Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verbs no no no yes no yes no yes
Nouns yes yes yes no no no no no
Adjectives yes yes yes no no no no no
Numbers no no yes no no no no no
Participles no no no no no no no no
Adverbs no no no no no no no no
Pronouns yes yes yes no yes no no no
Adpositions yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
Articles no no no no no no no no
Particles no yes yes no no no no no
Imperatives no no yes yes yes yes yes yes

Work in progress[]


Bae Rae Kha ( literally meaning sound of mouth ) is the main language spoken in the Red Land, the biggest continent of Xaa planet. 

Bae Rae Kha is spoken by Zete Ukrer, an humanoid race. The planet is inhabitated by other less important people,  all governed by Zete Ukrer Empire, excluding the Zaater, mermaid-like people living in big rivers really far from Red Land and its cities.

Linguistic Introduction[]

Bae Rae Kha is a really particular language, having an unusual grammar. 

Nouns and adjectives, according to their ending letter, can be distinguished by gender ( male or female ) number    ( singular or plural ) and case ( plain, dative, propositional ).

Pronouns are declensed by person ( first, second or third ), number ( singular, dual, trial or plural ), clusivity           ( inclusive or exclusive ) and case ( nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, prepositional, vocative ).

Verbs present a fundamental distincion between affirmative and negative form. All of the verbs can be conjugated into the two forms, but the conjugation is completely different. Affirmative verbs are conjugated according to mood   ( indicative or imperative ), tense ( present, immediate past or past ) and aspect ( continuous, habitual, inchoative or iterative ). Contrarily, negative verbs are conjugated according to mood ( indicative or imperative ), tense             ( present, past, perfect or future ), person ( first, second or third ) and number ( singular or plural ) ; negative verbs present special forms too.

Words, particularly verbs, can be rich of affixes that may add grammatical or semantical meaning.


There are no nasals, nor round vowels.

The letter ř can be freely pronunciated as alveolar approximant, retroflex flap or uvular trill. The mid central vowel can be used to separate complex consonant clusters and is never written, since its use is optional.

Front Central Back
Close ɯ
Close-mid e
Mid (ə)
Open a
Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Velar Uvular Glottal
Stop p - b  t k ɢ (g)
Fric. s ʃ (š) χ (x)
Appr.  ɹ (ř) h
Flap ɾ (r) ɽ (ř)
Trill. ʀ (ř)

Lat. fricative

ɮ (z)
Lat. appr. l


There are three noun classes.

First Class This class includes body parts, First class nouns are marked by the suffix "-e" for both the singular and the plural. For exemple, ahpe means "hand" or "hands", zete means "person" or "people"

Nouns ending in -z[]

This class includes materials, places and objects. For exemple, leruz - lerudruz, meaning "material - materials", saz - sadruz, meaning "sea - seas".

Other Nouns[]

Monosyllabic []

Monosyllabic nouns having ending letters different from e and z have a plural form created by adding the suffix "zask". For exemple, al - alzask, meaning man - men.


Polysyllabic nouns having ending letters different from e and z have a male and neuter plural form created by adding the suffix "zaks". The female singular form is created by adding the prefix "ax", if the word begins with a vowel, or "ata", if the word begins with a consonant. If the noun is clearly female ( woman, girl, wife, etc... ), the prefix isn't added. The female plural form is created by adding both the proper prefix and the suffix "šaskah", for exemple ala - alašaskah 'means woman - women.

Nouns general table[]

Ending letter M / N singular                                    F singular                                                            M / N plural                                          F plural                                          
E NOUN + e NOUN + e NOUN + e NOUN + e 
Z NOUN + z NOUN + z NOUN + druz NOUN + druz
Other monosyllabic NOUN + ... NOUN + ... NOUN + zask NOUN + zask
Other polysyllabic with vowel NOUN + ... ax + NOUN + ... NOUN + zaks ax + NOUN + šaskah
Other polysyllabic with consonant NOUN + ... ata + NOUN + ... NOUN + zaks ata + NOUN + šaskah


Adjectives ever ends with "'rer", for exemple, zerer, meaning young. Adjectives come after the noun, for exemple "ala zerer" means " young woman", "axalašaskah zerer" means "young women". If an adjective agrees with a plural noun having the suffix "druz", the suffix "rer" would be replaced by the plural ending "drerab", for exemple "saz plerer - s'adruz plererab" means "blue sea - blue seas".

Particular Adjectives[]

The adjectives uhuekerer - big, epltahrer - small, abataregrer - wide/large/open, kukustrer - narrrow/close, ressegrer - far away, aeubbutrer - near precede the noun, for exemple, " uhuekerer saz " means " big sea ", " uhuekerer saz plerer " means " big blue sea ".

Colour Adjectives[]

The only "pure" colour adjectives are galkherer - white, p'řetrer - black, bulplertrer - green, plerer - blue, ukrer - red, tratterer - brown and ukrerg'řatrer - yellow. 

Any other colour is expressed by combining the former adjectives, for exemple purple is p'řetukrer ( black-red ). The suffix "keku'š" is used to express a lighter tonality, while "preku'š" is used to express a darker tonality, for exemple bulplertrerkeku'š means light green  ( licterally small green ), ukrerg'řatrerpreku'š means dark orange ( licterally blackish red-yellow ).

Pronouns []

Personal Pronouns[]

Personal pronouns are declensed according to person ( first, second and third ), case ( nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, prepositional and vocative ), number ( singular, dual and trial ) and, for the first person plural pronoun, there are inclusive and exclusive form. Genitive and dative lack of dual and trial forms.

Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Prepositional Vocative
1 s ahar akkur ahaxpeur axar attar harrar
2 s eher ekkur ehexpeur exer etter herrer
3 s uhur ukkur uhuxpeur uxur uttur hurrur
1 pl incl. lalhar lakkur lalhaxpeur lalxar lattar hlallar
1 pl excl. bralhar brakkur bralhaxpeur bralxar brattar brallar
2 pl lelher lekkur lelhexpeur lelxer lettur hleller
3pl lulhur lukkur lulhuxpeur lulxur luttur hlullur
1 dual lalharshatr as plural as plural lalxarshatr laltarshatr hatthlallar
2 dual lelhershatr " " lelxershatr leltershatr hatthleller
3 dual lulhurshatr " " lulxurshatr lulturshatr hatthlullur
1 trial lalharsplatr " " lalxarsplatr laltarsplatr platthlallar
2 trial lelhersplatr " " lelxersplatr leltersplatr platthleller
3 trial lulhursplatr " " lulxursplatr lultursplatr platthlullur

Demonstrative Pronouns[]

There are four demonstrative pronouns corresponding to english "this", "that", "this place" and " that place". Their declension has four cases ( nominative, genitive, dative and accusative ) and four numbers ( singular, dual, trial and plural ), but the pronouns meaning "this place" and "that place" lacks of dual and trial forms.

Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
This khutp kehutp khutxpeurp kxutp
These ghutp gehutp ghutxpeurp gxutp
That prutp perutp prutxpeurp prustp
Those brutp berutp brutxpeurp brustp
This place xbraketp xebraketp xbraketxpeurp xpraketp
These places xbragetp xebragetp xbragetxpeurp xpragetp
That place xlbraketp xelbraketp xlbraketxpeurp xlpraketp
Those places xlbragetp xelbragetp xlbragetxpeurp xlpragetp
These two ghuthap gehuthap ghutxpeurhap gxuthap
Those two bruthap beruthap brutxpeurhap bxruthap
These three ghutplap gehutplap ghutxeurplap gxutplap
Those three brutplap berutplap brutxeurplap bxrutplap

Affirmative Verbs[]

Affirmative verbs conjugation is formed by two moods ( indicative and imperative ), three tenses ( present, recent past and past ) and  four aspects ( continuous, abitual, iterative and inchoative ). There are no distinctions of person and number. The conjugation is showed in the table.

Present indicative Recent past Indicative Past Indicative Present Imperative R.P. Imperative Past Imperative
Normal form VERB+a egeg+VERB+a ekek+VERB+a  verb+utur+a egeg+VERB+utur+a ekek+VERB+utur+a
Continuous form


egeg+gash+VERB+a ekek+gash+VERB+a gash+VERB+utur+a egeg+gash+VERB+utur+a ekek+gash+VERB+utur+a
Abitual form VERB+uzu+a egeg+VERB+uzu+a ekek+VERB+uzu+a VERB+utur+uzu+a egeg+VERB+utur+uzu+a ekek+VERB+utur+uzu+a
Iterative form VERB+ahal+a egeg+VERB+ahal+a ekek+VERB+ahal+a VERB+utur+ahal+a egeg+VERB+utura+ahal+a ekek+VERB+utura+ahal+a
Inchoative form VERB+ulul+a egeg+VERB+ulul+a ekek+VERB+ulul+a VERB+utur+ulul+a egeg+VERB+utur+ulul+a ekek+VERB+utur+ulul+a

English - Bae Rae Kha comparison[]

Indicative Present[]

Normal form of ghb ( to know ) is ghba, corresponding to " I know, you know, he knows, etc..."

Continuous form of the same verb is gashghba, corresponding to " I am knowing, you are knowing, etc..."

Abitual form is ghbuzua, corresponding to " I usually know, you usually know, etc..."

Iterative form is ghbahala, corresponding to " I ever know, you ever know, etc...". Phrases like " I go there each week" or " She dances everyday" contain iterative verbs when translated to Bae Rae Kha.

Inchoative form is ghbulula, corresponding to " I am going to know, you are going to know, etc..."

Indicative Recent past []

It is used to express actions happened less than half a day before.[]

Normal form is egegghba, corresponding to " I just knew, you just knew, etc...". 

Continuous form is egeggashghba, corresponding to " I just was knowing, you just were knowing, etc..."

Abitual form is egegghbuzua, corresponding to " I just usually knew, you just usually knew,etc..."

Iterative form is egegghbahala, corresponding to " I just ever knew, you just ever knew, etc..."

Inchoative form is egegghbulula, corresponding to " I just started knowing, you just started knowing, etc..."

Indicative Past[]

It is used to express action happened more than half a day before.

Normal form is ekekghba, corresponding to " I have known, you have known, etc..."

Continuous form is ekekghashghba, corresponding tu " I have been knowing, you have been knowing, etc..."

Abitual form is ekekghbuzua, corresponding to " I used to know, you used to know, etc..."

Iterative form is ekekghbahala, corresponding to " I ever have known, you ever have known, etc..."

Inchoative form is ekekghbulula, corresponding to " I started knowing, you started knowing, etc..."

Imperative Present[]

Normal form is ghbutura, corresponding to " Know ! "

Continuous form is gashghbutura, corresponding to " Be knowing ! "

Abitual form is ghbuturuzua, corresponding to " Usually know ! "

Iterative form is ghbuturahala, corresponding to " Ever know ! "

Inchoative form is ghbuturulula, corresponding to " Start knowing ! "

Affirmative Verbs[]

Negative verbs are conjugate according to person ( first, second and third ), number ( singular and plural ), mood ( indicative and imperative ) and, just for the indicative mood, there is tense distinction ( present, past, perfect and future ). Plural second person imperative verbs have formal, higly formal, normal, offensive and special forms.

Indicative mood[]

Present Past  Perfect  Future
1 s ba + VERB + a xa + VERB za + VERB  + eh skala VERB
2 s be + VERB + a xe + VERB ze + VERB + eh skalat VERB
3 s bu + VERB + a xu + VERB zu + VERB + eh skal VERB
1 p ba + VERB + aba xa + VERB + xa za + VERB + eheh sgala VERB
2 p be + VERB + abe xe + VERB + xe ze + VERB + eheh sgalat VERB
3 p bu + VERB + abu xu + VERB + xu zu + VERB + eheh skalle VERB

Imperative mood[]

Normal Formal Offensive Special 1 Special 2 Special 3 Special 4
2 s VERB+ekukra ez+VERB VERB+elulka - - - -
3 s VERB+ukukra ez+VERB+u VERB+ululka - - - -
1 p VERB+agugra ez+VERB+azu a+VERB+lulka - - - -
2 p VERB+egugra ez+VERB+ezu e+VERB+lulka VERB+uzuakk VERB+hatzu xra+VERB+x VERB+uturaskarp
3 p VERB+ugugra ez+VERB+uzu u+VERB+lulka - - - -

English - Bae Rae Kha comparison[]

Indicative Present[]

I know baghba
You know beghba
He - she - it knows bughba
We know baghbaba
You know beghbaba
They know bughbaba

Indicative Past[]

I knew xaghb
You knww xeghb
He - she - it knew xughb
We knew xaghbxa
You knew xeghbxe
They knew xughbxu

Indicative Perfect[]

I have known zaghbeh
You have known zeghbeh
He - she- it has known zughbeh
We have known zaghbeheh
You have known zeghbeheh
They have known zughbeheh

Indicative Future[]

I will know skala ghb
You will know skalat ghb
He - she - it will know skal ghb
We will know sgala ghb
You will know sgala ghb
They will know skalle ghb

Bae Rae Kha Dialects[]

Peasant Dialect[]

This dialect is spoken by people living outside cities and presents archaisms, mainly about lexicon.

The r sound is trilled, x sound is pronounced as voiceless velar fricative [x], the ancient consonant groups kl and bl are manteined ( while they merge into pl in standard Bae Rae Kha ) and is pronounced [y] ( just like the french u ) after t and p, and [u] elsewhere. Grammar is like standard one, but affirmative verbs have a third person singular form, ending with "tux" and the pronoun "lalhar" is often replaced by "baeb".

Plhattrushebu Dialect[]

This dialect is generarly spoken by Plhattrushebuzask, the slaves, but is commonly spoken by poor inhabitants of big cities too. It is extremely simple if comparated with standard Bae Rae Kha.

In this dialect, the consonant b becomes p, and ř is ever pronounced as a retroflex flap. At the beginning of word, becomes eaxa, and r becomes ( but it is preserved in adjective ending -rer and in personal pronouns ). Affirmative verbs are extremely simplified, having just two forms : the -a indicative and the -ulula imperative. Negative verbs conjugate just like affirmative verbs but are preceeded by hesk. Monosyllabic nouns are invariable, while polysyllabic adjectives have the plural form -sh. Pronouns have just singular and plural forms.

Bae Rae Ertester[]

The Tower of Bable[]

Now the whole world had one language and a common speech.

Agura ekekhabe hat bae rae kha he zeterer bae rae kha xaaet xaetrerrer.

Now past-have one language and common speech world-the whole.

As people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there.

Kuge 'estekrasg 'ekekspustra zete, ekekbheta bassa ez Shinar he ghutp ekekstar lulhur.

As eastward past-move people, past-find plain in Shinar and there past-settle they.

Swadesh List[]

No. English Tsrul
1 I ahar
2 you (singular) eher
3 he uhur
4 we lalhar (incl.) bralhar (escl.)
5 you (plural) lelher
6 they lulhur
7 this khutp
8 that ghutp
9 here kek
10 there lak
11 who kxu
12 what kxusu
13 where kxtubeu
14 when kxbatu
15 how kxube
16 not ere-
17 all (reduplication of the word)
18 many
19 some pukpuk
20 few pukpuk
21 other erteester
22 one khe
23 two hat
24 three plhat
25 four xatr
26 five peugk
27 big uhuekerer
28 long rassegrer
29 wide abataregreg
30 thick abataregreg
31 heavy
32 small eplthahrer
33 short aeabbutrer
34 narrow kukustrer
35 thin kukustrer
36 woman ala
37 man (adult male) al
38 man (human being) zete
39 child eplthahrer al
40 wife ala al kha
41 husband al ala kha
42 mother appa
43 father bak
44 animal bešt
45 fish
46 bird
47 dog kuuab
48 louse
49 snake
50 worm
51 tree ařbule
52 forest busx
53 stick
54 fruit rusak arbule kha
55 seed
56 leaf
57 root
58 bark
59 flower plur
60 grass
61 rope
62 skin
63 meat krasa
64 blood ukkre
65 bone
66 fat ubasza
67 egg
68 horn
69 tail
70 feather
71 hair kabel
72 head
73 ear
74 eye
75 nose
76 mouth
77 tooth
78 tongue
79 fingernail
80 foot
81 leg
82 knee
83 hand
84 wing
85 belly
86 guts
87 neck
88 back
89 breast
90 heart kurekre
91 liver
92 drink larrerea
93 eat rusaka
94 bite
95 suck
96 spit ptlua
97 vomit btlua
98 blow
99 breathe
100 laugh
101 see
102 hear
103 know ghba
104 think
105 smell
106 fear
107 sleep trussia
108 live
109 die
110 kill
111 fight
112 hunt
113 hit
114 cut
115 split
116 stab
117 scratch
118 dig
119 swim
120 fly
121 walk hbegua
122 come
123 lie
124 sit
125 stand
126 turn
127 fall
128 give gaba
129 hold
130 squeeze
131 rub
132 wash
133 wipe
134 pull
135 push
136 throw
137 tie
138 sew
139 count
140 say lalala
141 sing
142 play
143 float
144 flow
145 freeze
146 swell
147 sun
148 moon
149 star
150 water lař
151 rain
152 river
153 lake
154 sea saz
155 salt
156 stone
157 sand
158 dust
159 earth tař 
160 cloud
161 fog
162 sky zel
163 wind
164 snow
165 ice
166 smoke
167 fire uke
168 ash
169 burn
170 road strata
171 mountain
172 red ukrer
173 green bulplertrer
174 yellow grater
175 white galkherer
176 black prheter
177 night
178 day
179 year
180 warm ukerer
181 cold
182 full
183 new
184 old
185 good xkpx
186 bad plhaplharz
187 rotten
188 dirty
189 straight
190 round
191 sharp
192 dull
193 smooth
194 wet
195 dry
196 correct
197 near ressegrer
198 far aeubbutrer
199 right
200 left
201 at aa
202 in ez
203 with ku
204 and he
205 if sse
206 because prukue
207 name