much pronoun

my determiner

myself pronoun

neither determiner

neither pronoun

no determiner

no one pronoun

nobody pronoun

none pronoun

nothing pronoun

one determiner

one pronoun

other pronoun

our determiner

ours pronoun

ourselves pronoun

own pronoun

plenty pronoun

same pronoun

second determiner

several determiner

several pronoun

she pronoun

some determiner

some pronoun

somebody pronoun

someone pronoun

something pronoun

somewhere pronoun

such determiner

such pronoun

that determiner

that pronoun

their determiner

theirs pronoun

them pronoun

themselves pronoun

they pronoun

this determiner

this pronoun

us pronoun

we pronoun

what determiner

what pronoun

whatever determiner

whatever pronoun

when pronoun

which determiner

which pronoun

who pronoun

whoever pronoun

whom pronoun

whose determiner

whose pronoun

you pronoun

your determiner

yours pronoun

yourself pronoun

Prepositions[]

Prepositions join two related parts of a sentence. They are placed before a noun to specify the relationship between the noun and the verb, adjective or other noun that precedes it.

Complete list of prepositions in English[]

Initially, 67 prepositions were identified for the English used in Europe, after normalization, the original list increased to 81. The final list is that follows:

Spelling Pronunciation Etymology Notes
about əˈbaʊt *an+bi+ūt+anē [xgm]
above əˈbʌv
according to əˈkɔːrdɪŋ tu
across əˈkrɒs / əˈkrɔːs
after ˈɑːftər / ˈæftər
against əˈɡeɪnst
along əˈlɒŋ / əˈlɔːŋ
alongside əˌlɒŋˈsaɪd / əˌlɔːŋˈsaɪd
amid əˈmɪd
amidst əˈmɪdst
among əˈmʌŋ
amongst əˈmʌŋst
around əˈraʊnd
as æz
at æt
before bɪˈfɔːr
behind bɪˈhaɪnd
below bɪˈləʊ
beneath bɪˈniːθ
beside bɪˈsaɪd
besides bɪˈsaɪdz
between bɪˈtwiːn
beyond bɪˈjɒnd / bɪˈjɑːnd
but bʌt
by baɪ
despite dɪˈspaɪt
down daʊn
during ˈdjʊərɪŋ
except ɪkˈsept
except for ɪkˈsept fɔːr
following ˈfɒləʊɪŋ / ˈfɑːləʊɪŋ
for fɔːr
from frɒm / frʌm / frɑːm
in ɪn
including ɪnˈkluːdɪŋ
inside ˌɪnˈsaɪd
inside of ˌɪnˈsaɪd ɒv / ˌɪnˈsaɪd ʌv
into ˈɪntuː
like laɪk
mid mɪd
near nɪər
near to nɪər tuː
nearer nɪərər
nearer to nɪərər tuː
nearest nɪərɪst
nearest to nɪərɪst tuː
next to ˈnekst tu
of ɒv / ʌv
off ɒf / ɔːf
on ɒn / ɑːn
on to ɒn tuː / ɑːn tuː
onto ˈɒntu / ˈɑːntu
opposite ˈɒpəzɪt / ˈɑːpəzɪt
out aʊt
outside ˌaʊtˈsaɪd
outside of ˌaʊtˈsaɪd ɒv / ˌaʊtˈsaɪd ʌv
over ˈəʊvər
past pɑːst / pæst
per pɜːr
plus plʌs
regardless of rɪˈɡɑːrdləs əv
round raʊnd
since sɪns
than ðæn
through θruː
throughout θruːˈaʊt
til tɪl
till tɪl
to tuː
toward təˈwɔːrd
towards təˈwɔːrdz
under ˈʌndər
unlike ˌʌnˈlaɪk
until ənˈtɪl
up ʌp
upon əˈpɒn / əˈpɑːn
versus ˈvɜːrsəs
via ˈvaɪə / ˈviːə
with wɪð / wɪθ
within wɪˈðɪn
without wɪˈðaʊt

Simplified list of prepositions in BSE[]

Since most European languages have Indo-European origins and have similar sets of prepositions, the use of English prepositions underwent a brutal change due to the influence of European languages. This led to the publication of the simplified BSE list.

Conjunctions[]

  • after
  • albeit
  • although
  • and
  • as
  • because
  • before
  • but
  • except
  • if
  • nor
  • now
  • once
  • or
  • plus
  • since
  • so
  • than
  • that
  • though
  • till
  • unless
  • until
  • when
  • whenever
  • where
  • whereas
  • yet
  • wherever
  • whether
  • while
  • whilst

Numbers[]

Number Cardinal Ordinal
X X + 10 X * 10 Xth
Name Pronunciation Name Pronunciation Name Pronunciation Name Pronunciation
0 zero ˈzɪərəʊ - - - - - -
1 one wʌn eleven ɪˈlevn ten ten first fɜːrst
2 two tuː twelve twelv twenty ˈtwenti second ˈsekənd
3 three θriː thirteen ˌθɜːrˈtiːn thirty ˈθɜːrti third θɜːrd
4 four fɔːr fourteen ˌfɔːrˈtiːn forty ˈfɔːrti fourth fɔːrθ
5 five faɪv fifteen ˌfɪfˈtiːn fifty ˈfɪfti fifth fɪfθ
6 six sɪks sixteen ˌsɪksˈtiːn sixty ˈsɪksti sixth sɪksθ
7 seven ˈsevn seventeen ˌsevnˈtiːn seventy ˈsevnti seventh ˈsevnθ
8 eight eɪt eighteen ˌeɪˈtiːn eighty ˈeɪti eighth eɪtθ
9 nine naɪn nineteen ˌnaɪnˈtiːn ninety ˈnaɪnti ninth naɪnθ

Large Numbers and Decimals[]

Number Cardinal Large Numbers
Name Pronunciation
100 hundred ˈhʌndrəd
1.000 thousand ˈθaʊznd
1.000.000 million ˈmɪljən
1.000.000.000.000 billion ˈbɪljən
1.000.000.000.000.000.000 trillion ˈtrɪljən

Decimals are marked with a comma (,) and numbers greater than 1000 with a dot (.) similar to French, German and most European languages, just the opposite of the English-speaking world. The large numbers are as shown above as in European languages, they do not follow the short count typical of English countries.

Particles[]

Syntax: Word order[]

The components of a declarative clause are usually arranged in the following order, although not all components are always present:

Verbs[]

Unlike English, verbs in BSE have become a complete paradigm with a structure reminiscent of Romance languages. Modal verbs have ceased to be used as such and are now an inseparable part of verb conjugation. With the conformation of this new verb conjugation, the -s was eliminated from the third person singular, as it was unnecessary and was an obstacle for Europeans to understand the grammar. Verbal morphology is the most complex part of BSE grammar:

Infinitive Gerundive Participle
Present Past
Non-finite Simple (to) X Xing Xed
Compound have Xed having Xed had Xed
Singular Plural
First Second Third First Second Third
Masculine Feminine Neuter Indefinite
Indicative Present Simple I X you X he X(e)s she X(e)s it X(e)s one X(e)s we X you X they X
Progressive I am Xing you are Xing he is Xing she is Xing it is Xing one is Xing we are Xing you are Xing they are Xing
Perfect I have Xed you have Xed he has Xed she has Xed it has Xed one has Xed we have Xed you have Xed they have Xed
Perfect Progressive I have been Xing you have been Xing he has been Xing she has been Xing it has been Xing one has been Xing we have been Xing you have been Xing they have been Xing
Past Simple I Xed you Xed he Xed she Xed it Xed one Xed we Xed you Xed they Xed
Progressive I was Xing you were Xing he was Xing she was Xing it was Xing one was Xing we were Xing you were Xing they were Xing
Perfect I had Xed you had Xed he had Xed she had Xed it had Xed one had Xed we had Xed you had Xed they had Xed
Perfect Progressive I had been Xing you had been Xing he had been Xing she had been Xing it had been Xing one had been Xing we had been Xing you had been Xing they had been Xing
Future Simple I will X you will X he will X she will X it will X one will X we will X you will X they will X
Progressive I will be Xing you will be Xing he will be Xing she will be Xing it will be Xing one will be Xing we will be Xing you will be Xing they will be Xing
Perfect I will have Xed you will have Xed he will have Xed she will have Xed it will have Xed one will have Xed we will have Xed you will have Xed they will have Xed
Perfect Progressive I will have been Xing you will have been Xing he will have been Xing she will have been Xing it will have been Xing one will have been Xing we will have been Xing you will have been Xing they will have been Xing
Conditional Simple I would X you would X he would X she would X it would X one would X we would X you would X they would X
Progressive I would be Xing you would be Xing he would be Xing she would be Xing it would be Xing one would be Xing we would be Xing you would be Xing they would be Xing
Perfect I would have Xed you would have Xed he would have Xed she would have Xed it would have Xed one would have Xed we would have Xed you would have Xed they would have Xed
Perfect Progressive I would have been Xing you would have been Xing he would have been Xing she would have been Xing it would have been Xing one would have been Xing we would have been Xing you would have been Xing they would have been Xing
Potential Present Simple I can X you can X he can X she can X it can X one can X we can X you can X they can X
Progressive I can be Xing you can be Xing he can be Xing she can be Xing it can be Xing one can be Xing we can be Xing you can be Xing they can be Xing
Perfect I can have Xed you can have Xed he can have Xed she can have Xed it can have Xed one can have Xed we can have Xed you can have Xed they can have Xed
Perfect Progressive I can have been Xing you can have been Xing he can have been Xing she can have been Xing it can have been Xing one can have been Xing we can have been Xing you can have been Xing they can have been Xing
Past Simple I could X you could X he could X she could X it could X one could X we could X you could X they could X
Progressive I could be Xing you could be Xing he could be Xing she could be Xing it could be Xing one could be Xing we could be Xing you could be Xing they could be Xing
Perfect I could have Xed you could have Xed he could have Xed she could have Xed it could have Xed one could have Xed we could have Xed you could have Xed they could have Xed
Perfect Progressive I could have been Xing you could have been Xing he could have been Xing she could have been Xing it could have been Xing one could have been Xing we could have been Xing you could have been Xing they could have been Xing
Subjunctive Present Simple that I X that you X that he X(e)s that she X(e)s that it X(e)s that one X(e)s that we X that you X that they X
Progressive that I am Xing that you are Xing that he is Xing that she is Xing that it is Xing that one is Xing that we are Xing that you are Xing that they are Xing
Perfect that I have Xed that you have Xed that he has Xed that she has Xed that it has Xed that one has Xed that we have Xed that you have Xed that they have Xed
Perfect Progressive that I have been Xing that you have been Xing that he has been Xing that she has been Xing that it has been Xing that one has been Xing that we have been Xing that you have been Xing that they have been Xing
Past Simple that I Xed that you Xed that he Xed that she Xed that it Xed that one Xed that we Xed that you Xed that they Xed
Progressive that I was Xing that you were Xing that he was Xing that she was Xing that it was Xing that one was Xing that we were Xing that you were Xing that they were Xing
Perfect that I had Xed that you had Xed that he had Xed that she had Xed that it had Xed that one had Xed that we had Xed that you had Xed that they had Xed
Perfect Progressive that I had been Xing that you had been Xing that he had been Xing that she had been Xing that it had been Xing that one had been Xing that we had been Xing that you had been Xing that they had been Xing
Future Simple that I will X that you will X that he will X that she will X that it will X that one will X that we will X that you will X that they will X
Progressive that I will be Xing that you will be Xing that he will be Xing that she will be Xing that it will be Xing that one will be Xing that we will be Xing that you will be Xing that they will be Xing
Perfect that I will have Xed that you will have Xed that he will have Xed that she will have Xed that it will have Xed that one will have Xed that we will have Xed that you will have Xed that they will have Xed
Perfect Progressive that I will have been Xing that you will have been Xing that he will have been Xing that she will have been Xing that it will have been Xing that one will have been Xing that we will have been Xing that you will have been Xing that they will have been Xing
Imperative Simple let me X let you X let him X let her X let it X let one X let us X let you X let them X
Compound I X you X he X she X it X one X we X you X they X

Free imperative